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Full text of "Radio age research, manufacturing, communications, broadcasting, television"

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RADIO AGE 

RESEARCH • MANUFACTURING • COMMUTATIONS -BROADCASTING • TELEVISION 




4*V 






JANUARY 1955 




LARGE-SCREEN COLOR TV 




RCA'' 



... the international businessman obtains "all 3" 
of these important overseas communication services 




1. RADIOTELEGRAPH SERVICE 

RCA's DIRECT radiotelegraph 
circuits to 68 countries the world over 
carry more than 6,000,000 Radiograms 
a year. RCA's leadership in radio 
and electronics assures fast, 
accurate, reliable transmission. 



2. TEX TELEPRINTER EXCHANGE SERVICE 

This service provides two-way tele- 
printer communication from New York 
and Washington, D. C. to 14 Trans- 
Atlantic points. Also between San 
Francisco and Honolulu. Calls are made 
from RCA teleprinters installed in 
hundreds of business offices in New 
York, Washington, and San Francisco. 




3. RADIOPHOTO SERVICE 

Today, more than 35 percent of the 
photographs transmitted over RCA's 
39 radiophoto channels are of legal 
and commercial documents, 
tabulated accounting reports, 
blueprints, and other business and 
industrial visual material. 




RCA COMMUNICATIONS, INC. 

A Service of Radio Corporation of America 



NEW YORK 4 
66 Brood St. 
Tel: Hanover 2-1811 
TWX: NY 1-1345 



WASHINGTON 6, D. C. 
1812 M St.,N.W. 
Tel: National 8-2600 
TWX: WA 156 



SAN FRANCISCO 5 
135 Market St. 
Tel: Garfield 1-4200 
TWX: SF 861 



Regional Offices in Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, Philadelphia, and Seattle 






VOLUME 14 NUMBER 1 



SEARCH • MANUFACTURING • COMMUNICATION 
BROADCASTING* TELEVISION 



JANUARY 1955 




COVER 

RCA's new 21 -inch color TV 
set, which is in commercial 
production at RCA plant, 
Bloomington, Ind. 



NOTICE 



When requesting a change in mailing 
address please include the code letters 
and numbers which appear with the 
stencilled address on the envelope. 

Radio Age is published quarter// by 
the Department of Information, Radio 
Corporation of America, 30 Rocke- 
feller Plaza, New fork 20, N Y. 

Pnnled in U.S.A. 



CONTENTS 



Page 
Largest Volume of Business in RCA History With Sales Approximately 

$930 Million 3 

RCA's Electronic Light Amplifier 6 

Folsom Sees Increased Sales in 1955 7 

RCA 21 -Inch Color TV in Production 9 

Color TV Meets the People 11 

More Music for More People 13 

Servicing of Electronic Equipment 15 

Where RCA Tests Itself 16 

Opportunities in the Electronic and Atomic Age 18 

Built for Color from the Ground Up: NBC's New TV Studio in 

California 19 

Electrofax 20 

Who's Watching? 22 

Light, Power and Progress 25 

First Million-Watt TV Station 26 

New Plant Dedicated by RCA in Findlay, Ohio 27 

TEX Speeds Commerce Across the Seas 28 

Old Mexico Pioneers in Modern Communications 30 

News in Brief 32 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

RCA Building, New York 20, N.Y. 

DAVID SARNOFF, Chairman of the Board FRANK M. FOLSOM, President 
JOHN Q. CANNON, Secretary ERNEST B. GORIN, Treasurer 




General Sarnoff views development progress on RCA's electronic light amplifier. 



Largest Volume of Business in RCA History 
With Sales Approximately $930 Million 

In Year-end Statement, General Sarnoff Tells of Growing Magnitude 
of TV and Electronics — Seven Major Developments in 1954 



_l_Hii Radio Corporation of America in 1954 did 
the largest volume of business in its 35-year history, 
Brig. General David Sarnoff, Chairman of the Board, 
announced in a year-end statement in which he told of 
the growing magnitude of television and electronics in 
the national economy and listed seven developments 
of major importance. 

"Sales of products and services by RCA in 1954 
amounted to approximately $930 million," said General 
Sarnoff. "Net profits before Federal income taxes were 
approximately $84 million and after taxes approximately 
$40 million. Total dividends to stockholders, declared 
during the year, amounted to $22,051,000. ($18,898,000 
on Common Stock and $3,153,000 on Preferred Stock)." 

Major Developments 
He listed major developments in 1954 as follows: 

1. Compatible Color Television: NBC's "Intro- 
ductory Year" during which it broadcast many 
types of programs in color and featured "Spec- 
tacular" shows, dramatically revealed the poten- 
tial scope of color TV. 

2. Color TV Tube and New Set: The RCA 21- 
inch color tube and a new TV color receiver 
using this tube were placed on the market and 
production will be increased in 1955. 

3. RCA's Magnetic TV Tape Recorder: Brought 
to commercial design stage. NBC will com- 
mence, early in 1955, field tests in both black- 
and-white and color television tape recording. 

4. Electronic Light: This new development by 
RCA was advanced to a point where it promises 
important applications in many fields. It makes 
possible new forms of illumination and "cold 
light." 

5. Electronic Light Amplifier: When further 
developed, this will have important applications 



in television, X-ray, radar and other fields. In 
television, for example, techniques used in the 
light amplifier will eventually make it possible 
to see a TV picture in black-and-white or in 
color on a thin and flat TV screen that can be 
framed and hung on the wall like a picture. 

6. Transistors: Designs for commercial use were 
substantially advanced. Extended use of transis- 
tors in 1955 seems certain. 

7. High Fidelity, or "Hi-Fi": Increased popular 
interest in record players and in records was 
stimulated by these new instruments. They will 
advance the growth of the phonograph industry 
in 1955. 

"During 1954, basic progress was made in carrying 
all rhese developments forward," declared General 
Sarnoff. "New knowledge was gained through research 
and experimentation in these fields at RCA Laboratories 
These efforts will have a profound effect on further 
progress during 1955." 

Television 

"Television in 1954 — its eighth year as one of the 
country's fastest growing industries — established new 
records in retail sales of TV receivers and widened the 
scope of programming, especially in color," he said. 
"These accomplishments and advances in related fields 
once again mark the electronics industry as a leader 
in advancing the nation's economy and welfare. 

"Sales by the electronics industry as a whole for 1954 
are estimated at more than 10 billion dollars, and the 
volume for 1955 is expected to be about 10 "7 higher." 

Looking ahead, General Sarnoff said that industry 
production of television receivers in 1955 is currently 
estimated around 6,000,000 sets, which will lift the 
total number of TV sets in the United States to ap- 
proximately 38,000,000 by the end of the year. 

"Television is destined for new advances, both in 



RADIO AGE 3 



technical design and in programming," he asserted. "An 
outstanding development in 1954, the RCA 21-inch 
color tube, operating with the magnetic equalizer which 
maintains color purity to the very edges of the picture, 
is now in production. It is certain to stimulate produc- 
rion of color sets by others in the industry as well and 
will lift color TV 'off the ground' and into the market. 

"At the opening of 1955 there are more than 
420 television stations in operation in the United 
States, 140 of which are equipped to handle network 
color programs. More than 90 new TV stations began 
operation in this country during 1954. In Canada, 26 
TV stations are expected to be on the air by early 1955. 

"The NBC nation-wide television network now 
comprises 200 stations. Five of these are owned by the 
NBC, and the others are independently owned stations 
affiliated with our network. 

"Television on an international scale is nor too far 
away. It is bound to be achieved in television as it was 
in radio." 

Magnetic TV Tape Recording 

Magnetic tape recording for black-and-white and 
color television, demonstrated by RCA at the end of 
1953, was developed further during 1954 and will make 
its debut during 1955 as a new tool for the broadcast- 
ing industry, he stated, adding: "An RCA television 
tape recording unit will soon be installed by the 
National Broadcasting Company for field-testing as a 




simple, rapid and economical means of storing com- 
plete TV programs for rebroadcast. Ultimately, tele- 
vision tape recorders for home use will be developed, 
making it possible for the TV set owner to accumulate 
a library of favorite television programs which can be 
seen whenever desired, in the same way as the library 
of phonograph records now makes it possible to hear 
the favorite record at will. 

Electronic Light Amplifier 

"The electronic light amplifier, which uses the 
principle of electronic light, under development in RCA 
Laboratories during 1954, will glow more brightly 
during 1955. Light amplification by this means has 
been achieved experimentally in ratios of more than 
20 to 1; when that figure reaches 100 to 1, a practical 
amplifier of light will mark a significant step forward 
in the science of illumination and television. 

"Practical applications for the electronic light ampli- 
fier are foreseen in a wide range of technical uses where 
increased brightness is desired, as in television, X-ray, 
fluoroscopy and radar. In television, this new form of 
light amplification will bring bigger and brighter pic- 
tures; it will revolutionize television as we know it 
today." 

Transistors 

Transistor research and development activities were 
intensified by RCA during the year, and important 
progress was made in achieving a new level of product 
uniformity and reliability, he said, continuing: 

"It is anticipated that 1955 will witness greater 
utilization of transistors, printed circuitry, and other 
advanced engineering and production techinques to im- 
prove the efficiency and decrease the size and weight 
of commercial as well as military electronic equipment." 

Radio 

General Sarnoff said that it is estimated that more 
than 10,000,000 new radio sets, including auto radios, 
will be sold at retail during 1955, increasing the total 
of radios in the United States to more than 125,000,000. 

He noted that during 1954 the competitive impact 
of television upon network radio became increasingly 
apparent, and declared: "The management of NBC early 
recognized the symptoms of economic dangers that 
threatened network radio and resolved to cope affirma- 
tively with them. NBC has been leading the way in 



Television's continued growth during 1954 was reflected 

in the widened scope of programming, and an increase 

in color. 



4 RADIO AGE 



developing the patterns of audience and advertiser 
sen-ice for the purpose of building a new base for suc- 
cessful and continuing network radio operation, which 
is an instrument of national service and national 
defence." 

Phonographs and Records 

Since the introduction of the 33 1/ 3-rpm and 45-rpm 
records in 1948-49, the number of record players in 
use has greatly increased. Today, he said, there are more 
than 25 million turntables — many of them equipped to 
handle the three phonograph speeds — compared with 
only 16 million phonographs at the end of World 
War II. 

"About 20 million record players of all types are 
expected to be produced and sold in the next five years," 
he said. "Renewed popularity of the phonograph is 
expected to continue to increase the number of ma- 
chines in use and this, of course, will mean greater sales 
of records. One of the major engineering accomplish- 
ments in the record field during the year was RCA 
Victor's introduction of Gruve-Gard — a novel combina- 
tion of raised rims and centers that protects the playing 
surfaces of long-playing discs. 

"In the high fidelity instrument field, sales for the 
industry as a whole during 1954 increased about 50 
per cent over 1953. Popular interest in Hi-Fi, especially 
in RCA's new Orthophonic' system, promises to add 
impetus to the sale of records. It is believed that the 
annual retail sales total of 225 million dollars in 1954 
will rise to 300 million dollars for the industry as a 
whole in 1955." 

Electronics and Atomics 

Science and engineering, business and industry, at 
the opening of 1955, are confronted with new challenges 
that must be met quickly to keep pace with the rapidly 
changing world, General Sarnoff said. 

"The electron and the atom, two of the most 
powerful forces in Nature, will give increased impetus 
to the industrial revolution already under way," he 
continued. "There are definite indications that elec- 
tricity for commercial use will be generated from atomic 
energy, and that atomic power for the home will be a 
reality within the next decade. 

"Electronics will lift burdens from the backs and 
remove toil from the hands of men; electronic eyes will 
see afar, and electronic brains will perform many routine 



Major engineering advances in the record field included 
introduction of Gruve-Gard records shown in production. 



tasks in the new age of automation which will highlight 
the scientific and industrial developments of 1955. 

"The electron is the key to man's conquest of space. 
Guided missiles are equipped with electronic brains, 
while electronic devices on the ground guide them in 
flight and watch every move they make toward their 
targer. Similarly, electronics and the modern airplane 
are inseparable. Electronics has led to the development 
of efficient aviation apparatus that is compact, light in 
weight and automatic. In the commercial aviation field, 
widespread acceptance is indicated for RCA's new 
weather-detection radar equipment, which will be avail- 
able to airlines in commercial quantities by mid-1955." 

World-Wide Communications 

Noting that RCA has 86 radiotelegraph circuits link- 
ing the United States, its territories and possessions 
with 68 countries, General Sarnoff said a total of more 
than 6,600,000 messages have been processed during 
1954. He reported that the trend toward direct cus- 
tomer-to-customer services (TEX, teleprinter, leased 
channels, and radio program transmissions) is acceler- 
ating, and RCA now operates radiophoto circuits to 
more than 30 foreign centers. 

Progress Through Teamwork 

General Sarnoff pointed out that one of the keys to 
achievement in modern mass production is the supplier, 
upon whom the manufacturer relies for materials, parts 




RADIO AGE 5 



and components necessary to successfully develop a 
project or product, a service or system. 

"Big and small business working together," he added, 
"complement each other's activities and give widespread 
employment in many fields, daily adding to the stature 
of industrial America. Of RCA's 7,500 suppliers located 
in almost every state of the Union the majority are 
classified by the Government as small businesses. It is 
such teamwork that leads to success, not only in the 
building of instruments for civilian use, but also in the 
nation-wide mobilization of men, materials and manu- 



facturing facilities that is basic in production for na- 
tional defense. 

"Today, on land, sea and in the air, the electron and 
atom are strengthening the bulwarks of freedom and 
democracy. The new and promising developments of 
the Electronic-Atomic Age open the way for the creation 
of new businesses, new jobs, and higher standards of 
living. With the blessings of peace and the practice 
of good will, we can surely transform these promises into 
realities." 



RCA's Electronic Light Amplifier 



as well as the ultimate ability to produce images in more 
than one color. 

The developmental light amplifier consists of a 
thin screen formed by two closely-spaced layers, one 
of photoconductive material sensitive to both ultra- 
violet and visible light, and the other of electrolumi- 
nescent phosphor. Both layers are sandwiched between 
two transparent electrodes. The screen is a fraction of 
an inch thick, and it may be made in any size desired. 
The developmental unit is a square 12 inches on each 
side. 

The light amplifier operates, in effect, by receiving 
light from the projected image on the photoconductive 
layer and recreating the image in far brighter form as 
light emitted by the electroluminescent layer. 

This process is made possible by the fact that the 
photoconductive material will permit current to flow 
when it is subjected to light, while the electroluminescent 
material emits its own light when an electric current 
flows through it. 

In the RCA light amplifier, current is provided by 
an alternating voltage applied across the two elec- 
trodes, and the image to be amplified is projected against 
the photosensitive layer. Where the illuminated areas 
of the image strike the layer, the current is permitted 
to flow through to the electroluminescent layer in a 
pattern corresponding to the image. And as the current 
passes through the electroluminescent material, light is 
emitted in the same pattern, re-creating the original 
image as a brighter picture. 

The amplifier has been developed to its present stage 
by a team of RCA research scientists and technicians 
including Dr. D. W. Epstein, who heads the project, 
Dr. F. H. Nicoll, Benjamin Kazan, Dr. S. M. Thomsen, 
Simon Larach, C. J. Busanovich, and P. J. Messineo. 




RCA's developmental electronic light amplifier has multi- 
plied by more than twenty times the brightness of a 
dim image projected against it. 



Successful electronic amplification of light in an 
image of television quality has been achieved with the 
RCA developmental light amplifier identified by Brig. 
General David Sarnoff as one of the major advances 
of 1954 in the field of electronics. 

In tests at the David Sarnoff Research Center of 
RCA in Princeton, N. J., the developmental light ampli- 
fier has multiplied by twenty times the brightness of an 
extremely dim image projected against it, producing a 
bright and clearly defined monochrome picture. This 
increase in brightness is sufficient for practical use in 
brightening dim images in such applications as x-ray 
fluoroscopy and radar, and further development is ex- 
pected to achieve a substantially greater amplification. 



6 RADIO AGE 



Folsom Sees Increased Sales in 1955 



RCA President Reports Expansion in I se of Electronics 
in Industry, Rise in TV and Record Sales 



R 



EW and improved products in virtually all lines of 
radio, TV and electronics — coupled with continued 
vigor in merchandising that proved so successful during 
the past year — should spark an outstanding sales 
volume in the next twelve months, Frank M. Folsom, 
President of the Radio Corporation of America, declared 
in a year-end statement. 

"Volume should be particularly good in black-and- 
white television receivers, TV transmitting equipment, 
radio sets, Victrola' phonographs and records, also in- 
dustrial TV," Mr. Folsom said. "Development of color 
television into its commercial phase in 1955 will move 
ahead. Advances in color TV demonstrated by RCA in 
1954 and incorporated in production models of RCA 
Victor's 21 -inch color sets will contribute importantly 
to the transition over the next few years to a nation- 
wide color television service, with a steadily increasing 
demand for color sets." 

Discriminatory Tax Situation 

"Radio and television, even color television, bear the 
highest rate of Federal manufacturers' excise tax. Last 
April 1st, Congress cut excise taxes on articles ranging 
from guns to household appliances, but the taxes on 
both radio and television were continued at discrimina- 
tory levels. 

"Many millions of dollars have gone into developing 
color television, and it will cost industry many millions 
more to get color television to an enlarged American 
audience. Currently the tax on color television sets will 
produce only small revenue and, under the circum- 
stances, I cannot help but feel that it is most unfair to 
penalize consumers. I think the Government would do 
well not to try to harvest the field at least until industry 
has completed sowing it." 

Good Business In 1954 

Mr. Folsom recalled that his estimate a year ago was 
that 1954 could be good for business. He added: 

"This most certainly has proven true for the com- 
panies in the industry that heeded the changing trends 
and new challenges of the buyers' market. 

"It has been a splendid year for RCA, with sales of 
products and services attaining an all-time high volume 



of approximately $930 million. The electronics industry 
as a whole continued its phenomenal growth, with sales 
of more than $10 billion, which is about 600 per cent 
greater than those eight years ago." 

Greater TV Service 

Television attained new heights of service in 1954 
as more than 90 additional stations went into operation 
and consumer demand for receivers led to the seven- 
million-plus boom in set sales, he stated, declaring that 
for RCA Victor, unit production and sales of TV sets 
surpassed the top year of 1950. 




Frank M. Folsom meets Lorraine Hatcher, 10-millionth 

visitor to RCA Exhibition Hall, with her father and 

mother, Dr. and Mrs. Samuel Hatcher, and their son 

John, of Morehead City, N. C. 



RADIO AGE 7 



"Opening of new television service areas and the 
trend to multiple TV sets in homes, will give added 
impetus to sales in the years ahead," he said. "In fact, 
estimated production of black-and-white and color re- 
ceivers during the next five years is expected to exceed 
33 million units, thus exceeding by more than a million 
units production during the past five years." 

Major Trend 

During the past year, a trend of major importance 
was discerned in the increasing use of new electronic 
products and services for industrial purposes, he de- 
clared, and continued: 

"By year-end, sales to industry and government had 
reached a total of more than half those in communica- 
tions and home entertainment. More electronic equip- 
ment was in use in a greater number of different fields 
than ever before. The accelerated 'electronizing' of such 
diverse areas as manufacturing, inventory control, mili- 
tary equipment, food protection, medicine, scientific re- 
search and home entertainment can be expected to 
continue impressively in 1955." 

Increase In Record Sales 

The phonograph record industry, continuing its im- 
pressive growth in 1954, showed a rise of nearly 20 per 
cent in record sales, and record sales in 1955 are expected 
to increase an additional 15 per cent, he stated. 

He listed major merchandising achievements in the 
record field in 1954 as follows: 

Growing impact of high fidelity in home enter- 
tainment and recorded music as a major factor in 
boosting industry sales. 

Introduction of the "Listener's Digest," a record 
package designed to broaden the record market with 
condensations of the classics performed by world- 
famous artists and made available with a 45-rpm 
record player at a new low price. 

Rapid growth of self-service and "island display" 
merchandising techniques for increasing record sales. 

Acceptance of the "Mood Music" series which 
passed the one million mark in sales during the year. 

Packaging of records with art reproductions 
suitable for framing which demonstrate the close 
affinity between great art and great music. 

Marketing of the second volume of the Glenn 
Miller Limited Edition which sold an unprecedented 
170,000 records and was more successful by 50 per 
cent than the first Glenn Miller volume. 

Mr. Folsom said that 1955 is expected to produce 
a substantial upward trend in radio ser sales, as com- 



pared with 1954, and reported that home air-conditioner 
sales, which showed an increase for the industry as a 
whole of 15 per cent in 1954, will continue to increase 
in 1955 as one of the fastest growing products in the 
appliance field. He also foresaw good business pros- 
pects for RCA Estate gas and electric ranges in the 
year ahead. 

"Growth of the radio-television and electronics in- 
dustry, at its present rapid rate, is highly significant," 
he said. "The record of progress shows that the increas- 
ing usage of electronic products and services represent 
a strong and stimulating factor in the growth possibili- 
ties of industries employing these modern scientific 
devices and technical advances. Because of this broaden- 
ing horizon of usefulness, the sales outlook for elec- 
tronics grows steadily brighter." 



New RCA Engineering Laboratory 
in Walrham, Mass. 

The Radio Corporation of America's new engineer- 
ing laboratory for the development of electronic fire- 
control systems for military aircraft will be established 
during February in Waltham, Massachusetts, it has been 
announced by Theodore A. Smith, Vice President and 
General Manager of the RCA Engineering Products 
Division. 

RCA has leased a portion of the Waltham Watch 
Company plant, 225 Crescent Street, to house the new 
operation, which will be managed by Dr. Robert C. 
Seamans, Jr., nationally known authority on airborne 
electronics, Mr. Smith said. 

It is expected that by the end of 1955, approximately 
100 scientists, engineering and supporting personnel 
will be engaged in the development of airborne fire- 
control systems at the new Waltham Laboratory, which 
will be equipped with the latest in research test equip- 
ment, and scientific computing devices. 

Location of the new RCA development activity at 
Waltham reflects the growing importance of New 
England as a center for the engineering and develop- 
ment of electronic systems for a wide range of mili- 
tary and industrial applications, Mr. Smith pointed out. 

Dr. Seamans, who received his doctorate in Instru- 
mentation from the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology in 1951, has been associate professor at M.I.T. 
since 1949, and for the past two years served also as 
Director of the M.I.T. Flight Control Laboratory. From 
1941 to 1949, he was first instructor and then assistant 
professor of aeronautical engineering subjects at M.I.T. 



8 RADIO AGE 



RCA 21 -Inch Color TV in Production 



_I_\VENTY-ONE-iNCH color television sets for the home 
entered commercial production at the Bloomington, 
Ind., plant of the RCA Victor Television Division with 
the closing of color television's introductory year of 1954. 

The start of commercial set production in the 21- 
inch size was announced on Dec. 6 by Henry G. Baker, 
Vice-President and General Manager of the division, 
shortly after the disclosure that RCA's 21-inch color 
TV picture tube had become commercially available to 
TV set manufacturers and had reached a mid-November 
production rate of 100 tubes a day at the Lancaster, Pa., 
plant of the RCA Tube Division. 

Limited quantities of the new RCA Victor 21 -inch 
color set were scheduled for shipment to distributors 
in late December, becoming available in dealer stores 
during January, Mr. Baker announced. The set, provid- 
ing a viewing area of 255 square inches — about 25 per 
cent greater than that of any color set previously avail- 
able — bears a suggested retail price of $895. 

Describing the introduction of the 21 -inch receiver 
as a significant step toward the ultimate establishment 
of a nation-wide color television service, Mr. Baker 
said that RCA Victor is planning only limited quantity 
production initially, with emphasis on quality rather 
than quantity. He emphasized that intensive work is 
still under way, with the objective of achieving further 
cost reduction. 

"We are striving to produce our quality color re- 
ceivers, at a price within the reach of the greatest 
number of consumers," he said. "While we have no 
doubt that this objective will be reached, it will take 
time and further simplification of production methods 
to achieve it. Because of these facts, we do not foresee 
large mass production of color receivers in 1955." 

Pre-Production Models Tested 

During November, a small quantity of pre-produc- 
tion models of the 21 -inch color sets were placed in 
operation at distributors' establishments for demonstra- 
tion purposes. 

"The successful results of these demonstrations as 
well as our own field tests give us reason to be ex- 
tremely enthusiastic about the progress we have made 
in commercial color receiver developments," Mr. Baker 
said. "We believe these developments will contribute 
importantly to the orderly transition over the next few 
years to a nation-wide color television service, with a 
steadily increasing demand for color receivers. 



"The likelihood of this orderly transition will be 
enhanced by the experience gained as successive models 
are introduced and by creating an expanding consumer 
demand through the industry's continuing efforts to 
achieve lower production costs, resulting in lower prices 
to the consumer." 

As a result of engineering improvements in the 
convergence and focusing circuits, making possible 
greater accuracy and increased stability, the control 
knobs for these functions on the new set have now been 
removed from the side of the cabinet and placed inside 
as an adjustment for service technicians only. 

Two control knobs for black-and-white are in stand- 
ard position on the front of the cabinet of the new set, 
with color controls located behind a decorative shield. 
Initially, the console will be available only in mahogany 
finish. The dimensions of the set are 42 V2 inches height, 
HV2 inches width, and 27^8 inches depth. 

Tube Price Reduced to $100 

Announcement of a reduction in the price of the 
RCA 21-inch color television picture tube from $175 
to $100 was made on January 11 by W. Walter Watts, 




Skilled hands insert RCA 21 -inch color picture tube in 
a receiver on the production line. 



RADIO AGE 9 




High voltage power supplies are assembled for use in 
new 21 -inch RCA Victor color sets. 



Executive Vice-President, Electronic Products, Radio 
Corporation of America. 

"This 43 per cent reduction to television set manu- 
facturers in the price of the RCA color tube is another 
major step initiated by RCA toward the establishment 
of a nation-wide color television service," Mr. Watts 
said. "This reduction is made possible by RCA manu- 
facturing techniques recently achieved which permit 
substantial economies in the production of the tube. 
These accomplishments confirm the basic soundness of 
the round metal design developed by RCA color tube 
engineers. 

"The picture tube is the heart of color television. 
RCA is confident that its present type 21-inch color 
tube is the best and most economical answer to the 
problem of moving color television 'off the ground' and 
into the market. This confidence is based on our ex- 
perience in manufacturing thousands of these tubes, as 
well as our experience with these tubes in nation-wide 
field tests and in actual use in the homes of those who 
have purchased the RCA 21-inch color sets. Current 
demand for these sets exceeds the supply." 

Mr. Watts said that the price reduction on the 21- 
inch color tube is further evidence of RCA's determina- 



tion to move ahead in color television, steadily and 
constructively. 

"RCA will continue to carry out its previously an- 
nounced plans for manufacturing color tubes and color 
receivers for the home, as well as for broadcasting color 
programs," he emphasized. "It is RCA's hope that this 
substantial price reduction on color picture tubes will 
encourage competing manufacturers in the industry to 
go into production promptly in the field of color tele- 
vision." 

The announcement regarding the RCA 21-inch 
round color tube, Mr. Watts said, follows a careful 
engineering and cost analysis of the 22-inch rectangular 
color picture tube, which has been reported as being 
near the production stage. 

"RCA has also produced this type of color tube, and 
has conducted extensive tests of the 22-inch rectangular 
tube alongside the 21 -inch round color tube," Mr. Watts 
said. "We have carefully evaluated the characteristics 
of both tubes operating under identical conditions. As 
a result, we see no advantages in the 22-inch rectangular 
tube. It does not produce better color, and it does not 
provide a larger picture than the RCA 21-inch round 
color tube. Furthermore, the 22-inch rectangular color 
tube is more costly to manufacture, and it may never be 
as economical to produce as the RCA 21-inch round 
color tube." 

Mr. Watts added: 

"Moreover, our 21-inch round color tube is now in 
actual production and already has passed through the 
initial stages involved in the manufacture of any new 
product, while the 22-inch rectangular color tube has 
yet to meet and solve the problems inherent in these 
early stages. In other words, the 21 -inch round color 
tube is here today while the 22-inch rectangular tube 
is only a promise for the future." 



New Communications Center 

Employees of RCA Communications, Inc., in San 
Francisco, have recently moved into a newly-built, mod- 
ern Pacific Coast Headquarters and Central Radio Office 
building on Market Street. 

The four-story building, with its gleaming facade 
of gray-green ceramic tile blocks separating rows of 
aluminum framed windows, serves as the Pacific Gate- 
way for RCA Communications, Inc. This office, with the 
support of branch facilities and the transmitting and 
receiving stations located north of San Francisco, handles 
the bulk of all telegraphic communications to and from 
points throughout the Pacific and Far Eastern areas. 



70 RADIO AGE 



Color TV Meets the People 




Another "first" is achieved for color 
television as RCA Victor Color TV 
Caravan originates closed-circuit dem- 
onstration at industrial convention in 
Chicago. 



c 



iOLOR TELEVISION is going out to meet the people, 
cattied by an RCA Victot Color TV Caravan that already 
has given thousands of Americans their first taste of 
an exciting new era in mass communication and enter- 
tainment. 

The Caravan, completely equipped to originate live 
color programs for closed-circuit transmission over 30 
RCA Victor color sets carried by the unit, is following 
in color the precedent set by the RCA black-and-white 
mobile unit which toured the nation in 1947 and 1948 
to introduce television itself to the grass-roots areas 
of America. 

At the first stand of the Caravan at the Mid-South 
Fair in Memphis, Tenn., audiences totalling close to 
400,000 men, women and children flocked to see color 
television during eight days from Sept. 25 to Oct. 3. 
In early November, the unit travelled to Chicago to 
participate in the two-day convention of the Graphic 
Arts Association of Illinois and the Lithographic Tech- 
nical Foundation, marking the first use of closed-circuit 
color TV for an industrial convention. 

During the convention, held at the Morrison Hotel, 
the Caravan telecast forum sessions by closed-circuit, as 
well as close-up views of award-winning lithographic 
color works in the 1954 Litho Awards Exhibit. An 
additional feature was a telecast talk by John S. Odell, 
of RCA, on color television from the viewpoint of the 
graphic arts industry. 



At its first major public appearence, the Caravan 
proved the steller attraction of the Mid-South Fair, fol- 
lowing a pattern which is expected to serve as a precedent 
for futute appearances in other parts of the country. 
During the eight days of operation in Memphis, the 
unit presented closed-circuit programs to receivers lo- 
cated throughout the fair grounds, and open-circuit 
programs broadcast by station WMCT, co-sponsor of 
the Caravan's appearance with the Mid-South Fair 
Corporation. 

Tent Serves as Theatre 

A 150-by-150-foot tent served as a color TV theatre, 
at one end of which a stage was erected for studio use. 
Six RCA Victor 15-inch color TV receivers were in 
constant operation in the theatre tent, and the remainder 
of the sets wete installed in other exhibit buildings 
and tents. 

Working on a regular schedule from 2 to 9 p.m., 
the Caravan presented 20-minute programs on the hour. 
More than 100,000 fair-goers visited the theatre itself 
to witness the demonstration as viewed on the receivers 
and seen on the stage. Although 500 chairs were set 
up in the theatre, programs were frequently presented 
to standing-room-only audiences. 

The event had been billed well in advance as the 
first mass demonstration of color TV in the area. It 
also was the first presentation in the region of colorcasts 
originating locally and transmitted by WMCT, which 



RADIO AGE U 



COLOR TELEVISION 

pa» ! FREV SHOW rR£e 

— a -a."" UnlililO 1 "" 




More than 100,000 persons visited this tent theatre 

to witness color TV in action at the Mid-South Fair 

in Memphis, Tenn. 



"Nerve center" of Color TV Caravan is this com 

pletely-equipped 32-foot truck which includes con 

trol room for colorcasts. 



put 15-minute programs on the air daily from the 
Caravan at 6 p.m., picking up the signals as relayed 
by microwave to the station's transmitter. During the 
period, the station achieved another "first" with a color- 
cast of its Esso-sponsored news program, using forty-six 
color slides of national and local news events. 

Seen Stimulating Public Interest 

The program presented daily for the fair audience 
consisted of entertainment acts and live commercials 
arranged by WMCT. Summing up the appearance of 
the Caravan at the fair, Henry Slavick, general manager 
of stations WMC-WMCT, said that the demonstration 
had served to "create public enthusiasm for and accept- 
ance of color TV service." He recalled that RCA's earlier 
black-and-white television mobile unit had staged a 
similar demonstration in Memphis in 1948, contributing 
substantially to the immediate establishment and success 
of TV service in Memphis. 




"The demonstration we have just concluded, in co- 
operation with RCA, will without doubt do a similar 
job for color TV," he added. 

The Caravan, a completely-equipped mobile unit 
housed in a 32-foot trailer truck, includes a complete 
control room and broadcast equipment. Two standard 
RCA color cameras are used. The unit is manned by 
18 technicians and engineers, including local RCA Serv- 
ice Company technicians, and is supervised by Richard 
Hooper, Manager, RCA Shows and Exhibits. 



72 RADIO AGE 



RCA Victor Record Price Reduction: 



More Music for More People 



A 



MAJOR reduction in the price of RCA Victor 
classical and popular records so that more music will be 
available to more people at lower cost in 1955 was 
announced on December 28 by Frank M. Folsom, Presi- 
dent of the Radio Corporation of America. 

In announcing the new price plan which became 
effective January 3, Mr. Folsom said that it will reduce 
the price of many RCA Victor records more than 30 
per cent to the lowest in the history of the industry. He 
said that the new plan was developed because of the 
firm belief that the record industry is on the threshold 
of its greatest period of expansion. 

"It represents one of the most significant forward 
steps ever taken to bring recorded music to the general 
public at low prices," he said. "It also represents another 
first for the company that introduced the first disk-type 
record more than 50 years ago, pioneered in the develop- 
ment of recorded sound, electronized the Victrola-phono- 
graph and linked it with radio, introduced the 45-rpm 
system, and has consistently recorded the world's finest 
artists." 

The plan calls for a 33 per cent price reduction in 
12-inch classical long-playing records, with both classical 
and popular 12-inch records dropping from a high of 
$5.95 to $3-98. All 10-inch long-playing records will 
be reduced from a top of $4.95 to $2.98, which repre- 
sents as much as a 40 per cent cut. 

Reductions will take place also in the classical 
45-rpm extended play records, which will be reduced 
from $1.58 to $1.49. Both popular and classical music 
in the extended play albums will be priced the same. 

"We are eliminating the price differential between 
types of music so that the new lower prices will apply 
to all types of music," Mr. Folsom said. "The low prices 
will be made possible partly because of the decreased 
production costs that will result from the increase in 
volume. We are anticipating these savings and passing 
them on to the consumer immediately." 

The 78-rpm record will be raised in price from 89 
to 98 cents, he pointed out, because of increased manu- 
facturing and handling costs resulting from decreased 
production and demand. Steadily decreased interest in 
the 78 record is making it obsolete, and he explained 
that within a short time it will disappear from the 
market. 




Emanuel Sacks (seated), Vice-President, RCA Victor 

Record Division, discusses advertisement announcing new 

price policy with (from left) key executives George 

Marek, Howard Letts, and L. W. Kanaga. 



One of the aspects of the new plan which will prove 
helpful to both consumers and dealers, he pointed out, 
is a simplification and standardization of prices for the 
various speeds and sizes. 

"Introduction of the 33V3-rpm and 45-rpm records 
in 1948-49 greatly increased the number of record 
players in use," Mr. Folsom said. "Today there are more 
than 25 million turntables — many of them equipped to 
handle the three phonograph speeds — compared with 
only 16 million phonographs at the end of World War 
II. About 20 million record players of all types are 
expected to be produced and sold in the next five years. 

"We are convinced that because of the increasing 
interest in high fidelity, the new non-breakable records. 



RADIO AGE 73 



the improved recording systems and techniques that are 
available, the lower priced and better-quality players 
now offered by all manufacturers of record equipment, 
and the number of great recording artists in all fields, 
more and more people will want to listen to more music 
in their homes. 

"Never before has there been such a wealth of fine 
music available on records for the general public. We 
feel that in reducing the prices at this time, the whole 
record industry will prosper. 

"It is expected that this plan will encourage dealers 
to modernize their stores so that modern shopping facili- 
ties will be available to the general public. For this 
reason, we have established a consulting service that 
will be able to work with dealers to make record shop- 
ping easier, pleasanter and faster. 

"The entire program will be back by one of the 
most intensive advertising campaigns ever undertaken 
and will be spearheaded by three record lines — RCA 



Victor, RCA Bluebird and RCA Camden. These are 
priced to fit the pocketbook of the Individual. We shall 
feature extended-play records starting at 79 cents, and 
long-playing records at $1.98. We call this our 'good, 
better, best' program, and we hope to be able, through 
advertising, to keep the American public better in- 
formed about the repertoire that's available and the 
new low prices that are in effect." 

The new suggested list prices for RCA Victor records: 

All 12-inch long playing records $3.98 instead of 
$5.95, $4.85 and $4.19. 

All 10-inch long playing records $2.98 instead of 
$4.95, $3.85, $3.15 and $2.99. 

All double extended play 45-rpm records $2.98 
instead of $3.85, $2.99, $2.98 and $2.94. 

All 45-rpm singles 89 cents instead of $1.16, 
$1.00 and 89 cents. 

All single extended play records $1.49 instead of 
$1.58 and $1.47. 



General Walter Bedell Smith Elected a Director of RCA 




X-/LECTION of General Walter Bedell Smith as a mem- 
ber of the Board of Directors of the Radio Corporation 
of America was announced December 3 by David Sar- 
noff, Chairman of the Board. 

General Smith is Vice-Chairman of the Board of 
Directors of the American Machine & Foundry Com- 
pany. He served as Under Secretary of State from Febru- 
ary, 1953, to October, 1954. 

During World War II, General Smith was suc- 



cessively Secretary of the Joint Chiefs of Staffs and 
United States Secretary of the Combined Chiefs of Staff 
in Washington, Chief of Staff of the European Theater 
of Operations, and Chief of Staff to General Dwight D. 
Eisenhower. On behalf of General Eisenhower, he nego- 
tiated and signed the instruments effecting the surrender 
of Italy and Germany. 

General Smith was Ambassador to the Soviet Union 
from 1946 to 1949, when he assumed command of the 
United States First Army. In October, 1950, he was 
appointed Director of Central Intelligence, where he 
served until his appointment as Under Secretary of 
State. He retired from active service in the Army on 
January 31, 1953. 

Beginning his military career as a private in 1910, 
he rose to the rank of General in 1951. He served in 
France during World War I, and was wounded in action. 
From 1925 to 1929, he was lent by the Army to serve 
as Executive Officer and Deputy Chief Coordinator. 
Bureau of the Budget, and as Executive Vice-Chairman 
of the Federal Liquidation Board. 

For service in both World Wars, General Smith 
holds eight decorations from the United States, as well 
as decorations from numerous foreign countries. He 
has fourteen honorary degrees from American and 
foreign colleges and universities. 

General Smith's headquarters are in New York. 



14 RADIO AGE 



Important to Industry: 



Servicing of Electronic Equipment 



kjERVICING of electronic equipment now accounts for 
an important percentage of total sales for the electronics 
industry and, by 1957, is expected to reach an annual 
total of $2.7 billion, Charles M. Odorizzi, Executive 
Vice-President, Corporate Staff, Radio Corporation of 
America, told a meeting of the Cleveland Society of 
Security Analysts in Cleveland on November 23. In 
his talk, Mr. Odorizzi described the "amazing growth 
and healthful expansion of electronics" and emphasized 
the importance of installation and maintenance of 
equipment as a major contribution to total industry sales. 

"In 1946," Mr. Odorizzi said, "when television 
emerged from behind the curtain of war to begin its 
phenomenal growth, the industry's return for servicing 
home television and radio sets was less than $145 
million, not including the cost of parts. Four years 
later, in 1950, comparable costs had increased to $710 
million. In 1953, the total was $1.4 billion, and by 
the end of 1957, this part of the electronics industry 
will contribute nearly three billion annually to the 
national economy for home installation and maintenance. 
In other words, during the next four years, from January 
1, 1954, to January 1, 1958, the industry's gross income 
from this service will have almost doubled. 

"With these figures in hand, it is only natural that 
they should be compared with the overall volume of 
business produced by the electronics industry. Total 
annual sales of this industry grew from $1.6 billion 
in 1946 to $8.4 billion in 1953. Thus, in 1953, the 
consumer service was responsible for 16.4 per cent of 
electronic industry sales. This is almost as much as the 
total sales of all electronic products, to both consumers 
and the Government, in 1946. 

"Service, therefore, has become an important facet 
of the nation's business structure. The consumer knows 
the value and economy of keeping the products of 
modern science and industry at peak efficiency. When 
properly organized, service pays its own way. It is a 
good investment that returns its outlay manifold in 
many forms. 

"Some measure of the importance of service to 
electronics is shown by the fact that today nearly 100,000 
service men are employed in the industry, most of 
whom are in radio and television service for the home. 
With the expected growth of the electronics industry, 
more than 125,000 technicians will be needed in 1957." 



Against this background, Mr. Odorizzi described 
the development and scope of RCA's own service opera- 
tions, saying: 

"From the moment in the mid-twenties when the 
first piece of apparatus bearing the name RCA came 
off the assembly line, the company assumed a two-fold 
responsibility. The first was that this apparatus should 
work properly upon installation; the second was that 
it should serve a useful life. Out of this basic responsi- 
bility for satisfying the customer, the RCA Service 
Company was born. 

Millions of Service Calls 

"The millions of service calls made each year by 
RCA service representatives are an invaluable asset in 
another way. From the reports received after visits to 
homes, factories and military bases, RCA executives 
and engineers are enabled to keep their fingers on the 
pulse of customer preferences and demands, and, in 
that way, can make more accurare plans for future 
design and production of electronic products." 

The demands for servicing government electronic 
installations at home and abroad to insure peak efficiency 
has brought about a major expansion in this branch of 
service activities, Mr. Odorizzi said. He continued: 

"The RCA Government Service Division field engi- 
neers are under contract with all branches of the Armed 
Forces and are assigned to all locations where there are 
Army and Air Force bases. . . . Hundreds of RCA 
Government Service engineers are assigned to 26 for- 
eign countries, including 13 which are in the Govern- 
ment's Mutual Defense Assistance Program. . . . 

Emphasizing the need for advance planning in many 
aspects of the service program, Mr. Odorizzi said: 

"Service facilities must sometimes be organized with 
a long-range view, administered with little chance of 
immediate returns. Color TV is an outstanding example 
of this situation. A full year before a color set reached 
the consumer market, RCA had trained a group of 
technical specialists to act as instructors to service men 
throughout the country. An elaborate series of lecture 
clinics was arranged in the principal television areas. 
Up to the present, 120,000 technicians, dealers and 
others, including the personnel of competitors, have 
attended these free symposia. In this way, by making 
available the experience and technical knowledge it has 
accumulated over the years, we believe that RCA has 
rendered an outstanding service to the television industry. 



RADIO AGE 15 



Where RCA 
Tests Itself 




p SB. ill 



Browns Mills quality control laboratory is won- 
derland of electronic products for Judy Mc- 
Kenna, Camden, secretary. 




A Visitor Tours Browns Mills, New Jersey, 
Testing Ground of Electronic Products 



IN a modest brick building at Browns Mills, N. J., 30 miles due east 
of Camden, RCA keeps a close eye on its wide range of electronic 
products to ensure the high standard of performance on which the 
RCA reputation is based. This is the Field Quality Testing Laboratory, 
operated by the RCA Service Company. Within its walls, scores of 
the latest TV sets, record players, air conditioners and table radios are 
kept at work 24 hours a day to determine whether they meet the 
specific standards of RCA quality. From the roof of the building 
sprout antennas of every description and outside stands a station wagon 
rigged with mobile radio systems under test. Products for the tests 
arrive constantly from the various RCA manufacturing plants, and 
results of the rigorous inspection are passed back to the plants con- 
cerned after the tests have been run. The Browns Mills Laboratory 
not only tests the individual performance of new RCA products — it 
also runs them side by side with competitive makes to determine the 
margin of superiority over the products of other manufacturers. 



Judy discusses performance of RCA Victor TV sets 
with engineer supervising "life tests" of instruments. 



Antennae of all types are given exhaustive tests to 
determine designs best suited for home use. 

16 RADIO AGE 




Specially-designed antenna (left) is used to check 

"fringe area" reception of TV sets. Browns Mills 

operation is directed by RCA Service Company. 





Globe-girdling "Strato-World" portables and table 
model clock radios (right) are checked for perform- 
ance, life-span and overall dependability. 




RCA consumer tape recorders (left) get "the works" 

at Browns Mills to insure quality merchandise and 

satisfied customers. 




Judy cools off from her unofficial "inspection trip" 

before RCA room air conditioner. All products tested 

are picked at random from production lines. 



RADIO AGE 77 



Opportunities in the Electronic and Atomic Age 



\3cientific research is the basis for virtually all of 
the material things we have today and for the better 
things we hope to enjoy tomorrow, General Sarnoff said 
in an address before the Bernard M. Baruch School of 
Business and Public Administration, City College of 
New York, on November 1, 1954. His topic was "Op- 
portunities in the Electronic and Atomic Age." 

"Your heritage is rich and inspiring," General Sar- 
noff told the students, "replete with exhilarating oppor- 
tunities. It includes substantial improvements in man's 
lot, a quickened sense of social responsibility, and 
unprecedented opportunities for service on both the 
material and the spiritual levels. 

"My generation has only reconnoitered on the 
frontiers; yours will push far beyond them — and you are 
fortunate in having both the electron and the atom 
young like yourselves. 

"Whatever course you choose to follow, it will not 
be a chore but an adventure if you bring to it a sense 
of the glory of striving to succeed and to add something 
to the welfare and happiness of your community as 
well as to yourself. If you set your sights above mere 
personal security, you will avoid mediocrity. 

"Pioneering and scientific research are the blood 
and the sinew of industry, providing the basis for 
versatility and vitality. They give America economic 
strength and increase our national security. They lead 



to new products and services, cultivate prosperity and 
improve the health of the nation. 

"Science, through research, has a unique way of 
edging up to an existing industry or business to com- 
pletely revolutionize routines and operations, to in- 
crease their safety and productivity and to provide a 
better return for labor on its effort and for capital on 
its investment. 

"From the broad viewpoint, our whole pattern of 
life — our homes and clothing, the automobiles, planes 
and trains we travel in — are all products of scientific 
research. And our social, political and economic insti- 
tutions — even the conflicts involving them — are affected 
by that research. 

"You of this generation are fortunate in being on 
the threshold of electronics, and also of atomic energy, 
another vast field for opportunity and advancement. 

"You are lucky to be young and to be living in a 
country so vibrant with opportunities. But your greatest 
advantage is the fact that you are Americans who are 
free to live, learn, work and advance, in an atmosphere 
where the dignity and rights of man are the foundations 
of our national structure. And they are foundations 
upon which a more stable world can be built. 

"May I recall to you Mr. Baruch's wise admonition: 
'To attain the stability we yearn for in this world, we 
must first find stability within ourselves.' " 



George Y. Wheeler Elected RCA Vice-President 




E, 



; LECTION of George Y. Wheeler, II, as a Staff Vice- 
President of the Radio Corporation of America with 
offices in Washington, D. C, has been announced by 



Brig. General David Sarnoff, Chairman of the Board 
of RCA. Mr. Wheeler, who has been serving on the 
staff of National Broadcasting Company in Washington, 
will handle general staff assignments related to the 
business of the Radio Corporation of America. 

Joining NBC in 1937 as a page boy, Mr. Wheeler 
served from 1938 to 1944 in NBC's Program Depart- 
ment in Washington as an announcer, performer, 
writer, producer and program manager. He became a 
war correspondent for NBC in the European Theater 
of Operations during 1944. From 1945 to 1949, Mr. 
Wheeler was Assistant General Manager of NBC in 
Washington. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree 
from Princeton University in 1937. Between 1951 and 
1954, he attended the Law School of National Uni- 
versity in Washington. 

Mr. Wheeler serves on the Board of Governors of 
the Metropolitan Club of Washington and is a member 
of The Chevy Chase Club, and Delta Theta Phi, law 
fraternity. 



18 RADIO AGE 



fcifit 



<mW 



Ul4tt 



■ 



Built for Color from the Ground Up: 
NBC's New TV Studio in California 



New west coast television headquarters is model of efficiency. 



A 



MAMMOTH color television studio, built in Bur- 
bank, California at a cost of $3,600,000, will swing into 
action early in 1955 as West Coast headquarters for 
color programming of the National Broadcasting Com- 
pany. 

First studio ever to be built from the ground up 
specifically for colorcasting, it was designed by NBC 
engineers on the basis of years of NBC pioneering in 
the design and technical operation of color television 
studios. One of the world's largest studios, its floor 
space is 140 feet by 90 feet, with 42 feet of clearance 
from floor to ceiling. 

The Burbank studio is equipped with the latest elec- 
tronic developments of the Radio Corporation of Am- 
erica, and has the world's most elaborate television light- 
ing system. It is a major step in the RCA-NBC master 
blueprint for extending leadership in color television. 

The studio fits into a carefully conceived plan for 
the development of the NBC center at Burbank. It 
takes its place with two huge black-and-white studios 
and a service building, all of which were constructed on 
NBC's 40-acre tract in 1952. 

Besides the color studio itself, the new construction 
includes a control building, a technical building and a 
rehearsal studio which can also be used for commercials 
and orchestral scoring. In addition, the service building, 
housing set-decoration shops and other facilities, has 
been extended to double its former size. 



The color studio, one of the most spacious ever built, 
is the first NBC studio designed for both live and film 
colorcasting. Among many unique features is an audi- 
ence pit which can be covered over to become part of 
the studio floor. The lighting system, with a capacity 
of one-million watts and with 2400 lighting controls 
and 1260 outlets, is the largest ever installed in a tele- 
vision studio. Equipment already on hand includes four 
RCA color cameras and a Houston Crane. 

The studio has some revolutionary new electronics 
and stage equipment. It is equipped with a Century 
Izenour lighting board, a complex arrangement of some 
2400 controls which permits the pre-setting of lighting 
for 10 scenes, double the number that was possible with 
previous systems. The board, moreover, permits 10 
changes of lighting within any one scene. The studio 
also has a large-screen color projector, newly developed 
by RCA, which allows the studio audience to watch the 
performance on a movie-size, 15-by-20 foot screen. 

Adjoining the color studio is the two-story control 
building. On its first floor are dressing, make-up, quick- 
change rooms and other accommodations for the artists. 
The second floor is devoted entirely to technical facil- 
ities. Here are the control rooms for the director, for 
video, audio and lighting. Here, too, is space for tech- 
nical equipment including the revolutionary new RCA 
pre-set switching system, which greatly simplifies the 
business of changing from one camera to another. 



RADIO AGE 19 



Electrofax 




RCAs Low-Cost Photosensitive Papei r and New Dry Photo Process 

A 

-l\. low-cost, coated paper that is so photosensitive 
that it can make contact prints at exposures of a fraction 
of a second has been developed by scientists of the Radio 
Corporation of America for use in a new, simplified dry 
photographic process known as Electrofax. 

Although the Electrofax paper is as sensitive as 
standard photographic contact printing papers, it com- 
pares in cost with the low-sensitivity diazo papers in 
common use for reproduction of diagrams and plans. 
Created for use in the Electrofax process for obtaining 
rapid and permanent prints from photo negatives, micro- 
film enlargements or projected images, the new paper 
has proven its sensitivity in numerous tests, including 
experimental use in a camera. At exposures of one-half 
a second in outdoor light, it has produced positive 
prints in a few seconds, with no chemical processing. 

The speed with which images can be photographed 
and printed with the new paper and the Electrofax 
technique has permitted experimental development of 
a mechanized system of continuous-strip reproduction 
that may be adapted to use with electronic computers 
or other devices which produce a flow of visual informa- 
tion. The Electrofax process, developed by C. J. Young 
and H. G. Greig with a team of RCA scientists at the 
David Sarnoff Research Center of RCA, in Princeton, 
N. J., also is regarded as a practical and inexpensive 
method of producing master copies of letters, diagrams, 
microfilm records and other documents. 

Sensitivity Achieved by Special Coating 

The sensitivity of the new paper has been achieved 
by applying a thin layer of special zinc oxide in a resin 
binder. Both materials are inexpensive and readily avail- 
able. The coating may be applied to a wide range of 
papers, from those of low-cost wood pulp base to high 
strength bond, according to the requirements. When 
the paper has been coated, it remains insensitive to light, 
and hence may be handled without fear of inadvertent 
exposure, until the coating is given a negative electro- 
static charge. The charge is applied in the dark by 
transfer of ions as a charged wire is moved across the 
coated surface. Once the charge has been placed on 
the layer, the paper is sensitized and must be shielded 
from light in the manner of ordinary photographic film. 
The uncharged coated paper, however, will keep indefi- 
nitely without deterioration. 





Magnetic "brush" applies pigmented resin powder to 
bring out image on sheet of photosensitive paper de- 
veloped by RCA scientists for use in Electrofax process. 
Below, C. J. Young (left) and H. G. Greig, co-developers 
of Electrofax, inspect results. 




20 RADIO AGE 



In the Electrofax process, the charged paper is ex- 
posed by any of the conventional photographic proce- 
dures. The electrostatic charge is reduced in the areas 
exposed to light, depending upon, the intensity of 
the light, leaving a latent electrostatic image on the 
coated surface. 

How the Image is Developed 

The latent image on the paper is developed by apply- 
ing a pigmented resin powder carrying a positive electro- 
static charge which causes the powder to stick to the 
negatively charged areas on the coated surface. To 
accomplish this, the RCA research team developed a 
magnetic "brush" consisting of a mass of iron filings 
mixed with the powder and picked up on the end of a 
perma-magnet. The iron particles take on negative 
charges, while the particles of powder become positive. 
When the "brush" is swept across the paper, the image 
is revealed immediately as the particles cling to the 
areas of lesser light intensity. 



When the "brush" has been swept over the entire 
surface of the paper, the resulting powder image is fixed 
permanently by baking the sheet for a few seconds at 
a temperature which will cause the resin powder to 
melt and fuse to the coated surface, creating a durable, 
light-fast picture. If for any reason the image should 
be unsatisfactory, it may simply be brushed off before 
the baking process takes place, and the paper used again. 
After baking, the image is as rugged and permanent as 
any ink-printed image. 

For mechanized operation of the Electrofax process, 
the RCA team has been experimenting with a large, 
continuous-strip device and a smaller unit capable of 
making single prints from projected images. A rudi- 
mentary, portable unit also has been developed with 
which the process is carried out by hand. Even with the 
hand unit, finished copies can be produced in a fraction 
of a minute, from exposure to development of the print. 



A Record in the Slot Brings 
Music From the Slidc-O-ALitic 



Y 



-OU CAN now put a record into a slot to get your 
music. 

RCA Victor has added to its "Victrola"-phonograph 
line a "Victrola" 45 Slide-O-Matic attachment, a unique 
45-rpm record player in which a record slides into a 
slot to reach a concealed turntable. 

The new Slide-O-Matic is fully automatic. After the 
record is inserted in the slot, it automatically finds its 
place on the spindle. A "play bar" is flipped to start 
the tone arm and to position the needle automatically in 
the record's first groove. A downward flip of the "play 
bar" drops the record and stops the machine, in which 
an automatic shut-off also is incorporated. 

All of the operating mechanism, including the tone 
arm, is concealed within the cabinet, and no lid is 
required. The record juts out sufficiently from the open- 
ing so that the listener does not have to put his hand 
into the machine. Because of these features, the Slide- 
O-Matic is expected to find wide acceptance for children 
and teen-agers. 

The instrumenr weighs only six pounds and measures 
4Vs inches high, 75s inches wide and 10/8 inches deep. 

The new 45-rpm attachment is ultra-modern in 
styling, with gold trim decorating the cabinet front. It 
is available in ebony finish, black and gray, red and 
white, and two-tone natural oak grain finish. 




The new RCA Victor Slide-O-Matic makes record-playing 
easier than ever before for children. 



RADIO AGE 2? 




Who's Watching? 

Ratings Provide Answer for TV Broadcasters 



By Hugh M. Beville, Jr. 

Director of Research & Planning, 
National Broadcasting Company 



"A 



RATING is a figure which tells you the size of 
your audience," Abe Burrows once said, "and which is 
completely inaccurate if it is too low." 

That comment hits close to a major cause of the 
confusion surrounding television ratings. Too many 
people look on ratings as a kind of popularity contest 
and forget that their real purpose is to measure the size 
of the audience for the broadcaster and the advertiser. 

The proper use of ratings is more crucial now than 
ever before in the history of television. The coming of 
the era of television as a national service, the launching 
of new concepts of programming, the growth of color 
television — all these have increased the need for 
audience measurement. Yet outside of a small group of 
experts, the ratings picture today is more confused than 
ever. To sort out the causes of the muddle requires 
some understanding of the background, the methods and 
the purposes of the various ratings systems. 

As for background, we should recall that television 
began experimentally in a few scattered localities. Then, 
as it grew locally, advertisers began the search for some 
means of measurement, some way to find out what they 
were getting for their money. They turned to the rating 
services which had been operating in radio — to C. E. 
Hooper, Inc. — to The Pulse, Inc. — and to the 
American Research Bureau. 

These local measurements were useful during the 
early days of television. They measured audiences within 
a city or within the narrow metropolitan area surround- 
ing the city. Even when local markets were tied into 
networks they became not national networks but re- 
gional networks. At the outset of television and for a 
long time thereafter, these networks covered not a solid 
area but scattered islands, each grouped around a tele- 
vision station. 

Television was temporarily frozen in this local mold 
when the Federal Communications Commission sus- 



pended the granting of licenses for new stations between 
September 1948 and June 1952. Today, of course, the 
freeze has been lifted and television has grown into a 
national medium. But some of the problems in the 
ratings field have risen because television started on this 
localized basis. Indeed, some of the rating services are 
still substantially local, not national, in character. 

Others, however, have tried to keep pace with the 
growth of television. Today we at NBC use three major 
ratings systems which provide valuable, generally accu- 
rate information on audience measurement. These three 
are the A. C. Nielsen Company, The American Research 
Bureau and Trendex, Inc. But each of these three serv- 
ices uses different methods, measures different audiences 
and, therefore, produces different results. This seems 
simple enough, yet lack of understanding on this point 
has caused most of the confusion on television ratings. 
For this reason it is important to know something about 
the methods and measurements of the three services. 

Nielsen Rating System 

The Nielsen method uses as its basic tool the Audi- 
meter, an automatic device which is attached to the 
television set to record the time and the station to 
which the set is tuned. The Nielsen Audimeters are 




Nielsen Audimeters are placed in some 700 homes to 
automatically check program ratings. 



22 RADIO AGE 




Decoder machine speedily translates data from Audi- 
meters to provide ratings of television shows. 

distributed in some 700 homes which have been care- 
fully selected to represent a cross-section of all television 
homes in the United States. Thus Nielsen can take the 
findings within this sample and project them to produce 
the size of audience in terms of millions of homes. 

As an example, Nielsen reported a rating figure of 
38.9 for the NBC Spectacular "Tonight At 8:30". This 
meant that 38.9 per cent of the potential television 
audience, or 10,795,000 homes, were tuned to the pro- 
gram. This is the figure which NBC and other networks 
and our clients and agencies use to determine audience 
size. 

The Audimeter records its findings on film which is 
sent regularly to the Nielsen offices in Chicago for 
analysis. At the Nielsen "Fact Factory," as it is known, 
these minute-by-minute recordings are analyzed ex- 
haustively to produce whatever data is needed. 

Each Nielsen report covers two weeks, thus giving 
the figures greater stability and minimizing the unusual 
effects of weather, special broadcasts and statistical 
chance and other unpredictables which can affect sample 
measurements. Two reports are published every month, 
so that virtually every week of the year is measured by 
Nielsen. 

American Research Bureau 

The American Research Bureau uses another method, 
the diary sample. With this technique, sample house- 
holds are given forms with a week's programming 



divided into 15-minute periods. Viewers are asked to 
check off the periods which they have tuned in to 
during the seven days. 

The ARB diary is a national sample and, like the 
Nielsen survey, is projectable to produce percentages in 
the number of homes reached. ARB also measures 
viewers per set and thus can produce audience figures 
in millions of viewers. However, the ARB figures are 
on an average-quarter-hour basis rather than a total- 
homes-reached basis and they cover only the first week 
of each month. On the other hand, they include sustain- 
ing programs which generally are not covered by Nielsen. 

Trendex 

Trendex, the third service, uses the telephone co- 
incidental survey method. Trendex researchers pick 
names from the telephone book and call the homes to 
ask what program their set is tuned to. This produces 
an average-minute rating, which is the percentage of 
homes viewing during an average minute of the pro- 
gram. 

The Trendex ratings, however, are developed from 
a sample in only ten cities where at least three television 
stations are in operation. Nine of these ten cities are 
in the Eastern Time Zone and one, Chicago, is in the 
Central Time Zone. This survey, therefore, cannot be 
called a national measurement nor can it possibly meas- 
ure audience size as do Nielsen and ARB studies. 
Trendex produces rating percentages which are primarily 
valuable as quick checks on program performance in 
this limited number of ten cities. 

Trendex ratings are more volatile than the figures 
of other ratings services. This results not only from the 
sample size and measurement technique but from the 
limited geographical coverage which accounts for about 
21 per cent of the television sets in the country and 
from the effect of such local program competition, such 
as baseball in New York and Chicago. 

Trendex, like ARB, surveys only in the first week of 
each month and thus reflects to a maximum degree 
radical fluctuations created by weather conditions, holi- 
days, special events and unusual promotion or publicity 
efforts. 

Difference in Measurements 

So what causes all the confusion? It arises from the 
basic fact that the different services are using different 
methods to measure different things. There is undue 
emphasis on the quick rating for the simple reason that 
its immediacy makes it more interesting. It is only 
human that we talk and read most about the overnight 
rating which may come out the morning after a new 
show. The confusion arises later when more meaningful 
ratings, measuring the total audience, become available. 



RADIO AGE 23 



Then the wide discrepancies in the ratings create new 
interest and the confusion is compounded. 

A case in point was the ratings muddle which fol- 
lowed NBC's "Satins and Spurs", the first of our color 
spectaculars. Here was the opening of a new era in 
programming and it was only natural that there should 
be wide interest in the overnight Trendex ratings which 
were widely printed in the radio and television trade 
press. Later the Nielsen and ARB reports came out for 
the same broadcast and wide differences in the figures 
raised questions regarding the accuracy of all ratings. 

Trendex reported a rating of 17.5; then Nielsen re- 
ported 38.7; and finally, ARB reported between the two 
with a rating of 26.7. These, at first blush, were startling 
differences. Actually, however, there was little conflict 
between these ratings from a research point of view. 

For example, the Trendex rating of 17.5 was based 
on a telephone survey in ten cities and represented the 
percentage of telephone homes viewing during the aver- 
age minute of the program. For the purpose of com- 
parison, we obtained a special rating from Nielsen, one 
which was reasonably comparable to the Trendex rating 
since it was based on nine cities that have three-network 
competition. The Nielsen nine-city rating on an average- 
minute basis was 21.5, so it was a little higher than the 
Trendex rating, but at least within shooting distance. 
The difference lay in the fact that the Trendex rating 
was based on telephone homes only within the city. The 
Nielsen nine-city rating, on the other hand, was based 
on the entire station area, including both telephone and 
non-telephone homes within the city and outside it in 
the rural areas and small towns. 

Again we took the ARB rating of 26.7 and put it 
on a comparable footing to the Nielsen rating. The 
ARB figure was obtained on a basis of an average quarter 
hour. With a special tabulation, ARB made it a rating 
for the entire hour and a half. The ARB figure then 
became 34.0, which was reasonably close to the Nielsen 
rating of 38.7. 

Thus the ratings from the three services can be 
compared only if they are put on a comparable basis and 
this can be done only with analyses which generally are 
not available to the public. This kind of detailed break- 
down goes a long way toward explaining the differences 
in the rating figures. Minor discrepancies remain, but 
these can be attributed largely to diffetences in technique. 

Ratings Generally Accurate 

The blame for the confusion, therefore, lies less with 
the ratings services than with those who misinterpret 
their findings. The fact is that the television ratings are 



generally quite accurate. The major reason for this ac- 
curacy lies in the nature of the medium itself. When 
we are dealing with the printed word, determining 
readership is a tremendous problem. That problem is 
to find out how many people have read a magazine, say, 
over a period of days, weeks, or even months. In broad- 
casting, however, everyone who tunes in does so with 
a brief, specified period, whether five minutes, fifteen 
minutes, or what have you. This greatly simplifies the 
research problem. Instead of trying to trace readership 
over an indefinite period we need only determine the 
audience at a given time. 

The problem in radio and television is not so much 
to find the means of measuring audience as to decide 
which of several methods to use. At NBC we rely most 
heavily on the Nielsen service. The objectivity of the 
Nielsen method, its wide coverage, its exhaustive anal- 
yses and its broad acceptance by advertisers and agencies, 
combine to make it the most valuable of the services. 
In addition, for such supplemental data as audience 
composition and for the purpose of cross-checking, we 
use both Trendex and ARB. 

In the future we will continue to use the rating 
services as guides to the growth of television. We will 
use them not as the final word in distinguishing success 
from failure, but as a tool to temper and reinforce judg- 
ment. We will use them in the knowledge that, though 
their methods and measurements differ, each serves a 
useful function. 




NBC's Hugh M. Beville, Jr., discusses Nielsen-assembled 

data with H. W. Shepard of NBC, and John K. 

Churchill of A. C. Nielsen Company. 



24 RADIO AGE 



Light, Power, and Progress 

Sarnoff at St. Louis Observance of Light s Diamond Jubilee, Foresees 
Electronic Light Emerging as Result of Television Research 



E. 



ELECTRONIC light, a far-reaching revolution in light- 
ing, appears likely to emerge as the result of television 
research, General Sarnoff, announced at a luncheon of 
the St. Louis Chamber of Commerce on October 19 in 
observance of Light's Diamond Jubilee. 

Recalling that it was the intensive search for high- 
efficiency fluorescent materials for the television screen 
that led to the development of the fluorescent tube as 
the rival to incandescent light, he declared: 

"We are now engaged in the development of a new 
form of light — electronic light. This new form seems 
destined to carry forward the great work sparked by 
Edison and is likely to loom ever larger in public con- 
sciousness as this development progresses. . . . 

"In short, the sky is the limit in imagining the future 
of electronic light. The one certainty is that, like other 
major scientific innovations in the past, it will open 
roads to improvements on existing products and proc- 
esses, and will give birth to entirely new instruments, 
appliances and services." 

Atomics 

On the subject of atomic energy, General Sarnoff 
said that no crystal ball is required to foresee that in 
the near future, power will mean nuclear energy. He 
continued: 

"This use of atomic energy is not likely to affect the 
basic structure of the nation's public utilities. They will 
simply be converting from one fuel to another, and in 
the long run a cheaper one. 

"But as the industrial and commercial development 
of atomic energy expands and more nuclear reactors are 
put in operation, we can expect the availability of large 
amounts of suitable low-cost waste products from these 
installations. And the radiations from these waste prod- 
ucts may one day be converted directly into electricity. 

"Naturally, much fundamental work and applied re- 
search remain to be done and years will elapse before 
this becomes a practical reality. However, when this 
goal is reached, we shall see atomic generators of elec- 
tricity small enough to be installed for use in the home. 
This prospect offers a bright hope for mankind and it 
is based on more than a fantastic dream." 



General Sarnoff said that when atomic batteries be- 
come available they will bring into the realm of prac- 
ticality a long array of miniature devices, such as wrist- 
watch radios, or vest-pocket radio telephones, or electric 
shavers no bigger than a penknife. 

Social Progress Must Keep Pace 

"The fact that electronics and atomics are unfolding 
simultaneously," he declared, "is a portent of incalculable 
changes ahead. Never before have two such mighty 
forces been unleashed at the same time. Together, elec- 
tronics are fated to dwarf even the industrial revolutions 
brought by steam and electricity." 

In referring to the need for social progress to keep 
pace with scientific advances, General Sarnoff said: 
"Whether the splitting of the atom can be called 
'progress' will depend, in the final analysis, on whether 
we can find the wisdom to direct the released power 
into channels of peaceable and constructive use. We 
can all ardently join President Eisenhower in the hope 
he expressed recently that 'the miraculous inventiveness 
of man shall not be dedicated to his death but to his 
life.' That and that alone is the test. 

"Yet there is no excuse for despair. We know that 
electricity, too, can be savage if man so chooses. But 
we have learned to control its power and to use it 
beneficently. 

"Man can do the same with nuclear power. The 
Adam can triumph over the Atom. Its potentials for 
the services of peace, for increasing prosperity rather 
than for mass terror and destruction, are unlimited. 

"To keep pace with the rapid march of science, we 
must accelerate our steps socially. To do so intelligently 
and effectively, we need the LIGHT that illuminates 
our mind and the POWER that ignites the Divine spirit 
within us. The secret of PROGRESS is in man himself. 
This we need to think about, in humility, especially on 
an occasion such as this Diamond Jubilee of Light. 

"On the wider road of human progress there is 
ample room for Science and Society to travel without 
colliding. This is the road we must pursue in our search 
for true happiness, stable prosperity, and lasting peace." 



RADIO AGE 25 



Reports Improved Service: 



First Million -Watt TV Station 



T 

J-H 



■ HE nation's first million-watt UHF television station, 
which went on the air December 31, 1954, as the 
world's most powerful broadcaster, is now delivering 
strong, clear pictures in numerous areas which hereto- 
fore had either no TV service or poor reception, it was 
reported on January 12 by Station WBRE-TV, Wilkes- 
Barre, Pa., and the Radio Corporation of America. 

The improved service was made possible by a newly 
developed RCA super-power transmitter and a new 
super-power RCA UHF pylon antenna which enabled 
WBRE-TV to quadruple its effective radiated power 
from a previous 225,000 watts to the maximum of one 
million established by Federal Communications Com- 
mission regulations for UHF TV stations, according to 
A. R. Hopkins, Manager, Broadcast Equipment Market- 
ing, RCA Engineering Products Division. 

7V2-Ton RCA Antenna 

Despite adverse weather conditions, the RCA an- 
tenna, a IVi ton final link in the million-watt installa- 
tion, was mounted atop WBRE-TV's heavily-iced 330- 
foot antenna mast by evening of December 30, Louis G. 
Baltimore, President and founder of the Channel 28 
station reported. At 3:15 A.M. the following morning, 
the station went on the air. 

Initial spot checks showed the RCA million-watt 
equipment delivering stronger signals over greater 
distances than anticipated, Mr. Baltimore said. The 
increased power filled in certain "shadowed" areas in 
WBRE-TV's broadcast range and provided other areas 
with their first "snow-free" TV reception. Clear, steady 
pictures were reported as far away as York, Pa., some 
110 miles from the station transmitter. 

Signal Received 125 Miles Away 

RCA reported that a special test receiver, set up 
near its Camden, N. J., plant, was also receiving the 
station clearly over a distance of approximately 125 
miles. Prior to the million-watt installation, the test 
receiver was unable to tune the Channel 28 station. 

As initial results at WBRE-TV indicate, Mr. Hop- 
kins said, utilization of million-watt ERP — the effec- 
tive radiated power emitted by a station's transmitting 
antenna — will enable TV stations so equipped to pro- 
vide extended saturation coverage and offer vastly im- 
proved television service throughout so-called fringe 



and weak-signal areas. Heretofore, the most powerful 
TV stations were VHF types limited to a maximum of 
316,000 watts of ERP. 

First commercially available television equipment 
capable of one-million-watt ERP, the RCA installation 
is built around a 2 5 -kilowatt transmitter and a pylon 
antenna with a gain of nearly 50, he said. Previously, 
the most powerful UHF TV transmitter was limited to 
YIV2 kilowatts of power, and the maximum gain 
achieved by UHF antennas was 27. 



Versatile Sound System Installed 
by RCA in Newark Cathedral 

One of the most comprehensive sound systems ever 
designed has been installed by RCA in the Cathedral of 
the Sacred Heart, Newark, N. J., to provide public ad- 
dress, intercommunication, and radio and television 
broadcasting facilities. 

The system, which required two years for planning 
and installation, includes a sound network for the con- 
gregation, including concealed outdoor loudspeakers for 
overflow crowds; a complete radio broadcasting system 
connected directly to Station WSOU at nearby Seton 
Hall University, and a separate RCA audio system for 
use in television broadcasting, as well as video and audio 
connections for mobile television equipment. 



RCA to Honor TV Servicemen 

A "National Television Servicemen's Week," salut- 
ing the thousands of service dealers and technicians 
who since 1946 have installed and maintained more 
than 30,000,000 home TV sets will be sponsored by 
RCA during the period of March 7 to 12. 

The first recognition of its kind ever afforded elec- 
tronics technicians, National TV Servicemen's Week has 
been registered with the U. S. Chamber of Commerce. 
It will be marked by a comprehensive RCA advertising 
and promotion campaign designed to focus maximum 
consumer and industry attention on more than 100,000 
service men, most of whom are engaged in home radio 
and TV maintenance. 



26 RADIO AGE 




B" H gHHK l l B B H EH HSi ai BH ! 

- i- 



A battery of machines plus skilled technicians wind coils 
for deflection yokes used in TV sets. 

Miles of copper wire are nylon coated by these auto- 
matic machines. Wire then is used in production of TV 
set components. 



ifi ^ 








Left, W. Walter Watts, Executive Vice-President, RCA 

Electronic Products, officiates at official dedication of 

new Findlay, Ohio, plant, shown above. 



New Plant for TV Set Components 
Dedicated by RCA in Findlay, Ohio 



\^/ne OF the nation's most modern plants was 
dedicated by RCA at Findlay, Ohio, on November 10 
for the manufacture of electronic component parts used 
in television receivers. The new one-story plant, 50 
miles southwest of Toledo, produces television deflection 
yokes, high-voltage transformers and ferrites. Operated 
by the RCA Tube Division, it already employs more 
than 600 persons. 

Selection of the Findlay plant site was made after 
months of planning. Its strategic location permits rapid 
shipment of electronic components to plants in Indi- 
anapolis and Bloomington, Ind., where RCA Victor 
television receivers are assembled. 

The dedication ceremonies were attended by RCA 
executives, including W. Walter Watts, Executive Vice- 
President, RCA Electronic Products, who was the prin- 
cipal speaker, and Douglas Y. Smith, Vice-President and 
General Manager, RCA Tube Division, as well as Mayor 
Chester Smith and other officials and leaders of Findlay. 

The components manufactured at the new plant are 
essential parts of the television receiver. The deflection 
yoke, mounted around the neck of the TV picture tube, 
controls the action of the electron beam that "paints" 
the picture on the tube face: high- voltage transformers 
are used to energize the deflection yoke and to step up 
the voltage needed to accelerate the electron beam: 
ferrite is a material obtained by firing a mixture of 
certain metallic oxides at extremely high temperatures, 
resulting in unusual magnetic properties for its use in 
both deflection yokes and transformers. 

RADIO AGE 27 



Via RCA Communications: 

TEX Speeds Commerce Across the Seas 



By D. E. Hempstead 

Traffic Engineer 

RCA Communications, Inc. 



A 



teleprinter operator in a New York brokerage 
house presses a key on her machine. . . . Less than a 
second later, it is connected directly with a teleprinter 
in the main New York office of RCA Communications, 
Inc. . . . The operator signals the call number of a 
teleprinter in her firm's branch office overseas — per- 
haps in Paris, or Amsterdam, or Leopoldville. ... A 
moment later, the connection is made, and the message, 
typed on the printer in the New York brokerage office, 
begins to appear on the machine thousands of miles 
away. In a matter of a few minutes, the message has 
been delivered over the two-way circuit, leaving in both 
the home and branch offices a complete written record 
of the transaction. 

This process has become daily routine for hundreds 
of businesses linked by private teleprinter tielines to 
RCA Communications and its overseas teleprinter serv- 
ice (TEX) via a medium that combines the advantages 
of both telephone and telegraph. 

Both of these facilities — the private tieline and 
the TEX overseas link — have won widespread pop- 
ularity with commercial firms as a rapid, relatively in- 
expensive and highly flexible means of business com- 
munication, and both have experienced rapid growth 
since their introduction a few years ago. 

Private tieline facilities, operated by RCA in New 
York, Washington, and San Francisco and at several 
overseas locations where RCA maintains radio stations, 
have nearly trebled in response to demand since 1948. 
TEX, introduced in 1950, has grown to a traffic volume 
this year nearly six times greater than the total in 1951, 
and the rate of increase shows no signs of slackening. 

New Automatic Tieline Terminal 

The increase in demand has called for expansion and 
improvement of facilities and techniques, and RCA 
Communications has moved rapidly to keep its capacity 
for handling customer installations abreast of the grow- 
ing list of calls for its services. 

The latest addition to the system is an 800-line auto- 
matic tieline terminal at the main New York office. 




Private teleprinter speeds movement of RCA's TEX serv- 
ice to customers. 

center of the largest of the private tieline service facil- 
ities. The quarter-million-dollar terminal, which began 
operations in October, has cut to less than a second the 
time required to establish a direct connection between 
a customer's own teleprinter and an idle printer in the 
RCA main office. Previously, this operation passed 
through a manual switchboard resembling a telephone 
switchboard, with connections made by an operator. 

As the tieline plant expanded, the manual operation 
became slower. The solution has been furnished by the 
new automatic switching equipment, which hunts out 
an idle printer in the main office automatically and 
effects the connection with no delay. 

Installation of the new terminal has entailed a num- 
ber of other major changes in the physical arrangements 
and operating procedures of the entire customer tieline 
section. One such change is the installation of newly- 
designed operating consoles, each containing four key- 
board teleprinters, three transmitter distributors and a 
dial panel, all arranged in a semi-circular operating posi- 
tion so that one attendant may handle up to four 
customers at the same time whenever the need arises. 
Using this new equipment, the operator can dial a 
3-digit call number and be connected instantly through 
the automatic terminal to any of RCA's tieline customers. 



28 RADIO AGE 



If the customer's line happens to be busy, the call is 
stored until the line becomes available, at which time 
it is automatically connected. 

Expansion of TEX Service 

Much of the expansion of the private tieline system 
has been brought on by increased demand for TEX 
service, which now offers teleprinter-to-teleprinter con- 
nections between the United States and 15 transatlantic 
countries, and two channels between San Francisco and 
Honolulu. In providing the transatlantic service, RCA 
in effect simply links its private tieline customers in 
New York and Washington via radio facilities with 
thousands of Western European subscribers to TELEX, 
the equivalent on the Continent of the TWX service 
operated in the United States by the American Tele- 
phone and Telegraph Company. 

TELEX service has been international in scope for 
many years, linking the national teleprinter services of 
the various Western European countries. With TEX, 
RCA Communications has widened these facilities to 
an intercontinental link. 

The first TEX service was opened between New York 
and the Netherlands in 1950. Before the end of its first 
year, the service was extended to RCA private tieline 
customers in Washington, D. G, and, through the facil- 
ities of the Netherlands TELEX system, to TELEX sub- 
scribers in Germany and Denmark. 

Subsequently, direct TEX circuits were opened with 
Switzerland, France, Germany and Belgium, and through 
these countries further connections were made to Nor- 
way, Sweden, Luxembourg, Finland, Spain, Portugal, 
England, Hungary and the Belgian Congo. Plans are 
under way for further expansion of TEX service to the 




remaining countries in Europe that already have, or are 
planning to install, TELEX systems. RCA Communica- 
tions also is prepared to cooperate with similar expansion 
in Latin America and the Far East, when and if coun- 
tries in these areas develop internal TELEX networks. 

From a modest beginning, TEX service has grown to 
be an important segment of the telegraph business of 
RCA, and its development has been accomplished 
through the use of a number of unique electronic de- 
vices that are still recent to the industry. 

For example, all transatlantic TEX traffic flows over 
radio circuits protected by automatic error detection and 
correction equipment that was perfected jointly by RCA 
and engineers of the Netherlands Bureau of Posts and 
Telegraphs (PTT). Installed between the radio trans- 
mitters and receivers on the one hand, and the terminal 
operating equipment on the other, this apparatus, called 
ARQ, monitors and detect errors which might be caused 
by disturbed signalling conditions. When a distorted 
character is detected by the equipment at the receiving 
end of the circuit, a request is automatically flashed back 
to the sending station for a repetition of the mutilated 
character. This process is continued until the character 
is correctly received and printed. The correction process 
requires only a fraction of a second to complete its full 
cycle of operation — swiftly enough so that it is nor- 
mally unnoticeable to TEX subscribers. 

Closely associated with the ARQ equipment are 
multiple terminals that permit the super-imposition of 
TEX channels on established radio-telegraph frequencies. 
This has allowed the expansion of TEX facilities with- 
out the necessity of additional frequencies. Most of 
these multiplex terminals are of the electro-mechanical 
type at the present time, but they are being rapidly re- 
placed by all-electronic equipment perfected by RCA. 

The evolution of telegraph service during the past 
decades has placed great emphasis upon the elimination 
of as many unnecessary points of handling as possible, 
while providing ever faster communication over the 
remaining links. 

The TEX-TELEX service now available to tieline 
customers makes it possible for them to have direct 
communication with their correspondents, to obtain 
immediate answer to questions, and to have a record 
of the exchange of information. 

Further expansion of these services and automatic 
devices such as the new automatic switching equipment 
just installed by RCA Communications in New York 
seem to offer an unlimited field of development of 
faster communication between subscribers across the 
world. 

Reliable electronic equipment is key to stable operation 
of RCA's TEX service. 

RADIO AGE 29 




Old Mexico Pioneers 

in Modern Communication 



Yo 



By 

J. P. Toole, President 

RCA Victor Mexicana, S.A. de C.V. 
RCA Associate Company in Mexico 



. OU CAN phone your dry cleaner in Mexico City 
and in a few minutes a radio equipped truck will 
be at your door to pick up your suit or la Senora's dress 
for the fiesta. If you are a building contractor and in 
critical need of concrete, you can telephone for it — and 
don't be surprised if the concrete is on the job almost 
as soon you hang up the receiver. Radio will have 
diverted a ready-mix truck from another job, temporarily 
halted by a traffic jam. 

In Mexico, you can have freight picked up by radio 
controlled carriers. If you travel, your bus reservation 
will be radioed — not wired — ahead. And if you are a 
banker, you can transmit credit or other finance in- 
formation to all your branches simultaneously by radio. 

The dry cleaning establishment, Tintoreria Francesa, 
initiated radio service in Mexico City. Its drivers con- 
stantly amaze customers by their speed in responding 
to calls in a business historically hectic. 

This is the country where the runners of Montezuma 
sped from the gulf to his mountain capital with his 
favorite food, fresh from the sea. This human chain of 
the fastest transport known to a horseless country per- 
formed amazing feats of endurance and speed. 

Today in Mexico, transportation, building, banking 
and other fields are using radio instead of the runners 
of Montezuma or wire lines. And a notable amount of 
the equipment carries the RCA symbol. 

Radio In Transportation 

The 800 big freight vans of Lineas Unidas de Express 
Aguila are controlled by RCA radio for faster, more 
efficient hauling over Mexico's mountainous miles. 

Autobuses de Oriente, a national bus line, gives its 
passengers dependable service — and keeps its fare-paying 
seats filled — through the use of RCA radio. 

And, serving the building trades in Mexico City, 
the heavy-duty rolling stock of Pre-Concreto, S.A. is 
dispatched by RCA radio — for fifty per cent greater sales 
than before radio was used. 

These three companies, using equipment purchased 
through ECA Victor Mexicana, S.A., associate RCA 



company in Mexico, exemplify current trends in trans- 
portation methods in Mexico. 

Lineas Unidas de Express Aguila, carrying the prod- 
ucts of Mexico over her highways, insists that strict 
schedules be maintained. This company found that 
ordinary methods of communication were not adequate 
to control the movements of the fleet of 800 vans. 

At first, RCA shortwave radiotelephone stations were 
installed in Lineas Unidas headquarters in eight key 
cities as a test. Customers were pleased with the im- 
proved service. As company messages flowed over this 
preliminary network, coordinating the movements of 
trucks, dispatching, rerouting, settling claims, it became 
clear that radio was essential for the firm. 

Capitalizing on the growing prestige, Lineas Unidas 
ordered RCA-equipped stations for 16 additional cities, 
and customer and network are growing. 

Service For The Traveler 

In the field of public transportation, Autobuses de 
Oriente is a leading carrier. Its luxury buses cover much 
of Mexico, crossing mountain ranges, touching the great 
volcanos, linking historic cities. 




RCA two-way radio system speeds delivery of concrete 
to construction jobs in Mexico. 



30 RADIO AGE 



Radio handles many jobs for Autobuses. If a reserva- 
tion is cancelled, the information is flashed by radio to 
the next station on the route, and the vacant seat nude 
available to the public. 

A fiesta, bullfight or horse race means holiday crowds, 
and additional buses are dispatched by radio where 
needed. 

Highway repairs mean detours, and buses are re- 
routed by radio. 

Another Field Served Is Construction 

Right in the middle of Mexico's dynamic building 
growth is, Pre-Concreto, S.A. From this company's 
plant on the outskirts of Mexico City, heavy-duty 
trucks make delivery of ready-mixed concrete to con- 
struction jobs of all kinds. Delivery must be prompt 
because there are production and construction schedules 
to be maintained, and concrete is tricky to handle. 

Pre-Concreto trucks deliver fresh concrete where it 
is needed, when it is needed. Radio helps to do this job. 
At the present time, each of the firm's 10 vehicles — 
9 trucks and a station wagon — is equipped with an RCA 
mobile unit. An RCA transmitter-receiver is installed 
in a central control station, housed at Pre-Concreto's 
plant. 

Construction often goes on in areas remote from 
good communications, but Pre-Concreto's trucks are 
never out of touch with the factory. 

Builders appreciate this kind of service. It helps 
them maintain schedules, with no costly delays. In 
construction work, with its expensive equipment and 





Twenty-one RCA-equipped two-way radio stations han- 
dle dispatching assignments to 800 truck-trailers of 
Mexican company. 



Radio-dispatched trailer trucks, using RCA two-way 
systems, provide efficient service for Mexican customers. 

sizable payrolls, delay can be ruinous. Pre-Concreto 
officials report that they are handling 50 per cent more 
orders than before radio was adopted. 

Banking is another field in which Mexico is doing 
pioneering work in radio communication. The economy 
of Mexico represents ample opportunities for a banking 
institution to be of service. Banco Nacional del Mexico 
has a shortwave network which provides instant contact 
between the bank's headquarters in Mexico City and 
its branches all over the country. 

Communications of national and international nego- 
tiations, at the policy-making level, emanate from the 
Bank's central station in Mexico City, while regional 
transactions are transmitted between the sub-stations 
and the branches. 

These are new chapters in Mexico's communication 
story. The Fire and Police Departments in the capital 
and elsewhere in Mexico have long used radio, as has 
the military establishment. The fight against hoof and 
mouth disease gave spectacular evidence of the ability 
of radio to help cover great areas where time was the 
enemy as well as the disease. 

At RCA Victor Mexicana, we have the advantages of 
our own modern facilities where we can modify equip- 
ment to suit the special needs and laws of Mexico. This 
is an example of RCA operations abroad, coordinating 
with the research and experience of RCA in the U.S.A. 

Together with our distributor, Corporacion Nacional 
Distribuidora, which handles our consumer products, 
RCA Victor Mexicana, S.A., RCA's associate company 
in Mexico, welcomes these opportunities of today and 
those of the future to be of service to the Republic. 



RADIO AGE 31 



©KfiWSiu 




Drive-ins 

From Massachusetts to Wisconsin, 
drive-in movie viewers will be seeing 
bright pictures on the screen with the 
help of RCA. Under a contract signed 
recently with the Phil Smith Manage- 
ment Corp., of Boston, one of the 
nation's largest chains of outdoor the- 
aters, RCA Wide-Arc screen lamps are 
being installed in 14 drive-in theaters 
located in eight states. The RCA lamp, 
for wide-screen, 3-D and drive-in use, 
is designed to provide the brilliance 
needed to light oversize, wide-film out- 
door theater screens. 

Long jump 

One of the longest single microwave 
radio hops ever placed in service — a 
span of 81.5 miles — forms part of 
a new 230-mile microwave radio relay 
system just completed by RCA's Engi- 
neering Products Division for the 
Colorado Interstate Gas Company at 
Colorado Springs. The system links 
the company's headquarters with its 
pipeline compressor stations and gas- 
producing fields in Kansas and Okla- 
homa. The unique 81.5-mile stretch 
without intermediate relay points lies 
between repeater stations located atop 
Cheyenne Mountain and at Todd 
Point, both in Colorado. 



Safety First 

The RCA Service Company has re- 
ceived the National Safety Council's 
highest award — the "Award of Honor" 
— in recognition of an outstanding 
safety record during the past twelve 
months. The presentation was made 
in October by Walter L. Matthews, of 
the Council, to Edward C. Cahill, Presi- 
dent of the RCA Service Company. 
The award covered activities of some 
5,000 employees at more than 150 
business locations in the United States 
and overseas. 




Welcome to Prescott 

Visitors approaching Prescott, On- 
tario, home of the television manu- 
facturing plant of RCA Victor Com- 
pany, Ltd., are now greeted by new 
signs in the design of an open book 
and labelled "Welcome to Historic 
Prescott, Home of RCA Victor Radio 
& Television Plant." The company de- 
signed the signs in cooperation with 
the Prescott Chamber of Commerce 
and installed them at its own expense 
on land donated by the town. 



Nomenclature 

The specialized language of micro- 
wave and mobile radio communica- 
tions has received formal recognition 
in what is believed to be the first 
published compilation of its words and 
definitions, published by RCA's Engi- 
neering Products Division. The glos- 
sary, compiled for the industry, adds 
up to 39 pages of definitions ranging 
from "Absorption Cofficient" to "Zero- 
Bias" and includes a list of technical 
and non-technical organizations of in- 
terest to communications engineers as 
well as abbreviations of most widely 
used technical terms. Along with its 
text are sketches, diagrams and charts 
that help to define the esoteric terms 
which describe the theory, nature and 
operation of radio communications 
equipment. The glossary is available 
on request from Dept. P-368, Engi- 
neering Products Division, RCA, 
Camden, N. J. 




Eye for Parking 

Something new in parking cars has 
turned up in Oakland, Calif., where 
the Downtown Merchants Parking As- 
sociation has found still another use 
for RCA's versatile TV Eye. The 
DMPA lot has been equipped with a 
TV Eye camera mounted on a light 
standard high above the lot, providing 
a picture of the parked cars on a 
standard 21 -inch TV receiver located 
in the lot attendant's booth. With two 
remote control switches near the re- 
ceiver, the attendant can scan the lot 
and locate the handiest vacant parking 
space for each customer as he drives 
up to the booth for his entrance 
ticket. Housed in a weatherproof 
casing for outdoor protection, the 
camera has superseded an earlier man- 
ual observation system and cut down 
operating expenses of the lot by an 
estimated $3500 per year. 



32 RADIO AGE 



What means most 
to an Engineer ? 




PROFESSIONAL 
RECOGNITION 





UNEXCELLED 
FACILITIES 




RCA offers all These... and more! 



RCA offers career opportunities 
for qualified Electrical and 
Mechanical Engineers . . . 
Physicists . . . Metallurgists 
. . . Physical Chemists . . . 
Ceramists . . . Glass Tech- 
nologists. 

Positions now open in Systems, 
Analysis, Development, Design 
and Application Engineering. 
Your choice of long range work 
in commercial or military fields. 

At RCA you'll work in an atmos- 
phere conducive to creative work 
— laboratory facilities unsur- 



passed in the electronics industry 
. . . constant association with lead- 
ing scientists and engineers. 

Delightful suburban living easily 
available. Modern retirement pro- 
gram . . . liberal tuition refund 
plan for advanced study at recog- 
nized universities . . . modern 
company paid benefits for you 
and your family. 

Individual accomplishments 
readily recognized. Ample oppor- 
tunity for increased income and 
professional advancement. 

Join the team at RCA and grow 
with the world leader in electronics. 



Personal interviews arranged in your city. 
Please send a complete resume of 
your education and experience to: 

MR. JOHN R. WELD 

Employment Manager, Dept. A-6A 

Radio Corporation of America 

30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, N.Y. 



SYSTEMS-ANALYSIS-DEVELOPMENT- 
DESIGN-APPLICATION ENGINEERING 
in fhe following fields: 

AVIATION ELECTRONICS (FIRE CONTROL, PRE- 
CISION NAVIGATION, COMMUNICATIONS) — 

Radar — Analog Computers — Digital Com- 
puters — Servo-Mechanisms — Shock & Vibra- 
tion— Circuitry— Heat Transfer— Remote Con- 
trols — Sub- Miniaturization — Automatic Flight 
— Transistorization — Automation 

RADAR — Circuitry — Antenna Design — Servo Sys- 
tems — Information Display Systems — Geal 
Trains — Stable Elements — Intricate 
Mechanisms 

COMPUTERS— Digital and Analog— Systems Plan- 
ning — Storage Technique — Circuitry — Servo- 
Mechanisms — Assembly Design — High Speed 
Intricate Mechanisms 



COMMUNICATIONS — Microwave — Aviation - 
Mobile — Specialized Military Systems 

MISSILE GUIDANCE -Systems Planning and Design 
— Radar and Fire Control — Servo-Mechanisms 
— Vibration and Shock Problems — Telemetering 



SEMI-CONDUCTORS— Transistors— Diodes 

ELECTRON TUBE DEVELOPMENT — Receiving — 
Transmitting — Cathode-Ray — Phototubes and 
Magnetrons — Power Tubes — Camera Tubes 

ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT FIELD ENGINEERS - 

Specialists for domestic and overseas assign- 
ment on military electronic Communications 
Navigational Aids, and Guided Missiles. 




RADIO CORPORATION of AMERICA 



rca Victor 

America's Finest 

Television j 




. . . gets the service 
it deserves from 

RCA SERVI ftNY 



The best service for RCA Victor Television 
comes from the people who know this fine 
television best. It comes, in fact, from RCA 
people themselves . . . from the expert tech- 
nicians of the RCA Service Company. 

RCA's own technicians are trained by the 
engineers who design RCA Victor Television. 
Thus, RCA Service technicians know all 
there is to know about America's finest tele- 
vision. What's more, they service RCA Victor 
Television alone — no other make. And when 
a set needs replacement parts, they use only 
genuine RCA parts. 

RCA Victor Television owners can enjoy 
RCA Factory Service in either of two con- 
venient ways. An RCA Factory Service 



Contract protects the performance of their 
set the year 'round. A variety of contracts 
makes this coverage available at the price 
level each set owner prefers. Of course, this 
same fast, expert RCA Factory Service may 
be had on a strictly pay-as-you-go basis. 

Back of every job done by an RCA Factory 
Service technician stands the vast engineering 
skill of the entire Radio Corporation of 
America. RCA's facilities and resources are 
entered in the field of Television service for 
one compelling reason. In short, because 
RCA feels that America's finest television 
deserves America's finest service. That's RCA 
Factory Service . . . another reason why every 
year, more people buy RCA Victor than any 
other television! 




RCA SERVICE COMPANY, Inc. 



A Radio Corporation of An 



Subsidiary 



Camden, N.J. 



RADIO AGE 



RESEARCH • MANUFACTURING • COMMUNICATIONS • BROADCASTING • TELEVISION 

APRIL 1955 




KANSA«CTY,MO: 



MAY 2 1955 




PETER PAN" ON COLOR TV 




YOUR FRIENDS from breakfast to bedtime 



From the moment you switch off your alarm clock 
each weekday morning, until you wind it again 
at night, TODAY, HOME and TONIGHT bring 
friends — exciting friends — ■ into your home; and 
with them, news and entertainment. 

TODAY begins your day right. Dave Garroway drops 
in at the crack of dawn with the night's news — and 
takes you to the morning's news by remote pickup. 
Then there's the weather, the time, sports news, im- 
portant guests, amazing guests, amusing guests — 
and those intrepid simians, J. Fred Muggs and 
Phoebe B. Beebe. 

HOME helps around your house. The disarming lady 
is Arlene Francis, hostess and editor-in-chief. 
HOME's staff and guests are the nation's experts on 



things vital to American women — fashions, work- 
savers, beauty hints, shopping news, and the latest 
and largest undertaking: "The House That HOME 
Built," from excavation to its completion on June 4. 

tonight is your evening's final visitor. Steve Allen 
transplants Broadway to your living room, and 
brings the glamour of New York nightlife with him, 
all tied together by his inimitable off-hand humor. 

Why sleep? 



130 

-■■♦ 



TELEVISION 



a service of 




ARCH • MANUFACTURING • COMMUNICATIONS 
BROADCASTING. TELEVISION 



VOLUME 14 NUMBER 2 



CONTENTS 



APRIL 1955 




COVER 

Peter Pan, played by Mary 
Martin, tells Wendy about 
Neverland in the NBC color 
TV presentation on March 7. 
(Story on Page 20). 



NOTICE 

When requesting a change in mailing 
address please include the code letters 
and numbers which appear with the 
stencilled address on the envelope. 

Radio Age is published quarterly by 
Ihe Department of Information, Radio 
Corporation of America, 30 Roclce- 
feller Plaza, New York 20, N Y. 

Printed in U.S.A. 



Page 

RCA Sets All-Time Business Record 3 

Major Developments of RCA Research 7 

Electronic Music; Electronic Cooling 10 

RCA Asks Court to Dismiss Government Anti-Trust Suit 12 

Folsom Receives Good Citizenship Award 14 

Non-Breakable Plastic Case Features 1955 RCA Portable Radios . . 15 

Communications of the Future 15 

How RCA Victor Records Are Made 16 

A Tribute to the TV Serviceman 18 

Tube Translates Code at 100,000 Words a Minute 19 

"Peter Pan" — "An Unforgettable Evening" 20 

Color City 22 

Color TV Helps the Doctors 24 

A Novel Camera Tube for Color TV 26 

RCA Weather Radar Aids Smooth Flight 27 

From London to Bikini 28 

News in Brief 32 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

RCA Building, New York 20, N.Y. 



DAVID SARNOFF, Chairman of the Board 
JOHN Q. CANNON, Secretary 



FRANK M. FOISOM, President 
ERNEST B. GORIN, Treasurer 



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RCA Color cameras focus on a scene from "Naughty Marietta," produced as an NBC "spectacular." 



RCA Sets All-Time Business Record 
With Total 1954 Sales of $940,950,000 

Annual Report Discloses Largest Gross Income in RCA History; Sarnoff and 
Folsom Emphasize Reliance on Research to Maintain Leadership 



_I_ he Radio Corporation of America in 1954 did the 
largest volume of business in its 35-year history, with 
sales of products and services amounting to $940,950,- 
000, it was announced in the RCA 35th Annual Report 
released on Feb. 26 by Brig. General David Sarnoff, 
Chairman of the Board. The Report has been mailed 
to RCA's 172,169 stockholders. 

This record gross income bettered by 10 per cent 
the previous all-time high of 5853,000,000 established 
by RCA in 1953, and was triple the business volume of 
the Corporation only seven years ago. 

Net profit in 1954, before Federal income taxes, was 
583,501,000, and after taxes, $40,525,000. The corre- 
sponding figures for 1953 were $72,437,000 and $35,- 
022,000. Earnings per share of common stock were 
$2.66 in 1954, compared with $2.27 in 1953. 

The Corporation's Federal income taxes, social secu- 
rity, property taxes, and other state and local taxes totaled 
$54,953,000 in 1954. In addition, the Corporation paid 
excise taxes amounting to $26,862,000, making the total 
1954 tax bill $81,815,000, an amount equivalent to $5.83 
per common share, or more than double the year's net 
profits. 

Dividends 

Dividends totaling $22,052,000 were declared by 
RCA for the year 1954. Holders of the preferred stock 
were paid $3,153,000. Holders of common stock re- 
ceived 518,899,000. The dividend payments represented 
$3.50 per share of the preferred stock and $1.35 per 
share of the common stock. 

In addition, on December 3, 1954, the Board of 
Directors declared the first quarterly dividend on the 
common stock for 1955 in the amount of 25 cents per 
share payable January 24, 1955. 

Total current assets of RCA at December 31, 1954, 
amounted to $386,522,000 compared with $349,735,000 
at the end of 1953. Additions to plant and equipment 
during the year 1954 amounted to $34,290,000. 

A table of financial results achieved by RCA in the 
last ten years — year by year — shows annual average 
of gross income 5525,868,000; earnings before Federal 
income taxes, $53,964,000, and net profit after income 



taxes, $27,555,000. The earnings before taxes represent 
an average over the ten year period of 10.3 per cent of 
gross income, and an annual average of profit after 
taxes of 5.2 per cent. 

Highlights of Progress 

Radio, television and all phases of electronics are 
under development on an ever-expanding scale, which 
means increased competition in all the Corporation's 
activities, declared General Sarnoff and Frank M. Folsom, 
president of RCA, in a joint statement in behalf of the 
Board of Directors. But competition, they pointed out, 
also means an expanding and more vigorous industry in 
which RCA continues to play a leading part. 

Continuing, they stated: "RCA, having pioneered 
and developed compatible television, is now pioneering 
its commercial development and is helping the industry 
in every way possible to bring this new service to the 
American people. 

"Dedicated to pioneering and research, the Corpo- 
ration will continue to build upon the foundation of 
science. The progress it is making contributes to the 
economy and welfare of the Nation and strengthens our 
national defense." 

In highlighting progress, the statement listed im- 
portant advances made by RCA in 1954 which will 
have a stimulating effect on progress of the electronic 
industry. Among these advances are: 

1. Twenty-one-inch color TV tube 

2. TV magnetic tape recorder 

3. Electronic light amplifier 

4. Electronic cooling system 

5. Electronic music synthesizer 

6. Electrofax: a new, simplified dry photographic 
process 

Plant Facilities 

Calling attention to improvement and expansion in 
manufacturing, the Report stated that RCA invested 
during the year approximately $30 million in additional 
plant and equipment facilities. This brought to approx- 
imately $143 million the RCA outlay on new and im- 



RAD/O AGE 3 




Another RCA Estate range nears completion at the 
Hamilton, Ohio, plant. 



proved manufacturing plant facilities since 1946. 

Enlargement of the RCA plant at Bloomington, 
Indiana, was completed early last year, making it one 
of the largest and most modern TV receiver manu- 
facturing plants in the world. Expansion is now under 
way in the RCA plant at Lancaster, Pa., to meet the 
demand for color TV picture tubes. On a 58-acre tract 
at Cherry Hill, near Camden, N. J., construction has 
been completed on new headquarters for sales, engineer- 
ing and administrative staffs of the Television Division, 
the Radio and "Victrola" Division and the RCA Service 
Company. 

Employees 

RCA now has 70,500 employees, an increase of 5,500 
over 1953. Wages and salaries paid in 1954, including 
payments for vacations and holidays, amounted to $298,- 
289,000. This represents 32 cents out of each sales 
dollar. An additional amount of $19,938,000 was pro- 
vided to cover employee pensions, social security, group 
insurance and other benefits. 

Suppliers 

Representative of teamwork in industry, RCA pur- 
chases materials and components from 7,500 suppliers 
located in almost every state in the Union. During 
1954, the Corporation paid $512,236,000 to other com- 



panies for materials and services it bought. This amount 
represents 54 cents out of each sales dollar. The ma- 
jority of the suppliers are classified by the Government 
as small businesses. Added to RCA's own suppliers are 
thousands of others who supply the suppliers. Thus 
through a long line of cooperative effort, employment 
is provided for countless people working in many diverse 
fields. 

Government Business 

The Report stated that RCA products and services 
supplied to the Armed Forces accounted for approxi- 
mately 24 per cent of the total sales in 1954. The back- 
log of Government orders at the year-end was in excess 
of $300,000,000. RCA scientists, engineers and tech- 
nicians are actively participating in projects relating to 
national defense, such as guided missiles, radar, com- 
munication and navigational equipment, it was stated. 

NBC Achievements 

The Report stated that sales of the National Broad- 
casting Company in 1954 established a new record and 
were 14.3 per cent higher than in 1953. 

Spot sales (purchase of time on a local basis by 
national advertisers) increased 28 per cent over 1953 
in television and 14 per cent in radio. Network tele- 
vision billings increased substantially. Network radio 
billings, however, showed a moderate decline in line 
with the industry trend. 

During 1954, the NBC television network expanded 
from 168 to 195 stations. Today, approximately 100 
NBC stations are equipped to broadcast color, making 
this new service available to an area comprising 90 per 
cent of the nation's television homes. The NBC radio 
network now includes 209 stations. 

Summary of Additional Activities 

The RCA Annual Report revealed a number of addi- 
tional activities that contributed to the record volume 
of business in 1954. These included: 

Television Sets — The RCA Victor Television Divi- 
sion, producing its five-millionth TV receiver, sold 
a greater number of TV sets in 1954 than in any 
previous year. 

Electronic Products — Sales of electronic apparatus 
for military and commercial application increased 
in 1954 by approximately 29 per cent over the 1953 
level. Among important factors were the expansion 
of broadcast facilities for black-and-white and color 
TV, wide-screen film projection and stereophonic 
sound for theaters, and increasing industrial use of 
microwave and other radio equipment. 



4 RADIO AGE 



J?sk± jft 



& '■■'J' 

■r I 

> r 



1 



/ ■ 



Adjusting a new picture tube for an RCA television set — one of the 5 million produced by RCA. 



Industrial Electronics — Electronic applications in 
industry expanded notably, with emphasis on closed- 
circuit television, electronic inspection and produc- 
tion-control equipment, and communications systems. 

Automation — A new era of "automation" ( auto- 
matic operation) is being opened in business and 
industry through the applications of electronics. RCA 
is engaged in an extensive program of research and 
engineering in this field. An automatic production 
machine is being built by RCA for use in manu- 
facturing a wide range of electronic apparatus. 

Weather Radar — In 1955, RCA will manufacture 
in commercial quantities a new type of airborne 
weather-detection radar equipment, which enables 
pilots to "see" through storms and select the safest 
airpaths. 

Electron Tubes — Increased use of electronic equip- 
ment during 1954 in such major fields as industry, 
communications, military operations and home enter- 
tainment expanded markets for electron tubes. 

Radio Sales — The vitality of radio was evidenced 
by over-all industry sales approaching 11 million 
sets. Clock-radios continue to have strong consumer 
demand. New portable radios are among other in- 
novations for 1955. 



Phonographs and Records — In 1954, RCA ex- 
tended its line of complete high fidelity "Victrola" 
phonographs by introducing a 45-rpm "hi-fi" table 
model and consolette. It also introduced a "45" 
record player that operates by sliding a record into 
a slot. Suggested list prices of RCA Victor popular 
and classical records were reduced by as much as 
40 per cent at the end of 1954. This reduction and 
the interest it created in records should help the 
industry reach a volume of more than $300,000,000 
in 1955. Sales of $225,000,000 in 1954 represented 
an increase of 10 per cent over the previous year. 

Home Appliances — Plans for 1955 include a new 
line of completely automatic RCA Estate gas and 
electric kitchen ranges. There are nine gas and seven 
electric ranges, in 30- and 40-inch models. Consumer 
acceptance of RCA room air conditioners continued 
at a high level in 1954. 

Foreign Trade — Sales of RCA products for home 
use and the expansion of microwaves in radio com- 
munications were among factors that contributed to 
1954 as a record-breaking year for the RCA Inter- 
national Division. RCA exports reached a new high 
level during the past year and featured the largest 
shipment of appliances ever made to the Middle East. 
RCA television equipment is in use in 18 countries 



RADIO AGE 5 



outside the United States; seventeen of Canada's 28 
television stations are RCA-equipped; a new RCA 
TV transmitter will be installed in Havana in 1955, 
making a total of six RCA TV installations in Cuba. 

Communications — RCA Communications com- 
pleted its 35th year in 1954, having processed more 
than 6,600,000 overseas messages during the year. 
This traffic volume, an increase of 3-5 per cent over 
1953, was handled by RCA's 86 radiotelegraph cir- 
cuits which link the United States with 68 countries 
and strategic areas around the world. There was a 
35 per cent increase in the number of Teleprinter 
Exchange Service (TEX) calls, providing customer- 
to-customer connections with 15 foreign points. 

Kadiomarine — Over-all business in the radiomarine 
communications field was somewhat lower in 1954, 
as compared with 1953, chiefly because of reduced 
activity in the maritime industry. New electronic 
products were introduced by the Radiomarine Cor- 
poration of America in a program to broaden markets. 

Maurice Evans starred in Shakespeare's "Macbeth" in 
one of NBC's most notable color TV presentations. 




Radio-Television Training — Students enrolled in 
the resident school of RCA Institutes numbered 
2,200 at the end of 1954, an increase of about seven 
per cent over the previous year. Of this number, 
1,000 are veterans of World War II and Korea, 
studying under the GI Bill of Rights. The Home 
Study Department's TV servicing course had 1,700 
students enrolled at year-end and more than 10,000 
students enrolled in a supplementary course on 
service color TV. 

Advances in Research 

The Annual Report recalled that on January 31, in 
an address before the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, General Sarnoff discussed four electronic 
developments now under way at RCA Laboratories — 
the television magnetic tape recorder, the electronic light 
amplifier, an electronic music synthesizer and an elec- 
tronic cooling system. 

Other scientific advances covered in the Report in- 
cluded: 

Development of a simplified color TV receiver using 
the RCA 21-inch color picture tube. This new 28-tube 
receiver uses abour one-third less circuitry than earlier 
models and requires less than 300 watts of power. 

Establishing through field tests that booster stations 
offer a practical means of extending UHF television 
coverage. 

Development of a new electron tube — - the Tacitron 
— having the possibility of use in many fields such as 
electronic computers and electronic industrial controls. 
Its primary use is to correct deficiencies which have 
restricted application of Thyratrons, used in electronic 
switch operations. 

Creation of the RCA Metrechon — a new type of 
electron tube — as a means of brightening the "blip" — 
or echo — for radar detection. 

Development of a new system called "Electrofax" 
for making copies of printed material. 

Improvement in design and operation of transistors. 

Development of a permanent-magnetic material, 
made from inexpensive oxides, to replace defense-critical 
materials in building permanent magnets which are 
essential components in many electronic instruments. 

General Sarnoff and Mr. Folsom praised members of 
the RCA organization, declaring: 

"We are proud of the splendid efforts of the entire 
staff and congratulate the 'RCA Family' on another year 
of outstanding achievement made possible by their in- 
dustrial teamwork, craftsmanship and over-all interest 
in the progress of the Corporation." 



6 RADIO AGE 



Major Developments of RCA Research 

Electronic Music Synthesizer, Cooling System, Light Amplifier, ami 
TV Tape Recorder are Described by Sarnoff to Electrical Engineers 



JL wo major new RCA research developments — an 
electronic music synthesizer and an electronic cooling 
system with no moving parts — were described by Brig. 
General David Sarnoff, Chairman of the Board of RCA, 
in an address on Jan. 31 before the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers at its annual convention in New 
York. 

Together with the disclosure of these new fruits of 
research, Gen. Sarnoff discussed two additional RCA 
developments of major promise for the future — the 
electronic light amplifier and the magnetic tape re- 
corder for television and motion pictures. He stated 
to the AIEE, of which he is a Fellow, that the motive 
for discussion of these developments publicly in their 
present experimental stage, before they are ready com- 
mercially, was his belief that competition can be as 
"stimulating in research as in manufacturing and mer- 
chandising." 

Calling special attention to the RCA Electronic 
Music Synthesizer, because this was the first time that it 
had been publicly disclosed, General Sarnoff said that 
the scientists and engineers of RCA Laboratories have 
created an electronic system capable of generating any 
tone produced by the human voice or any musical 
instrument, as well as any musical tone which is beyond 
the capabilities of a voice or conventional musical in- 
strument. It is a means, he said, for producing elec- 
tronically, an infinity of new musical complexes em- 
ploying the sound of human voices and conventional 
instruments, or tones that may never before have been 
heard, either in solo performance or blended in any 
desired orchestral arrangement. 

Advantages of the Synthesizer 

"This new system of making music should encourage 
musical composers to write new compositions that can 
take advantage of the wider scope and superior char- 
acteristics offered them by electronics for the expression 
of their genius," said General Sarnoff. "In this new 
role, electronics performs in marked contrast to the 
musician whose playing is limited to the use of ten 
fingers and sometimes also the two feet. 

"This electronic instrument also offers new oppor- 
tunities for production of phonograph records, since it 
can produce any kind of sound that can be imagined. 




Dr. Harry F. Olson, background, and Herbert Belar, de- 
velopers of the RCA Electronic Music Synthesizer, are 
shown with the system at the David Sarnoff Research 
Center of RCA, Princeton, N. J. 

Further, with this new system, old recordings can be 
rejuvenated into new phonograph records free from 
distortion and noise. 

"It is not necessary that a composer be able to play 
a musical instrument, for whatever musical effects he 
wants to create he can achieve by use of the synthesizer. 

"But the vital factors of correct 'interpretation' of the 
music written by the composer — the heart, the soul and 
the mood of the composition — continue to be the task 
and function of the human being who synthesizes the 
music from the score. That person must be a good 
musician. In the hands of a great musician the electronic 
synthesizer can create great music." 

Demonstrating the scope and possibilities of the 
music synthesizer, General Sarnoff's address was illus- 
trated by a film showing the system in operation. The 
motion picture was supplemented by a magnetic tape 
recording of synthesized music made by engineers at 



RADIO AGE 7 



RCA Laboratories in Princeton and played before the 
audience present at the meeting. 

Variety of Instruments Simulated 
The musical selections from which excerpts were 
synthesized and the musical instruments simulated in- 
cluded, "Well-Tempered Clavier" by Bach, clavichord; 
"Polonaise" by Chopin, piano; "Clair de Lune" by 
Debussy, piano; "Hungarian Dance No. 1" by Brahms, 
an engineer's conception with no instrument simulated; 
"Holy Night" by Adams, electric organ; "Home Sweet 
Home" by Bishop, an engineer's conception and no 
instrument simulated; medley of Foster tunes, hillbilly 
band; "Nola" by Arndt, imaginary piano-like instru- 
ment, and "Blue Skies" by Berlin, orchestra. 

General Sarnoff said that at his invitation Alfred 
Wallenstein, Conductor of the Los Angeles Symphony 
Orchestra, had recently visited the RCA Laboratories 
and observed the system in operation. Mr. Wallenstein 
heralded the music synthesizer as "a veritable fountain 
of inspiration and new ideas." 

"Indeed, the entire world of sound can be tapped for 
the creation of yet unheard musical forms," he said. 

The Anniversary "Presents" 

Declaring that his own faith in the creative abilities 
of scientists and engineers has been boundless, General 
Sarnoff told also of RCA progress in three other elec- 
tronic developments: an electronic cooling system, an 
electronic light amplifier, and a television magnetic tape 
recorder. These, it will be recalled, are the three "anni- 
versary presents" which, in September 1951, he had 
asked scientists at the David Sarnoff Research Center in 
Princeton to produce by September, 1956. The latter 
date will mark his fifty years of service in radio. 

General Sarnoff announced that an electronic air 
conditioner, designed without any moving parts, motors 
or compressors — in fact, a noiseless machine as re- 
quired in the home — is on the way and encouraging 
progress is being made in RCA Laboratories. In effect, 
he said, it is an all-electronic cooling system, and as 
evidence of progress he presented the film of a small 
electronic refrigerator, the first result of research in 
this new field. 

He declared that it is believed to be the first re- 
frigerator to achieve practical storage and freezing 
temperatures entirely by electronic means, although the 
principle upon which it operates was discovered by 
the French physicist Jean Charles Peltier more than 120 
years ago. Peltier observed that passage of an electric 
current through the junction of two dissimilar materials 
produces a cooling or heating effect in the region of the 
junction, depending upon the direction of the current. 

"This so-called 'Peltier effect' has long been a scien- 



tific curiosity chiefly because of the lack of materials 
capable of producing temperatures sufficiently low for 
practical use in cooling or refrigeration," said General 
Sarnoff. "Unlike Peltier, Lord Kelvin, and others who 
studied this effect, the RCA scientists were able to 
approach the task with new knowledge provided by 
recent studies in solid-state physics. Their research in 
this field, shed new light on the behavior of electrons 
in solid materials, and provided new information which 
has led to success in creating new materials. The dis- 
covery of Peltier has now been translated into practical 
application. Our continuing search for improved mate- 
rials so far has revealed no evidence that a limit has 
been reached." 

In still another new field, RCA scientists and engi- 
neers have made substantial progress in the development 
of an electronic light amplifier, General Sarnoff declared. 
He said that he has already seen an experimental RCA 
light amplifier that gives light amplification in ratios 
of more than 20 to 1. 

"When that ratio reaches 100 to 1, a practical am- 
plifier of light will be at hand," he added. "We will 
also have made a significant advance in the science of 
illumination for lighting and for television picture 
reproduction." 

Pointing to another accomplishment in electronics, 
General Sarnoff said that the RCA TV magnetic tape 
recorder, as a major step into a new era of "electronic 
photography," is now being installed for field tests in 
the National Broadcasting Company. 

"This new type of tape recorder," he said, "can pro- 
vide useful services not only in television broadcasting 
but also in the motion picture and theatre industry, in 
home entertainment and education, and industry in 
general. An unlimited number of copies of tape record- 
ings can be made quickly and economically. The re- 
corded tapes can be preserved indefinitely or electroni- 
cally 'wiped off' and reused again and again. 

"Television tape recorders for home use are certain 
to be developed in the future. These will enable the 
TV set owner to accumulate a library of favorite tele- 
vision programs which can be seen whenever desired, 
in the same way that a library of phonograph records 
now makes it possible to hear favorite records at will." 

Stimulus of Competition 

Amplifying his philosophy that competition is as 
stimulating in research as in manufacturing and mer- 
chandising, General Sarnoff said: 

"As members of a profession deeply concerned with 
scientific research and pioneering development, you are 
well aware that the number of people willing to risk 
their money in research and pioneering is very small 



8 RADIO AGE 




Nils E. Lindenblad, who directed development of RCA's 
electronic cooling system at the David Sarnoff Research 
Center, points out a feature of the experimental elec- 
tronic refrigerator. 

compared with those who are ready to risk their capital 
in established enterprises operating profitably. 

"In television and in other instances — where the 
information is not 'classified' and does not involve our 
national security — RCA has continually made progress 
reports and released information that enabled others not 
only to catch up but at times even to move ahead of us. 
We welcome competition. It spurs our own activities 
and increases the possibilities for earlier achievement of 
desired results. 

"For instance, our faith and persistence in pioneer- 
ing television — first, black-and-white, and then, color 
— and our encouragement to others to get into the 
field, led to its present state of development which 
otherwise the American public might not have enjoyed 
for another ten years. 

"Whether we succeed in completing an invention 
before others whom we stimulate to work along similar 
lines, is not as important as it is to bring a new product 
or a new service into existence and use. In helping 
industry to grow and prosper, we believe that we con- 
tribute to the public benefit and in the long run, our 
own as well. If an organizarion is to progress it must 
not stand in fear of obsolescence or competition." 



Alliance of Science and the Arts 

Commenting on the alliance of science and the arts 
brought on by the new developments in electronics, 
General Sarnoff urged the engineers to join forces with 
the artists and seek an understanding of the terminology 
and problems of each other in order to advance together. 

"If you will form an intellectual camaraderie," he 
continued, "and arrive at a common language with your 
colleagues in the arts so that they can learn how to 
make full use of science and technology, you will see 
the fruits of your genius bloom in the vineyards of the 
cultural arts. 

"For more than a quarter of a century, the entertain- 
ment arts have felt the magic touch of Electronics. As 
a result, music, drama, motion pictures, the phonograph 
and even journalism have taken on new dimensions. New 
interest has been created in them and their audiences 
have multiplied from thousands to millions. 

"Medical men must also become better acquainted 
with the scientists and engineers in many phases of 
atomics and electronics so that the isotopes, color tele- 
vision, electron microscopy and similar developments 
can be applied effectively and quickly for the welfare 
of mankind and the extension of life's span. 

"For the good of America and the world in general, 
the arts and sciences are challenged to work together 
and bring their respective talents and skills into focus. 
In effect, men of science and the arts must play on the 
same team and understand each other's signals so they 
can score together." 



T 

JLh 



RCAs Aviation Systems Laboratory 
Is Dedicated at Waltbam, Mass. 



.he new aviation Systems Laboratory of RCA in 
Waltham, Mass., devoted to the development of special- 
ized electronic fire-control systems for military aircraft, 
was opened formally on March 7 with a dinner attended 
by leaders in the Boston area. 

Theodore A. Smith, Vice-President and General Man- 
ager, RCA Engineering Products Division, who was the 
principal speaker at the dinner, told the guests that the 
establishment of the new laboratory emphasizes the vital 
importance of systems engineering to national defense. 

"RCA is one of the major contributors to the re- 
search, development and production programs of the 
Department of Defense," he said. "As the complexity 
of today's military aircraft increases, RCA is building and 
maintaining a dynamic electronic research and develop- 
ment organization devoted to the analysis and solution 
of the most complex scientific problems associated with 
airborne fire control." 



RADIO AGE 9 



How They Work . . . 

Electronic Music; Electronic Cooling 




These pictures show two key elements of the RCA Elec- 
tronic Music Synthesizer: above, the master keyboard 
and punched paper record that controls output of the 
system; below, the recording system, with which tones 
are recorded separately on the upper disk and combined 
on the lower one. 




The RCA Electronic Music Synthesizer and the 
RCA Electronic Cooling System, two widely diverse 
products of research at RCA Laboratories, attracted 
nation-wide attention on Jan. 31 when they were first 
described publicly by Brig. General David Sarnoff. 
Both were heralded by press and radio as developments 
of major significance in their respective fields. In view 
of the wide interest aroused, and the importance of 
these new systems, a more complete description is pre- 
sented here of the principles upon which they operate. 

THE RCA ELECTRONIC MUSIC 
SYNTHESIZER 

The Electronic Music Synthesizer, developed at the 
David Sarnoff Research Center of RCA, under the direc- 
tion of Dr. Harry F. Olson, is an infinitely versatile 
system for producing entirely by electronic means any 
known or imaginable tone or combination of tones. 

Operation of the Synthesizer is based upon the fact 
that all sound can be broken down into a set of clearly 
defined physical characteristics each of which can be 
generated by electronic means. These characteristics 
are: frequency or pitch; intensity or loudness; growth 
to full intensity; duration at full intensity, and decay. 
Two additional characteristics possessed by many in- 
struments and the human voice are portamento, or glide 
from one tone to another, and vibrato. 

The Electronic Music Synthesizer has been equipped 
with circuits capable of generating each of these char- 
acteristics and combining them in any desired fashion, 
and with any desired rhythmic pattern. Unlike con- 
ventional musical instruments, however, it has no in- 
herent physical limitations, and it requires no physical 
dexterity on the part of the performer, composer or 
engineer. As a result, a composer or musician, working 
with the Synthesizer, can create any musical effect he 
wishes to achieve, whether or not he is able to play an 
instrument. 

How the Synthesizer Operates 

The system is controlled by a coded paper record 
that is punched out by an operator at a keyboard re- 
sembling that of a teletype machine. The keys are 
arranged in five groups controlling note selection, 



10 RADIO AGE 



octave selection, timbre, volume, and growth, duration 
and decay. As the keys are touched, holes are punched 
in the paper tape. The resulting code, driven mechan- 
ically at speeds up to 5 inches a second, passes beneath 
brushes through which the information is passed to the 
appropriate circuits. 

The output of the Synthesizer is normally cut into 
a phonograph disk recording. The recording system 
consists of a lateral cutter and a conventional 33J/3 
RPM turntable which is coupled to the driving mech- 
anism of the coded paper record to synchronize the 
two operations. 

The Synthesizer is limited to production of a series 
of single tones, such as the tone of one wind instrument, 
one string of a string instrument, or one key of a 
keyboard instrument. This means that in simulating 
an orchestra or any combination of instruments, each 
must be synthesized separately, and the tones later 
combined on the recording to achieve the orchestral 
effect. 

The Synthesizer's 16-inch disk record can accom- 
modate six three-minute recordings. After these have 
been made, representing six different single-tone series, 
they are combined into a single recording. The process 
of combination may be carried on indefinitely to 
achieve any number of instruments desired in the 
orchestra. 

This method of individual recording allows the 
operator to work upon each instrumental effect as it 
is recorded until he is satisfied with the performance. 
It also permits the levels of sound to be adjusted indi- 
vidually until the required total effect has been attained. 



Ice produced in the freezing compartment of the RCA 

experimental electronic refrigerator is extracted here by 

Nils E. Lindenblad. 




min ii in i Hi 



Once these requirements have been met, the effect is 
retained on the coded paper record and may be re- 
played indefinitely in exactly the same form. 

THE RCA ELECTRONIC 
COOLING SYSTEM 

A system for cooling by electronic means has been 
developed by an RCA Laboratories team headed by 
Nils E. Lindenblad, motivated by General Sarnoff's re- 
quest for an all-electronic air conditioner as a gift to 
mark the fiftieth anniversary next year of his association 
with radio. 

To demonstrate the progress being made in this 
phase of the research program, the RCA scientists con- 
structed what is believed to be the first refrigerator ever 
to operate effectively in a room temperature environ- 
ment entirely by electronic means. 

The cooling system demonstrated in the refrigerator 
produces low enough temperatures to freeze an appre- 
ciable amount of water to ice and to provide cool 
storage for perishable foods as rapidly as many standard 
electric refrigerating systems. 

The freezing and cooling operations are accom- 
plished by tiny thermojunctions, which absorb and 
remove heat from the cooling compartments when 
electric current is applied. The heat transferred from 
one end to the other of these thermojunctions is carried 
away by a flow of water through the system. Since 
there are no moving parts, the system operates in 
complete silence. 

Principle is 120 Years Old 
The principle upon which the system operates has 
been familiar to scientists for more than 120 years, 
since the discovery by the French physicist Jean Charles 
Peltier that passage of an electric current through a 
junction of two dissimilar materials produces a cooling 
or heating effect in the region of the junction, depend- 
ing upon the direction of the current. 

Using new knowledge provided by research into 
the behavior of electrons in solid materials, the RCA 
research team succeeded in creating new materials 
capable of achieving a substantially greater drop in 
temperature than in any previously published experi- 
ments. Prior to the RCA research program, the best 
performance known to have been achieved with the 
so-called Peltier effect was a lowering of temperature 
by 9° Centigrade (equivalent to 16.2° Fahrenheit). 
The new alloys developed at RCA Laboratories and 
used in the refrigerator achieve a drop several times 
greater, and a continuing quest for improved materials 
so far has discovered no indication that a limit has 
been reached. 

RADIO AGE n 




Home of electronic progress — RCA's David Sarnoff Research Center, Princeton, N. J. 



RCA Asks Court to Dismiss 
Government Anti -Trust Suit 



R 



.adio Corporation of America, in an answer 
filed on March 29 in United States District Court in 
New York to a Government civil anti-trust complaint 
filed November 19, 1954, said that RCA's patent licens- 
ing policies have been "a major factor in the spectacular 
growth of the electronics industry, including the radio- 
television industry, and the pre-eminence of the United 
States in that industry." 

Branding the Government's request for relief as 
"unreasonable, unnecessary and contrary to the public 
interest," RCA denied each and every allegation in the 
complaint charging violation of the Sherman Act and 
asked the court to dismiss the suit. 

Electronics is today the fastest growing and most 
dynamic industry in the world, the answer said, and any 
charges that RCA "has in any way restrained the elec- 
tronics industry, including the radio-television industry, 
ignore the facts." On the contrary, it was stated, RCA 
has pioneered and been responsible for the creation and 
expansion of much of this industry. 

Pointing out that it "has been in the forefront in all 
major industry advances, from the beginning of sound 
radio and broadcasting, through black-and-white televi- 
sion and now color television," the Corporation stated 
that its policies have meant more and better radio and 
television sets for the consuming public at lower prices. 



RCA declared that its leadership has been "leadership 
by example, not by control in any way, shape or form. 

"If RCA's leadership has been followed," RCA con- 
tended, "it is because RCA's courage, vision and fore- 
sight have been right and RCA has acted in the best 
interests of the industry and the public, and not through 
any dominance, restraint or control." 

Flatly denying allegations in the complaint charging 
RCA with "package licensing," or compelling any pro- 
spective licensee to accept a license under more patents 
than he wants, RCA said that: "it grants patent licenses 
to competitors and others on reasonable and non-dis- 
criminatory terms and without restriction." 

Describing the license agreements the answer stated 
that RCA's "licenses contain no restrictions as to price, 
quantity, territory, or anything else, require no minimum 
royalty, and are offered under any one or more patents 
and for any apparatus as may be desired by any prospec- 
tive licensee." 

The answer continued: "RCA's present royalty rates 
are further reduced, now being only Vi of 1 percent 
for radio broadcast receivers using tubes, U/8 percent 
for radio broadcast receivers using transistors, l 1 /* per- 
cent for black-and-white television receivers, 1% percent 
for color television receivers, 1*4 percent for electron 
tubes other than color tubes, 1 M percent for color tubes, 



72 RADIO AGE 



2 percent for color television commercial apparatus ex- 
cept government apparatus, 1 V\2 percent for other com- 
mercial apparatus except government apparatus, and 1 
percent for all commercial apparatus manufactured for 
government use. 

"All RCA license agreements provide for various 
deductions which make the actual rates even lower. 
Moreover, RCA royalty rates are based on the manufac- 
turer's selling price. Applied to retail selling prices to 
the public, these royalty rates are substantially cut in 
half. 

"The fact that RCA's royalty rates compare most 
favorably with those of other licensors in this or any 
other industry is beyond dispute. 

"In return for these reasonable royalty rates, licensees 
have the privilege of obtaining a license under, or using, 
any one or more patents under which RCA has the right 
to grant licenses. This licensing policy has resulted in 
licensees of RCA having complete freedom to manufac- 
ture apparatus in competition with RCA under any and 
all patents available to RCA, to the extent to which RCA 
has the right to grant such licenses. No royalties are 
payable on any apparatus under any license agreement 
granted by RCA unless the apparatus uses patents 
licensed by RCA." 

Progress of the Industry 

To substantiate the fact that RCA has not restrained 
the industry in any way, the answer to the Government's 
complaint said: 

"Sales in the electronics industry, including the radio- 
television industry, following the termination of wartime 
restrictions demonstrate its vitality, rapid growth and 
freedom from the monopoly and resrraint alleged. 

"From the mere handful of companies and the rela- 
tively small amount of capital which made up the elec- 
tronics industry in the early days, the industry has con- 
tinuously expanded. Today there are literally thousands 
of companies in which billions of dollars have been in- 
vested engaged in this industry." 

It was stated that today a very large number of 
independent companies are now manufacturing and sell- 
ing television receivers and all of these companies are 
in open and active competition with RCA and with one 
another. 

The industry's sales of radio and television receivers, 
RCA pointed out, increased from $54,400,000 in 1932 
to $1,470,000,000 in 1953, a percentage increase of 
more than two and one-half thousand percent. 

RCA admits that "more people buy RCA television 
receivers than any other make of television receiver and 
that more station owners buy RCA television transmis- 



sion equipment than any other make. RCA further avers 
that in all of the categories of radio and television equip- 
ment there is intense and effective competition." 

Reporting that as of January 1, 1955, there were 
128,900,000 radio sets and 33,816,000 television re- 
ceivers in the United States, RCA said that its policy 
"has contributed substantially to the ever-increasing num- 
ber of radio and television receivers in the hands of the 
American public and to a continual lowering of the price 
of such receivers." 

It was pointed out that during 1951 RCA spent on 
research and developmenr a sum in excess of the amount 
received by it in royalty payments and that under its 
patent licenses it made the fruits of such research and 
development available to the electronics industry. In 
addition, the RCA answer pointed out that it makes 
substantial payments to others for the rights to use 
patents developed through their research and develop- 
ment in competition with RCA. 

Cross-Licenses Enabled Industry to Develop 

RCA traced its history from 1919 when it was 
formed "at the urgent request of the United States Gov- 
ernment in order to free American communications from 
foreign domination and to create a new American radio 
company." 

In order to accomplish this objective, it was necessary 
to set up various patent cross-licenses with General Elec- 
tric Company, American Telephone and Telegraph Com- 
pany, Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 
and others because no one could manufacture or use 
{Continued on page 30) 



Through symposia such as this on RCA's first commercial 
color TV receiver, RCA has shared the results of its re- 
search with the electronics industry. 




Electronic Developments of Future will Reshape 
Society and Economy of Nations, Folsom Says 



M 



Lodern electronics, descended from many of the 
early electrical discoveries of Benjamin Franklin, will in 
the future "reshape the social and economic structure of 
many countries of the world," Frank M. Folsom, Presi- 
dent of RCA, told a Philadelphia audience on February 
22. 

The occasion was the presentation to Mr. Folsom and 
to Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, USN ( Ret.) of Good 
Citizenship Awards for 1955 of the Philadelphia Chap- 
ter, Sons of the American Revolution. The awards are 
presented annually for outstanding contributions to 
science, statesmanship and public welfare. 

In his acceptance speech, Mr. Folsom linked the polar 
exploration activities of Admiral Byrd to advances in 
electronics to emphasize the speed with which electronic 
science has developed on the basis of the infinitely tiny 
particle which is the electron. He said: 

"Like snowrlakes pile up to help form the great polar 
icecaps, so too, tiny electrons — billions and billions of 
them — have built up the vast new electronics industry. 
Today this new industry is six times larger than it was 
in 1947, when television first became a commercial 
reality. 

"With the advent of color television, the long and 
growing list of new electronic products and services 
includes industrial TV, theatre television, radar, new 
types of communications apparatus, electronic computers 
and transistors. The electronics industry is undergoing 
an expansion that may be regarded as high tribute to 
the men who have pioneered this fascinating art and 
science. 

Expansion So Far Only the Beginning 

"Yet this expansion appears to be little more than 
the beginning. In the years ahead, increasing use of 
electronic products and services will reshape the social 
and economic structure of many countries of the world. 
America, as the scene of the most extensive pioneering 
and development of electronics, is well on its way to vast 
and beneficial changes through application of this mod- 
ern science, its ingenious devices and techniques. 

"Electronics can now serve in many fields. Besides 
being perhaps the greatest boon to communications, it 
promises new efficiency in manufacturing, product con- 
trol, clerical operations, and transportation. It offers new 
aids to health, safety and public welfare. Its techniques 




Rear Adm. Richard E. Byrd, USN (Ret.), and Frank M. 

Folsom, President of RCA, shown as they received Good 

Citizenship Awards for 1955 of the Philadelphia Chapter, 

Sons of the American Revolution. 

can relieve men of routine and drudgery and effect enor- 
mous savings in time, money and materials." 

Recalling the work of Benjamin Franklin, whom he 
called "a great Philadelphian," Mr. Folsom paid tribute 
to his "inspired work in electricity — forerunner of elec- 
tronics." 

Quoting a letter from Franklin to John Priestley in 
1780 predicting transportation in defiance of gravity, 
higher agricultural productivity, the prevention and cure 
of many diseases, and a lengthening of the human life 
span, Mr. Folsom said: 

"During the years that have passed since his letter 
to Priestley, great, indeed, has been the progress of true 
science. Thousands of people, mail and cargoes now are 
transported through the air with amazing ease; agricul- 
ture has diminished its burdens of labor and greatly 
multiplied its production. The span of life has been 
lengthened and many diseases prevented or cured. Won- 
drous means of communications have made it possible to 
spread ideas, news and information from nation to nation 
at the speed of light." 



U RADIO AGE 



Non-breakable Plastic Case Is Novel Feature 
of 1955 RCA Victor Portable Radios 



A 



NEW TYPE of portable radio whose plastic case is 
so rugged that it is guaranteed against breakage for five 
years was introduced to dealers and distributors in mid- 
February by the RCA Victor Radio and "Victrola 
Division. 

The new case, named the "Impac," passed exhaustive 
tests to prove its non-breakable quality, including numer- 
ous trials of weight and impact. The results, it was stated 
by James M. Toney, General Manager of the Division, 
proved the case to be so tough that RCA Victor is able 
to back it with the first guarantee of its kind ever 
offered in the radio industry. 

The public is expected to buy some 1,500,000 port- 
able radios this year, according to recent market surveys. 
Mr. Toney, emphasizing this prospect, said that the 
"Impac" case is "one of the greatest, if not the greatest, 
development in radio history." As such, he added, this 
year's RCA Victor portables are expected to be the 
fastest-selling merchandise in the prospective market. 

The rugged new case encloses five of the new port- 
able radios in the 1955 RCA Victor line. The "Impac" 
models range in suggested list price from $27.95 to 
S49.95. 




The new RCA portable radios, featuring the extremely 
rugged "Impac" line. 



A, 



Communications of the Future 



ADVANCES in communications based on current 
laboratory developments will bring into use picture- 
frame television, machines and systems that respond to 
the spoken word, and electronic systems capable of 
scheduling production and controlling manufacturing 
and commercial processes, according to Dr. E. W. Eng- 
strom, Executive Vice-President, RCA Research and 
Engineering. 

In a talk in New York to the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, Dr. Engstrom predicted that the 
most significant future communications developments 
would take place in four areas, which he identified as: 

Solid-state devices, 

Advances in personal communications. 

More efficient use of communication channels, 

Data handling machines for business and industry. 

The impact of the advances to come within the next 
75 years, he said, make it necessary for "both the scien- 



tist and the engineer to become familiar with, and to 
develop skills in, areas broader than the technology for 
which they are basically trained." 

"The scientist-engineer relationship must be broad- 
ened to include the arts, the humanities, and politics," 
he said. "These will be the needs in the future in order 
that the scientist and engineer may discharge with 
competence their growing responsibilities." 

Concluding, Dr. Engstrom said: 

"The advances made and the even greater ones to 
come in the varied spheres of communication can serve 
to promote greater harmony and understanding among 
all peoples. Increased communications can be a means 
to a oneness of spirit and purpose. In order that this 
might be achieved, we need to be sure that we and our 
systems and circuits of communications are attuned 
with, and include, the Creator of all. This, too, is 
good engineering." 



RADIO AGE 15 




How RCA Victor Records Are Made 




T. 



.ECHN1CAL skill is blended with artistic talent to 
produce RCA Victor records, representing the finest in 
recorded music. These scenes show the steps involved in 
record production at RCA Victor Record Division facili- 
ties in New York and Indianapolis, Ind. 

1. In the recording studio, an engineer adjusts con- 
trols to achieve proper balance as sound is recorded on 
tape. 2. From tape, music is re-recorded on discs. Here 
grooves are being cut in the disc's plastic surface. 

3. From a master disc, a mold is made. This show how 
mold is carefully separated by hand from the master. 

4. From the mold, a nickel stamper is made for press- 
ing records. Here the operator uses a microscope to 
center the stamper accurately. 5. A thin layer of chrom- 
ium is spread over the stamper to help it resist scratches 
and abrasions. 6. Plastic sheet, the raw material for 
discs, is broken into forms like these en route to the 
pressing room. 7. Stampers, plastic, and paper labels meet 
in the pressing room, where an operator, as shown here, 
can turn out a molded record every few seconds. 8. At 
regular intervals, a record from each press is inspected, 
by listening on high-fidelity equipment. 9. The finished 
product, another RCA New Orthophonic High Fidelity 
Sound recording, is placed in its colorful package as it 
leaves the RCA Victor plant. 





A Tribute to the TV Serviceman 



N. 



ATIonal Television Servicemen's Week, a 
nation-wide tribute to the 100,000 technicians who 
service the 34,500,000 television sets of the American 
public, was inaugurated on March 7 at the close of 
NBC's unprecedented color telecast of "Peter Pan." 

With 62 stations of the NBC network carrying the 
filmed ceremony in color and 13 more stations in black- 
and-white, W. Walter Watts, RCA Executive Vice- 
President, Electronic Products, presented a symbolic 
statuette to Robert Hester, of Mission, Kansas. Mr. 
Hester was chosen to represent the country's TV tech- 
nicians because of the location of his service business 
near the television geographical center of the United 
States. 

The statuette is a 14-inch gold-finished figure of a 
man holding aloft the symbol of electronics. The figure 
stands on a black plastic base inscribed with an RCA 
dedication to TV technicians. 

Purpose is Public Recognition 

The idea of a National Television Servicemen's 
Week was originated by RCA as a public recognition 
of the contributions of technicians to the establishment 
of television as a national service. In order to make the 
"Peter Pan" colorcast and the statuette presentation 
ceremony available to the maximum number of viewers, 
RCA arranged for the placement of RCA 21 -inch color 
TV sets in key cities throughout the nation. Nearly 
4,000 personnel from RCA distributors were invited to 
viewing rooms to witness the 2 -hour broadcast as guests 
of RCA sales representatives in the various areas. 

In addition, RCA is awarding prizes totalling $10,000 
to radio-TV service dealers responsible for the most 
effective promotions of National Television Service- 
men's Week in their respective neighborhoods. The 
prizes include complete sets of five RCA test instru- 
ments for color TV servicing, one set to be awarded in 
each of the company's eight sales regions. 

Survey Shows Attitude Toward Serviceman 
In connection with the Week, E. C. Cahill, President 
of the RCA Service Company, announced on March 9 
that a survey completed by Elmo Roper indicated that 
a great majority of the nation's TV set owners are more 
than pleased with the promptness, quality, prices and 
courtesy of TV service technicians. 

The survey, sponsored by the RCA Service Com- 
pany and the Consumer Products divisions of RCA, 
showed that 80 per cent of the families interviewed plan 

18 RADIO AGE 



to continue in the future with the same service com- 
pany they now employ. Other questions in the survey 
showed that 79 per cent of all service calls were answered 
within three days, and that 87 per cent of the persons 
interviewed were satisfied with the prices charged. 

"These findings, made public during observance of 
National Television Servicemen's Week, are a mighty 
tribute to the integrity and spirit of the more than 
100,000 highly-trained and skilled technicians who in- 
stall and maintain television receivers in America's 
homes," Mr. Cahill said. 

The latest survey is the seventh annual study of its 
kind conducted by the Roper organization for RCA. 
Undertaken and carried out on a scientific, impartial and 
nation-wide sampling basis of approximately 5,000 fam- 
ilies, the survey was described by Mr. Cahill as the most 
extensive ever carried out to determine authentic public 
feeling toward technicians. 

"Naturally, we are pleased with the results of the 
findings," Mr. Cahill added. "Not only is the RCA 
Service Company proud of the record of its service 
technicians, but we are proud to be associated with 
an industry which has in its ranks the thousands of 
trained and reliable independent technicians that make 
up the entire electronics service business. If this most 
recent survey proves any one point, it is that the record 
of the country's TV service technicians warrants con- 
tinued public confidence in their work — and I am sure 
the industry will continue to provide just as good service 
in the future as it has in the past." 



W. Walter Watts, right, Executive Vice-President, RCA 
Electronic Products, is shown presenting a symbolic statu- 
ette to TV Serviceman Robert Hester, of Mission, Kan., in 
ceremony telecast over NBC network on March 7 to mark 
National TV Servicemen's Week. 




This Tube Can Translate Code at— 




100,000 Words a Minute 



NEW ELECTRON-IMAGE tube that can translate 
coded signals from tape, keyboard or radio into clearly- 
defined letters and figures at speeds up to 100,000 words 
per minute for high-speed photographic recording has 
been announced by RCA. 

The new tube, developed at the David Sarnoff Re- 
search Center of RCA Laboratories at Princeton, N. J., 
fills an acute need for high-speed printing devices 
operating directly from data in coded form. When it 
achieves commercial form, its initial application is 
likely in electronic message transmission and computing 
systems. Further development is expected to fit it for 
wider application in general printing as an electronic 
means of typesetting. 

In operation, the tube simulates typesetting in 
selecting letters and figures one by one from a "font" 
and placing them in luminous form on the 5-inch cir- 
cular tube face either in lines or in any pattern desired. 
The ability to place the characters where they are 
wanted gives the tube wide flexibility for such tasks as 
producing financial statements, balance sheets and bills, 
where letters and figures must be placed in various 
positions on a form. 

The "font" from which characters are selected is a 
lantern slide bearing a chart of letters and figures which 
are projected from outside the tube onto a sensitive 
layer at the rear of the tube. Any of a variety of slides 
may be used, permitting selection from a wide range 
of type styles for reproduction on the tube face. 

How the Tube Operates 

The new image tube was developed by Warren H. 
Bliss and John E. Ruedy under the supervision of C. J. 
Young and Dr. G. A. Morton, of the technical staff at 
the David Sarnoff Research Center. It is 25 inches long 
and resembles in appearance the cathode-ray tubes used 
in oscilloscopes. Its operation, however, is substantially 
different. 

The layer at the rear onto which the slide is projected 
consists of photo-emissive material, which emits a 
stream of electrons in the pattern of the projected 
letters and figures. The electron stream, carrying all of 
this information, is accelerated forward in the tube by a 
voltage applied to the wall coating of the tube. 

The selection of letters and figures in the required 
order is accomplished with a tiny aperture at the neck 
of the tube, permitting only one character at a time to 




The new RCA electron image tube that converts code to 

words and figures at high speed is adjusted by Warren 

H. Bliss at the David Sarnoff Research Center. 

pass through. As the electron stream moves toward the 
aperture, a magnetic deflection coil around the outside 
of the tube shifts the stream so that the desired character 
passes through the aperture and speeds toward the tube 
face. Another set of magnetic coils then focuses and 
deflects the character to its proper place on the face, 
where it appears in visible form on a phosphor screen 
like those used in television picture tubes. As many as 
4,000 characters have been produced clearly in a single 
pattern on the 5-inch tube face. The second set of coils 
is capable, however, of varying the size of the letters 
and figures on the screen if enlargements are required. 

The entire process of selecting the character, passing 
it through the aperture and placing it in the right 
location on the tube face can take place at speeds up to 
10,000 letters a second, depending upon the rate at which 
coded information is fed into the circuits controlling 
the tube. 

The source of the coded information can be per- 
forated paper tape, magnetic tape, wire or radio signals, 
keyboard selection, or an electronic storage unit such 
as a magnetic memory. In tests of the tube at the RCA 
Laboratories, the source has been a perforated tape like 
those used in teleprinter circuits. In any case, the coded 
input can control both the selection of the characters 
and their location on the face of the tube. 



RAD/O AGE 19 



'Peter Pan 99 — An Unforgettable Evening 






Peter Pan, Wendy and her brothers fly to Neverland. Wires were invisible to television viewers. 



X 



he LARGEST audience ever assembled to watch a 
television program on a single network — 67,300,000 
viewers — tuned their sets to NBC channels across 
the country on March 7 to watch Peter Pan come to 
life through the enchanting art of Mary Martin. 

From 7:30 to 9:30 p.m., EST, the adventures of 
Peter and Wendy in Neverland, brought straight from 
a highly successful run on Broadway to the color 
studios of NBC in Brooklyn, held an almost exclusive 
place on color and black-and-white TV screens. Thou- 
sands of parties were organized, under the auspices of 
parent-teacher associations, TV stations, Ford and RCA- 
Victor dealers and neighborhood groups, just to watch 
the program. Color sets were placed in hospital wards 
in many large cities so that bedridden children and 
adults might also be sprinkled with Peter Pan's magic 
fairy dust. 

Press reception of the program was perhaps the most 

20 RADIO AGE 



uniformly enthusiastic ever aroused by a television show. 
An editorial in the New York Herald Tribune, com- 
menting on the program, said: "Having put on 'Peter 
Pan' so brilliantly, the television industry is entitled to 
take its bows." Some examples from the nation's lead- 
ing TV critics: 

''100 Per Cent Enchantment" 

"Last night's presentation of Mary Martin as 'Peter 
Pan' was a joy ... an unforgettable evening of video 
theatre." — Jack Gould, New York Times. 

"Just about 100 per cent enchantment ... as close 
to perfection as we've got yet; conceivably the most 
polished, finished and delightful show that has ever been 
on television." — John Crosby, New York Herald Tribune. 

"One of the greatest triumphs in show business his- 
tory ... an enchanted evening." — -Tony La Camera, 
Boston Record. 



"There have been many Peter Pans since Maude 
Adams first essayed the role in this country, but it is 
doubtful if any of her predecessors had the elfin charm 
and acting skill of Miss Martin" — Jack Hellman, Daily 
Variety, Hollywood. 

"The production, we sincerely believe, will stand 
forever as one of video's listening milestones." — Bob 
Williams, Philadelphia Bulletin. 

"Through this children's classic, TV came of age." 
— Larry Wolters, Chicago Tribune. 

"TV's most ambitious and rewarding project." — 
Stan Anderson, Cleveland Press. 

The program which produced this reaction among 
audience and critics alike was the first ever to feature a 
full-length Broadway production with its original cast. 
The television version was identical to that which played 
in New York for 32 weeks — the only difference being 
in the far greater audience by which the single tele- 
vision performance was seen. 

Unique Sound Pickup System 

Since the play itself was staged for an ordinary 
theatre, its translation to the medium of television pre- 
sented no unique technical problems to the practiced 
personnel of NBC — other than one of microphone 
pickup from Miss Martin as she floated through the air. 
None of the show was pre-recorded, since it was felt that 
a "live" performance was essential to maintain spon- 
taneity. 

With the star and three children whizzing back and 
forth past stationary microphone booms at an elevation 
of some 20 to 30 feet, ordinary methods of sound 
pickup would be unsatisfactoty. The solution was a 
portable transistorized microphone and transmitter de- 
veloped by NBC engineers. The entire installation was 
small enough to be concealed on Miss Martin's person. 
The antenna was concealed in a split leather belt around 
her waist, the tiny microphone was worn on her chest, 
and the transmitter, no larger than a king-size package 
of cigarettes, was fastened under her arm. 

To conceal a receiving antenna large enough to cover 
the large flying area and maintain the same volume level 
from the highest to the lowest points of Miss Martin's 
swooping flight, a wire was placed on the studio floor, 
covered with tape and painted over to match the sur- 
rounding scenery. The rest of the antenna consisted of 
a large loop of wire strung under the lights. 

By this means, Miss Martin carried an enthralled 
audience with her on the flying trip to Neverland, 
soaring gracefully through some 100 gyrations in the 
course of the 2-hour program by means of the same 
type of flying device that has been used for all theatrical 
presentations of "Peter Pan." 




Mary Martin and Jerome Robbins, director of the TV 
production of "Peter Pan," form an airborne dance team, 
above, in rehearsal. Below Cyril Ritchard, as the venom- 
ous Captain Hook, rallies his crew aboard the pirate ship. 




RADIO AGE 21 








An air view of NBC's Color City, the new West Coast headquarters for the network's color programming. 



Color City 



C 



,/Olor City, one of the world's largest television 
studios and the first ever designed from the start specifi- 
cally for color TV, opened in a blaze of color on March 
27 as the West Coast color programming headquarters 
of the National Broadcasting Company. 

A 90-minute "spectacular," "Entertainment 1955," 
with an all-star cast, dedicated the great new studio 
before an assembly of motion picture, theatre and broad- 
casting celebrities including Sylvester N. Weaver. Jr., 
President, and Robert W. Sarnoff, Executive Vice- 
President of NBC. 

Color City is the latest and most impressive addition 
to NBC's array of color facilities, already the most exten- 
sive in the television broadcasting industry. Opening the 
entire field of Hollywood talent to NBC color cameras, 
it permits an early increase in the network's schedule of 
colorcasting. 

The combined engineering talents of RCA and NBC 
make of Color City one of the most elaborate and versa- 
tile television studios ever built. Taking its place with 
two existing studios and a service building on NBC's 
50-acre tract in Burbank, the new building incorporates 
television's largest lighting system and a major air- 



conditioning system designed to handle the problem of 
heat generated by the lights required for color telecasting. 
A touch reminiscent of the Elizabethan theatre is 
provided by an "audience pit" — an area sunk below the 
studio floor level so that spectators may watch a produc- 
tion at close quarters without interfering with the cam- 
eras. When it is not in use, the pit is covered to become 
part of the studio floor. 

Equipped as a "Nerve Center" 

Besides the main studio building, the new construc- 
tion includes a technical building which serves as the 
"nerve center" for all NBC facilities at Burbank. Among 
its features are audio and video control centers, a film 
center equipped with two RCA 3-Vidicon camera chains, 
and an announcer's booth for newscasts and commercials. 

Commenting on Color City as a unit, Progressive 
Architecture magazine described it as a successful effort 
"to provide as much flexibility as possible, allowing for 
future changes as new factors become known." 

"Many exceptional things were done here," the maga- 
zine commented, "both to make the facilities as efficient 



22 RADIO AGE 



as present knowledge makes possible and to anticipate 
future needs.'' 

With the opening of the new center in Burbank, 
NBC's inventory of color telecast facilities now includes 
five separate originating points for color, as well as 
special equipment for televising color film. 

These facilities include: 

The NBC Brooklyn studio — The world's largest 
television studio. Formerly a Warner Brothers motion 
picture sound stage, the Brooklyn installation was altered 
and equipped at a cost of $3,500,000 and dedicated in 
September, 1954, as a home for NBC's color spectaculars 
and other major color productions. The memorable 
color telecast of "Peter Pan" originated here. 

The Colonial Theatre, New York — The world's 
first fully equipped studio for compatible color. Most 
of NBC's major shows were staged before color cameras 
here on a rotating basis during the 1953-54 season. The 
Colonial can handle productions of any size and has 
alternated with the Brooklyn studio in the handling of 
the 90-minute spectaculars. 

Studio 3-H, Radio City. New York — Used for 
smaller productions, commercials, and for research in 
staging, lighting, costuming and makeup. 

The NBC Color Mobile Unit — The only unit of its 
kind in existence, this has been used by NBC to cover 
festivals, sports events, natural wonders and national 
shrines in various parts of the country. With its own 
built-in generator and radio relay, the mobile unit can 
range far from network and power lines to provide 
color television coverage almost anywhere in the United 
States. 



NBC Creates TV Industry s First 
Children's Program Review Group 

Creation by the National Broadcasting Company of 
the television industry's first Children's Program Review 
Committee was announced on April 7 by Joseph V. 
Heffernan, NBC Financial Vice-President. At the same 
time, Mr. Heffernan announced appointment of Dr. 
Frances Horwich, producer-star of NBC-TV's award- 
winning "Ding Dong School," to the new post of Super- 
visor of Children's Programs for NBC. 

Testifying in Washington, D. C, before the Senate 
Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency, Mr. Heffernan 
said that the new committee will consist of Dr. Horwich, 
Mrs. Douglas Horton, former president of Wellesley 
College and war-time director of the WAVES, and 
Dr. Robert F. Goldenson, a psychologist and expert on 
family relations. 




Color City's cameras focus on an attractive pattern. 




This shows the control room at the Burbank studio. 




Color City's elaborate lighting switchboard. 

RADIO AGE 23 



Color TV Helps the Doctors 



JVL 



-ICROSCOPIC views of tissue removed from a 
patient at the University of Pennsylvania Hospital were 
examined simultaneously by pathologists in Washington, 
Baltimore and Philadelphia on January 19 by means of 
RCA color television. The occasion marked the first 
use of color TV of government-approved standards for 
inter-city medical consultation and diagnosis. 

The dramatic presentation, illustrating the value of 
compatible color television as a new tool for medical 
and pathological use, formed part of a demonstration 
conducted jointly by the Armed Forces Institute of 
Pathology and RCA. It was followed by two additional 
programs employing the RCA compatible color system 
on an inter-city basis to explore further the usefulness 
of this new medium in diagnosis, consultation, teaching 
and research. 

The program, running for 45 minutes, began as Dr. 
I. S. Ravdin, Professor of Surgery at the University of 
Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, performed an operation 
with the assistance of his son, Dr. Robert Ravdin. A 
waiting pathologist, Dr. Robert Horn, carried out an 
examination of the tissue removed by the two surgeons 
while the color TV camera, peering at the prepared 
specimen through a microscope, transmitted the image 
to more than 150 pathologists in Washington and a 
smaller group in Baltimore. 



After examining the image of the section on a color 
TV receiver in Baltimore, Dr. Hugh G. Grady, Director 
of the American Registry of Pathology, AFIP, com- 
mented on the results of his diagnosis. His remarks were 
carried instantly to Washington and Philadelphia, where 
the operation had been performed. 

Highlight of Symposium on Medical TV 

The color telecast diagnosis highlighted a three-day 
symposium sponsored by the Armed Forces Institute of 
Pathology to bring together for the first time men of 
medicine and industry to investigate and discuss how 
color television can best be used in the fight against 
disease. The Institute, which is the central laboratory 
for the United States Army, Navy and Air Forces, as 
well as other government agencies, provides diagnosis 
and consultation services for civilian pathologists as well. 

The Washington group attending the symposium 
participated in the telecast feature before a number of 
standard RCA color television sets installed in a hall 
of the new atomic attack resistant building of the In- 
stitute in northwest Washington. The Baltimore viewers 
were gathered at the studios of WBAL-TV, whose color 
cameras later covered the diagnostic consultation there. 

Later portions of the telecast were designed to il- 



PHILADELPHIA 



First Inter-City Diagnostic 
Consultation During the 
Performance of a Biopsy 





Operation 
and Biopsy at 
University of 
Pennsylvania Hospital 



Consulting Pathologists 

and Observers at 

Armed Forces Institute 

of Pathology 



Consulting Pathologists 
in WBAL-TV Studio 



24 RADIO AGE 




A nurse at the University of Pennsylvania Hospital, 
Philadelphia, is coached by an RCA technician during 
rehearsal for the inter-city medical TV demonstration. 

lustrate the effectiveness of compatible color TV in dis- 
seminating pathological information and techniques over 
distances, and in conducting important pathological 
conferences between individuals and groups in widely 
separated locations. 

The first of these included a pickup from the Balti- 
more studio, where Brig. General Elbert DeCoursey, 
Director of the AFIP, introduced a special demonstra- 
tion for observation by members of his staff in Wash- 
ington. This consisted of the showing in color of special 
techniques and procedures in which color is an important 
factor. A color film of unusual pathological significance 
also was transmitted. 

The final presentation, conducted by Dr. Lorenz E. 
Zimmerman, Chief of the Ophthalmic Pathology Branch 



of the AFIP, represented a seminar for participation by 
distant audiences — in this case a group of pathologists 
of the Veterans Administration and the three armed 
services in Baltimore and Philadelphia. Dr. Zimmerman 
showed a series of color microscopic slides and con- 
ducted a complete conference with the help of the color 
TV system. 

Color TV Ready to Serve Medicine, Says Goldsmith 

Dr. Alfred N. Goldsmith, pioneer electronics engi- 
neer and inventor, who participated in the Washington 
symposium, observed at the end of the demonstration 
that color television is now ready to serve the medical 
profession in many ways. 

"This inter-city presentation, which so effectively 
brought pathologists together for the first time through 
the use of color television, should prove to be an eye- 
opener for the entire medical profession," Dr. Goldsmith 
said. 

"In effect, RCA has shown that color television, 
operating on standards already approved by the govern- 
ment, can and will give the medical profession's uni- 
versities, lecture halls, consultation rooms, clinics and 
laboratories a scope as wide as the country, and can 
provide to all of these an interconnection with the im- 
mediacy of light itself." 

Dr. Goldsmith urged the standardization of a medical 
color TV system, emphasizing that the system adopted 
for medical purposes should be identical with the ap- 
proved standards of compatible, simultaneous color 
television now bringing this new service to the public 
through broadcasting. 



New Flush-Mounted Window Units 
Feature RCA Air Conditioner Line 

A new series of flush-mounted window models is 
the main feature of the 1955 line of RCA room air 
conditioners, for which a nation-wide advertising cam- 
paign was launched in early March. 

The flush-mounted units include four newly-designed 
models known as the Super Series and ranging from 
•/2-ton to li/2-ton capacities. The 1.4-ton model is 
shown in the picture at the right. 

Details of the new models were disclosed by John 
W. Craig, Vice-President and General Manager, RCA 
Victor Home Appliance Division. He emphasized that 
all of the Super units offer a newly incorporated two- 
speed cooling system employing twin fans to provide 
more positive air flow and greater ventilation capacity. 
An automatic thermostat for constant cooling tempera- 
ture control is also incorporated as standard equipment 
in the series, he said. 

RADIO AGE 25 




Progress Report from RCA on . . . 

A Novel Camera Tube for Color TV 



A 



revolutionary new type of color television 
camera tube that generates simultaneously the red, green 
and blue signals of color TV is under development and 
has been successfully tested by scientists and engineers 
of the Radio Corporation of America, it was disclosed 
at the annual convention of the Institute of Radio Engi- 
neers in March. 

The developmental tube, known as the Tricolor 
Vidicon, represents a major step in a continuing research 
program aimed at achieving an all-purpose color tele- 
vision camera as simple and compact as those now used 
for black-and-white TV, according to RCA scientists. 
In tests at the David Sarnoff Research Center of RCA, 
Princeton, N. J., it has shown the ability to televise 
color slides, color motion pictures, and scenes where 
high lighting may be used. Further development is 
expected to achieve greater sensitivity, making the tube 
suitable for use under varied lighting conditions. 

Details of the new tube were given in a progress 
report to the IRE by a five-man team of RCA scientists 
headed by Dr. Paul K. Weimer. The group includes 
Dr. Sidney Gray, Dr. Stefan A. Ochs, Harold Borkan, 
and Harry C. Thompson. 

It was pointed out by the group that a single camera 
tube capable of generating simultaneously all three of 
the primary colors of color TV is a major goal of tele- 
vision research. In present color TV cameras, they ex- 
plained, a separate tube is used to pick up each color, 
and the three independent signals are later combined 
into a composite signal for broadcast. 

Ac/vantages of the Developmental Tube 

Dr. Weimer, delivering the paper for the research 
team, pointed out that the developmental Tricolor Vidi- 
con combines all of the color pickup functions for the 
first time in a single tube no larger than the standard 
RCA Image Orthicon tube used in black-and-white 
cameras. Since all of the color signals are generated 
simultaneously in the same tube, he said, precise optical 
and electrical registry is ensured, thus avoiding any 
danger of overlapping or "fringing" of color signals. In 
addition, he said, use of a single tube will permit 
greater simplicity and compactness in color camera 
design. 

The research team gave this explanation of the 
operating principles involved in the Tricolor Vidicon: 




RCA's experimental Tricolor Vidicon pickup tube for 
color TV is shown above held over a standard black- 
and-white Image Orthicon tube for comparison. 

The heart of the tube is a unique and intricate color- 
sensitive target applied to the face of the tube by an 
evaporation technique. The target, a rectangle whose 
diagonal measurement is only V/2 inches, consists of 
nearly 900 fine vertical strips of alternating red, green 
and blue color filters, covered by three sets of semi- 
transparent conducting signal strips spaced so closely 
that a group of several strips would be covered by the 
diameter of a human hair. The signal strips correspond- 
ing to a given color are all connected to a common 
output terminal, and insulated at the same time from 
the strips of the other two colors. 

Three Color Signals are Generated 

As the target is scanned by a single electron beam 
projected from the rear of the tube, the color-sensitive 
filters permit the signal strips to produce electrical sig- 
nals corresponding to the arrangement of light and color 
in the scene before the camera. 

The beam, sweeping horizontally across the face and 
moving in lines that progress from top to bottom of the 
target — as in present camera tubes — scans the face 
completely thirty times each second. As the beam strikes 
all of the color-sensitive strips at each scanning, the tube 
generates directly the three simultaneous primary color 
signals that form the composite signal for broadcast. 



26 RADIO AGE 







In the drawing above, a United Air Lines plane peers through 

a storm with RCA's airborne weather radar unit. Photo of 

radar screen at right shows how the pilot can find route that 

avoids storm cores. 



RCA Weather Radar 
Aids Smooth Flight 




X 



he largest order for airborne radar in the history 
of commercial aviation — 200 of RCA's C-band weather- 
detection radar units that "see" through storms and 
enable pilots to locate and follow air paths having 
the least turbulence — was announced on April 5 by 
United Air Lines. 

W. A. Patterson, President of United Air Lines, 
announced the signing of the contract with RCA for 
delivery of the units at a total cost of $2,500,000. He 
said that modification of planes and installation of the 
units will require another $1,500,000, making a total 
outlay of $4,000,000 for the project. Mr. Patterson 
added that United thus becomes the first airline in the 
world to begin fleet installation of C-band radar as 
standard equipment. 

The RCA equipment is described by Theodore A. 
Smith, Vice-President and General Manager, RCA 
Engineering Products Division, as C-band radar oper- 
ating at a frequency of 5400 megacycles per second. 
RCA's selection of this band instead of higher frequen- 
cies followed exhaustive laboratory and flight evaluation 
tests which showed 5400 megacycles to be the optimum 
frequency for weather reconnaissance. 

Tested in Storm Areas 
The studies were carried out by RCA, United Air 
Lines and McGill University. Actual tests included 40 
technical and operational flights in storm areas. The 
results show that C-band radar, using a transmitter power 
of 75 kilowatts, was capable of penetrating a minimum 



of 15 miles of 60mm-per-hour rainfall, revealing corri- 
dors for smooth flying through apparently solid storms, 
officials said. 

United Air Lines will install the radar units at its 
San Francisco maintenance base, and the company's first 
radar-carrying planes are scheduled to enter service this 
fall, followed rapidly by others until the program is 
completed, Mr. Patterson announced. He described the 
project as "one of the great technological advances in 
air travel comfort and dependability." 

"From the days of World War II when airborne 
radar made such great contributions to military opera- 
tions, there has been much talk as to what it might do 
for the commercial airlines," Mr. Patterson said. "Now 
that radar is available and suitable for airline use, we are 
proceeding to take advantage of its tremendous possi- 
bilities." 

D. R. Petty, the company's vice-president, flight 
operations, said: 

"Weather-mapping C-band radar, the first to be 
developed specifically for commercial airline use, will 
enable our pilots to fly through areas now detoured with 
considerable loss of time. 

"C-band radar also reveals surface features, such as 
lakes and mountains, but its primary value lies in keep- 
ing pilots informed of changing weather conditions as 
far as 150 miles ahead. With this knowledge, they can 
plan their flights with greater precision, greater pas- 
senger comfort." 



RADIO AGE 27 




From London to Bikini 

30 Years of International Programs . . . 




By Frank H. Goring 

Manager, Program Transmission Service 
RCA Communications , Inc. 



TV 



hirty YEARS AGO, in March, 1925, with earphones 
pressed tightly to their heads, the comparative handful 
of people who then comprised the American radio 
audience heard their first international broadcast — the 
cheery voice of a London announcer saying, "Hello, 
America.'' After his greeting came the strains of the 
orchestra at London's Savoy Ballroom, playing a medley 
of American tunes. 

Portions of the medley were lost somewhere between 
London and New York, for the quality of the signal 
emitted from the Aeolian Hall studios of WJZ for the 
American audience had more curiosity value than fidel- 
ity. Nevertheless, indistinct as it was, the music heralded 
a new era in international communications — an era 
that turned the American living-room into an echo- 
chamber for the news of the world. 

It took pioneer RCA engineers another five years 
of experimenting before international program circuits 
were sufficiently improved to meet commercial require- 
ments. Since that time, however, hundreds of thousands 
of news and special events broadcasts have filtered 
through the control console in RCA Communications' 
lower Manhattan operating terminal to be re-broadcast 
by the American radio networks. 

These programs have originated from every geo- 
graphical area of the globe — from Byrd's hut beneath 
the Antarctic ice cap to the Papal Palace in the Vatican. 
Topically, they have ranged from British Coronations to 
foxhole interviews with G.I.'s in Anzio, New Guinea, 
and Korea. Wherever someone was able to rig a trans- 
mitter, RCA's Program Service has brought in the 
voices of current history — ■ a radio listening diet that 
has made the United States increasingly aware of inter- 
national interdependence. 

A Two-Way Arrangement 

Nor has the arrangement been one-sided, for other 
nations of the world listen just as intently to the happen- 
ings in America, particularly today, with the United 
States a focal point of international events. 

RCA's Program Service was solidly booked for days 
to provide complete coverage of the last Presidential 



election. Daily commentaries on American activities 
by correspondents of foreign broadcasting services are 
transmitted point-to-point by RCA for re-broadcast to 
overseas audiences. 

Each year, RCA makes the World Series and World 
Championship bouts truly world-wide when it helps 
carry the results to an international audience. United 
Nations' sessions are carried to other member nations 
over special voice channels. Voice of America broad- 
casts also form a part of the program material which 
RCA regularly transmits overseas. 

RCA's Program Service has on many occasions per- 
formed the spectacular — unusual events that in them- 
selves made news. Whether it be from a presidential 
train enroute to Chicago, a lone ship deep in the Ant- 
arctic ice floes, a submarine off the coast of California, 
or an expedition observing a solar eclipse in a dense 
South American jungle, the world-wide facilities of 
RCA can be relied upon to help bring the story to the 
American fireside. But the more important, though less 
spectacular story concerns the day-to-day job of giving 
intercontinental range to the voices of commentators 
and reporters upon whom the world depends for its news. 

Service For All Broadcasters 

Despite its corporate relationship with the National 
Broadcasting Company, RCA Communications provides 
all broadcasters with international program facilities to 
the extent that today, over 75% of all overseas programs 
heard in the United States are received via RCA. 

From its main program control console in New York, 
which is linked by micro-wave relay to the international 
transmitting and receiving stations at the eastern end 
of Long Island, RCA maintains lines to each of the 
major networks. Through these lines, programs received 
from abroad are piped directly to the broadcasting 
studios, either for immediate rebroadcast or for tape 
recording and subsequent use. 

Normally broadcasters order the facilities they need 
several hours in advance of actual program time. News 
events, however, are usually unscheduled. Consequently, 
RCA Program Service is constantly on the alert to set up 
overseas circuits at a moment's notice. RCA's Program 
Service is the international electronic ear of TV as well 
as radio broadcasting. An order for a usual NBC morn- 
ing news round-up for rebroadcast on the "TODAY" 



28 RADIO AGE 




oadcasting Service of RCA Communications carried 
John Rich's Korean War stories to U. S. listeners. 




key point in world-wide broadcast service is this con- 
trol console at RCA Communications in New York. 




rst-hand reports on L). S. political conventions, as shown 
sre, go to overseas listeners via RCA Communications. 



program looks something like this: 
From Rome — Jack Begon 

655am to 715am air time 701 — 703am 
From Bonn — Robert McCormick 

655am to 715am air time 704 — 705:30am 
From Paris — Frank Bourgholtzer 

655am to 715am air time 707 — ■ 709am 
From Cairo — Wilson Hall 

700am to 715am air time 709:30 — 711am 
From Telaviv — Al Rosenfeld 

705am to 715am air time 712 — 714am 
Arrangements are made by NBC to have its foreign 
commentators available and prepared at the exact time 
allotted for the broadcast. RCA, meanwhile, has ad- 
vised the overseas radio terminal of the ordered pro- 
grams and what frequencies will be required for the 
contact. Usually all points are lined up and ready fifteen 
minutes prior to the beginning of the network programs. 
Time checks and cues have been exchanged and final 
adjustments made to transmitters and receivers. 

Transmissions on die 
On cue, usually Dave Garroway's, "Go ahead, Rome", 
the commentators, in order, begin their transmissions. 
From the studios of Italradio on Rome's Via Callabria, 
Jack Begon's voice hurdles the Atlantic to be picked 
up by a short-wave receiver at RCA's Riverhead, L. I. 
station, then journeys to the lower Manhattan control 
center by micro-wave relay. There it is amplified, 
monitored, and fed by wire lines to NBC master control 
at Rockefeller Plaza — then one last jump, again by 
wire, to the "TODAY" studio in the RCA Exhibition 
Hall before its final re-transmission as the audio segment 
of Garroway's morning TV program. 

Pacific Operations 

At San Francisco, RCA Communications maintains 
a duplicate of its New York program facilities for cover- 
age of the Pacific and the Orient. International programs 
received at this terminal are fed into the national net- 
works through their West Coast stations. Conversely 
the San Francisco terminal also links American broad- 
casters with their affiliated stations in Honolulu. Network 
programs originating in the United States are thus reg- 
ularly transmitted to Hawaii. 

Including coverage of the original A-Bomb tests in 
Bikini, there isn't much in the way of unusual hook-ups 
that RCA's Program Service hasn't tried during its few 
decades of operation. Of all its accomplishments, it 
biggest contribution has been its ability to provide the 
intercontinental electronic bridges which probably have 
helped more than any other single factor to bring about 
the international awareness and understanding that exists 
in much of the world today. 

RADIO AGE 29 



Anti Trust Suit 

(Continued from page 13) 

electronic equipment without the patents of a number of 
different companies, the answer pointed out. 

"The purpose and effect of these cross-licenses were 
to free the industry," RCA said. "Without them the 
industry would have been paralyzed by conflicting patent 
holdings and endless patent litigation. With these cross- 
licenses the industry was freed and enabled to develop 
rapidly." 

The situation created by these cross-licenses was the 
subject of a Government proceeding in 1930, which re- 
sulted in a consent decree, under which General Electric 
Company, American Telephone and Telegraph Company 
and Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 
disposed of their stock in RCA and new cross-licensing 
agreements were drawn up, the Corporation said. 

This consent decree and the new cross-licensing 
agreements which were reaffirmed by the courts in 1942, 
RCA said, represented the considered and correct judg- 
ment of the Government that this was the best way to 
achieve continued growth of a competitive radio-televi- 
sion industry free from restraint. It was pointed out 
that as recently as 1954, on a motion to construe the 
decree, the court reasserted the fact that the cross-license 
agreements were approved by the consent decree. 

"That the cross-license agreements approved by the 
consent decree have had the effect intended and expected 
by the Government is fully borne out by the dynamic 
growth of the industry," RCA continued. 

"These agreements expired by their terms on Decem- 
ber 31, 1954, so far as new inventions are concerned. 
Yet the complaint filed only six weeks before this ex- 
piration is an attack on these very agreements which 
were recommended and stated to be in the public interest 
by the Government in 1932." 

RCA said that the issues in this case have already 
been adjudicated as a result of the 1942 decision when 
the Delaware District Court ruled that "since these con- 
sent decrees are based upon an agreement made by the 
Attorney General which is binding upon the Govern- 
ment the defendants are entitled to set them up as a bar 
to any attempt by the Government to relitigate the issues 
raised in the suit." The answer added: 

"RCA avers that the Government cannot attack a 
consent decree to which it is a party by charging RCA 
with violating the law — beginning the very day after the 
decree was entered — because it has conformed ro the 
provisions of the decree. The consent decree of 1932, 
and the cross-license agreements approved thereby, rep- 
resent the considered and correct judgment of the Gov- 



ernment and the court, as well as of the defendants, that 
this was the best way to achieve the objectives of the 
Government's petition, namely, the continued growth of 
a competitive radio-television industry free from re- 
straint. The correctness of this judgment and the in- 
tensely competitive industry which has resulted from the 
policies and practices of RCA under and pursuant to this 
decree is shown by the soaring sales of radio and tele- 
vision receivers since 1932. 

"RCA's policy of licensing its competitors and others 
on reasonable and non-discriminatory terms and without 
restriction has been a major factor in the rapid growth 
of the electronics industry, including the radio-television 
industry." 

Many Companies Engaged in Research 

Stating that research activities play an important part 
in the development of radio and television products, 
RCA said that it has been a pioneer in the research and 
development of radio receivers, black-and-white and 
color television receivers and various other radio and 
television products and devices which have vital signifi- 
cance for the national defense. No other organization, 
it was declared, has contributed as much to the research 
and development of these products and devices as RCA, 
and RCA's patent licensing policies have enabled its 
competitors and others to enjoy the fruits of RCA's 
research and development on reasonable and non-dis- 
criminatory terms and without restriction. 

RCA said, however, that the research and develop- 
ment which it conducts in electronics is but a small part 
of the total research in this industry conducted in the 
United States, and that many companies not formerly in 
electronics are now intensively active in the field. 

Listing many substantial competitors with large re- 
sources for research and development that exist in the 
radio-television industry, RCA said: 

"These include the Admiral Corporation, Columbia 
Broadcasting System, Inc., Allen B. Du Mont Labora- 
tories, Inc., Emerson Radio & Phonograph Corporation, 
General Electric Company, International Telephone and 
Telegraph Corporation, Motorola, Inc., Philco Corpora- 
tion, Raytheon Manufacturing Company, Sylvania Elec- 
tric Products, Inc., Westinghouse Electric Corporation, 
Zenith Radio Corporation, and others. The published 
sales figures of the companies named alone, for the most 
recent annual period, exceed two billion dollars. Each 
of these companies maintains extensive facilities for its 
own research and development. Each of these companies 
has every incentive to follow and has followed a program 
of intense and active research and development to pro- 
duce better products in this highly competitive market 
as well as to license others." 



30 RADIO AGE 



The tremendous expansion of research and develop- 
ment in all phases of the electronics industry is forcefully 
demonstrated, according to RCA, by the fact that many 
companies, not formerly in electronics, with large and 
powerful research and development facilities are now 
devoting their efforts to intensive research in electronics. 

These companies were said to include aircraft manu- 
facturers such as the Boeing Airplane Company, Douglas 
Aircraft Company, Inc., Hughes Aircraft, the United 
Aircraft Corporation; automobile manufacturers, such as 
the General Motors Corporation and Willys Motors, Inc.; 
business machine manufacturers, such as the Burroughs 
Corporation, the International Business Machines Corpo- 
ration, The National Cash Register Company and Rem- 
ington Rand, Inc.; manufacturers of industrial control 
equipment, such as the Maxson Corporation, Minneapo- 
lis-Honeywell Regulator Company, and the Otis Elevator 
Company; manufacturers of automation equipment, such 
as General Mills, Inc., and the United Shoe Machinery 
Corporation; and companies engaged in the development 
of atomic energy applications, such as General Dynamics 
Corporation; and companies engaged in the motion 
picture industry, such as the Bell & Howell Co. and 
Paramount Pictures Corporation. 

It was stated that the assets of these companies alone 
total many billions of dollars and their research facilities 
far exceed those of RCA and that a substantial part of 
the electronics research and development work of these 
companies has direct application to the radio-television 
industry. 

RCA Expenditures in TV Research 

"RCA spent more than $50 million on the develop- 
ment, research and promotion of black-and-white televi- 
sion before it realized any profit from such expenditures," 
the answer stated. "RCA pioneered the introduction of 
black-and-white television to the American public and 
it furnished its competitors with complete information 
regarding the manufacture and servicing of black-and- 
white television receivers in order to encourage its com- 
petitors to enter the television market. 

"RCA has spent more than $50 million on the devel- 
opment, research and promotion of a compatible system 
of color television . . . which preserves the value of 
millions of black-and-white sets in American homes. 
Color television activities are still being pioneered by 
RCA at a substantial loss. 

"RCA has, and is continuing to pioneer the introduc- 
tion of color television to the American public and it has 
furnished its competitors and others with complete infor- 
mation regarding the manufacture and servicing of com- 
patible color television receivers in order to encourage 



its competitors to enter the color television market." 
The answer stated: 

"RCA avers that its policy of licensing its competi- 
tors and others on reasonable and non-discriminatory 
terms and its policy of granting licenses to prospective 
licensees under any patent or patents and for any ap- 
paratus for which such prospective licensees desire a 
license, has contributed substantially to the dynamic 
growth and development of the electronics industry, 
including the radio-television industry. These policies 
have encouraged and increased competition in radio- 
television research and development, patents, patent 
licensing, patent rights, manufacturing, sale, distribution, 
and the introduction of new developments in the public 
interest. 

"RCA's policies have encouraged the development 
and expansion of the electronic art in innumerable direc- 
tions and with tremendous vitality and dynamic energy. 
No industry in this country has progressed so far in so 
short a time. 

"The rapid and continuous emergence of new and 
improved electronic products for industry, for the home 
and for national defense, rendering obsolete existing 
products, which is characteristic of this industry, com- 
pletely refutes the existence of any monopolistic control, 
domination or restraint as alleged in the complaint. 

"When RCA was formed at the request of the Gov- 
ernment in 1919, only the most courageous and far- 
sighted could have foreseen the tremendous vistas which 
would be opened to American industry and the American 
public through the encouragement and development of 
the electronic art. The research and development activi- 
ties which at one time were engaged in by only a very 
few have for many years been pursued by substantially 
all members of the electronics industry, including the 
radio-television industry. 

"Today aircraft manufacturers, automobile manufac- 
turers, business machine manufacturers and many other 
areas of American industry, and universities as well, are 
actively conducting research and development in elec- 
tronics and are producing electronic equipment. 

"This chain reaction of research and development in 
the electronics industry was initiated with the formation 
of RCA and is attributable in large parr to RCA's policy 
of making inventions available to others." 

RCA declared that it rests on the record that its 
patent licensing agreements and RCA's conduct have 
resulted in the most intensely competitive industry in 
the United States today. 

The answer was filed by John T. Cahill, Attorney 
for the Radio Corporation of America. 



RADIO AGE 31 



®K0WSi 



brisk 




Has Eight Arms and Flies 

NBC recently instigated the first 
coast-to-coast flight by an octopus. Ar- 
lene, a 40-pound specimen from San 
Francisco's Steinhardt Aquarium, flew 
east for a guest appearance on the 
March 9 "Home" program, accommo- 
dated in a specially-designed oxygen- 
sealed container contrived to prevent 
her from suffering discomfort on the 
way. On her arrival at New York's 
Idlewild Airport, she was met by a 
truck bearing a tank of special sea 
water scooped up by members of the 
"Home" staff, who went 25 miles 
offshore to get it. Six kinds of rare 
and steady-nerved tropical fish travelled 
in the container with Arlene. 

New Transistor 

A new metal-encased transistor, no 
bigger than a pencil eraser, is being 
produced by the RCA Tube Division 
for low-power audio applications in 
communications and other types of 
electronic equipment. The tiny device, 
which measures only !4 inch in diam- 
eter and 11/16 inch in length, incor- 
porates exceptional stability and uni- 
formity of characteristics, together with 
a number of design features that per- 
mit its use in most low-level audio- 
frequency applications, the Division 
said. The insulated metal envelope 
is hermetically sealed for maximum 
moisture protection. 



Hall-Size TV 

Television for the auditorium is the 
latest word from the RCA Tube Divi- 
sion, which has announced a new 5- 
inch projection kinescope capable of 
producing black-and-white TV pictures 
measuring up to 8 X 6 feet when it is 
used with a suitable reflective optical 
system. The new kinescope is ex- 
pected to find wide use in closed-cir- 
cuit types of large-screen TV projectors 
used for demonstration, training and 
educational purposes. Among its fea- 
tures are an aluminized white fluores- 
cent screen with high stability under 
varying conditions of screen current, 
and an operating maximum voltage 
of 40,000 volts — unusually high for 
a tube of this type. 




Musical Travel 

People who can't make it to see the 
current Cinerama show in New York 
will at least be able to hear the music, 
thanks to the RCA Victor Recotd 
Division's new recording of Morton 
Gould's musical score for "Cinerama 
Holiday." Chosen by Woman's Home 
Companion as "The Record of the 
Month" for March, 1955, the new re- 
lease is conducted by the composer 
and includes the musical presentation 
of a trip through the American South- 
west, to Paris, on a mountain ski run, 
and on other adventures presented in 
the film. 



Microwave for Texas 

A 478-mile RCA microwave radio 
system linking key compressot stations 
of the El Paso Natural Gas Company, 
El Paso, Tex., has just been completed 
by the RCA Engineering Products 
Division. This installation, the second 
RCA microwave system installed for 
the El Paso Company's expanding gas 
transmission system, hops the tugged, 
mountainous tetrain of the Texas-New 
Mexico border area between El Paso 
and Farmington, N. M. It employs 
standard RCA microwave equipment 
to provide both teletype and voice 
circuits. 




The Eye Again 

Two more banks in the Southwest 
are now using RCA's "TV Eye" closed 
circuit television system to speed cus- 
tomer service and ease clerical tasks. 
The Central State Bank, Oklahoma 
City, has put a "TV Eye" camera on 
the bank floor, with the receiver in 
the bookkeeping department, fot rapid 
checking of signature and balance. The 
Irving State Bank, Irving, Tex., is using 
its "TV Eye" to connect two drive-in 
windows with the bookkeeping depart- 
ment, 300 feet away, providing in- 
stantaneous vetification of signatutes 
and confirmation of balances. 

Prices Down. Sales Up 

A preliminary report on the effect 
of the RCA Victor Record Division's 
price cuts of up to 40 per cent on Jan. 
3 showed a 100 percent increase in the 
sale of RCA Victor classical long- 
playing records during the first month 
following the reduction. And in dollar 
volume, sales of records in this cate- 
gory ran 32 per cent ahead of those 
for the same period in 1954, according 
to Emanuel Sacks, Vice-President and 
Genetal Manager, RCA Victor Record 
Division. 



32 RADIO AGE 




New RCA Radar "Weather Eye" 
Sees Through Storms 



In our time, man has won round after round 
in the century-old contest against the ele- 
ments. For thousands of years, caravan lead- 
ers, ship captains, and now airplane pilots 
— men responsible for the safe transport of 
travelers and merchandise — have studied 
the skies. What unseen far-distant dangers 
lurked there? Fog? Storm? Hurricane? 

The most recent scientific victory is some- 
thing new in Radar — an electronic "Weather 
Eye" developed by RCA. 

In airplanes, this supersensitive instru- 
ment peers miles ahead. It gives advance 



warning of weather disturbances. The sig- 
nals on its radar screen point the way to 
a safe course around storm areas, or even 
through them. 

The leadership in electronic research that 
made the "Weather Eye" possible is in- 
herent in all RCA products and services. 
And continually, at the David Sarnoff Re- 
search Center of RCA, Princeton, N. J., 
scientists are continually at work to extend 
the frontiers of "Electronics for Living" — 
electronics that make your life easier, 
safer, happier. 



New RCA Weather Map- 
ping Radar weighs under 
125 pounds, takes little 
space in a plane. 





RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

ELECTRONICS FOR LIVING 




WHY THIS SIGN 
IS YOUR GUIDE TO 
FINER TELEVISION 

RCA's 36 years' experience 
is yours to share in TV- 
black-and-white or color 

When the time comes for you to purchase 
a TV set and enjoy the most fabulous 
medium of entertainment ever created 
for the home, here are facts that will help 
you make the right decision. 

To pioneer and develop television, in 
color as well as in black-and-white, called 
for a special combination of practical ex- 
perience, great resources and research 
facilities in the fields of communications 
and electronics. 

RCA was well qualified to do the job: 
EXPERIENCE: RCA has been the recog- 
nized leader in radio communications 
since its formation thirty-six years ago. 
Rs world-wide wireless circuits, estab- 
lished in 1919, and its development of 
electron tubes, laid the groundwork for 
radio broadcasting in 1920 . . . and the 
first nationwide radio network in 1926. 

Radio broadcasting led to television— 
and in 1939 RCA made history by intro- 
ducing black-and-white TV as a service 
to the public. 

Dr. V. K. Zworykin of RCA invented 
the iconoscope, or television camera tube, 
and he developed the kinescope, now uni- 
versally used as the picture tube. 
RESOURCES: Pioneering and develop- 
ment of color TV has been one of the 
most challenging and expensive projects 
ever undertaken by private industry. To 
date, RCA has spent $50,000,000 on color 
TV research and development, in addi- 
tion to the $50,000,000 previouslv spent 
in getting black-and-white TV "off the 
ground" and into service. 

RESEARCH FACILITIES: RCA has One 

of the most complete, up-to-date labora- 
tories in the world— the David Sarnoff Re- 
search Center at Princeton, N. J. It is the 
birthplace of compatible color television 
and many other notable electronic devel- 
opments. 

No wonder that you can turn to RCA 
to find all of the essentials of quality and 
dependability born only of experience. 

In addition, the RCA Service Company, 
manned by a corps of trained technicians, 
operates service branches in all principal 
television areas. No other organization is 
so thoroughly equipped to install and ser- 
vice vour television set, as well as any 
other RCA product. 

RADIO CORPORATION 
OF AMERICA 

Electronics for Living 




JULY 1955 



JUL 2 5 1955 



RADIO AGE 

RESEARCH • MANUFACTURING • COMMUNICATIONS • BROADCASTING • TELEVISION 




NEW TV DESIGNS 




BANK STATEMENTS 




NON-ROMAN LANGUAGE 
DOCUMENTS 



ISTHMIAN NEW YORK n, T „ »oooSl 1?S) 
















































































































































































































































































































r.viruw? 



















EXPORT DOCUMENTS 




OVERSEAS 

RADIOPHOTO 

via RCA 




These reproductions 

of RCA Radiophotos 

show a few of the ways 

in which business* 

is widening its use of 

RCA Communications' 

international electronic 

picture transmission 

service. 



RCA Overseas Radiophoto Service 
was originally developed for the press. 
In recent years, however, businessmen 
have found more and more ways to 
save time and money with RCA 
Radiophoto Service. Today, more than 
35 per cent of all RCA overseas radio- 
photos are sent by business firms. 



RCA COMMUNICATIONS, INC. 0jk 



66 BROAD ST., NEW YORK 4, N. Y. 



VOLUME 14 NUMBER 3 



ARCH • MANUFACTURING • COMMUNICATIONS 
BROADCASTING • TELEVISION 



CONTENTS 



JULY 1955 



Eg 
1 




I 



COVER 

The new line of RCA Victor 
black-and-white TV receivers, 
featuring major style change 
with elimination of visible con- 
trols from face of the set. 



NOTICE 

When requesting a change in mailing 
address please include the code letters 
and numbers which appear with the 
stencilled address on the envelope. 

Radio Age is published quarterly by 
the Department of information, Radio 
Corporation of America, 30 Rocte- 
feller Plaza. New York 20, N V. 

Printed in U.S.A. 



Page 

RCA Achieves New Records in Sales and Earnings 3 

"Sarnoff Plan" to Win the Cold War 6 

Williamsburg Settlement Award 8 

"Monitor" Takes to the Air 9 

The Case Against Pay-TV n 

Color Telecast from Magnetic Tape 13 

"Strangers into Customers" 14 

Products of the Future 16 

New Aids to Color TV Broadcasting 18 

"Harmony — Keynote for Our Times" 19 

New RCA Center at Cherry Hill 20 

RCA Introduces New Hi-Fi Line 22 

Television in an Ultra-Modern Style 23 

TV on the Tepee 25 

RCA Grows with Canada 26 

Quotes from RCA 31 

News in Brief 32 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

RCA Building, New York 20, N.Y. 



DAVID SARNOFF, Chairman of the Board 
JOHN Q. CANNON, Secretary 



FRANK M. FOLSOM, President 
ERNEST B. GORIN, Treasurer 




The Chairman of the Board addresses RCA stockholders at the 36th Annual Meeting in NBC Studio 8H. 



that a reasonable number of color programs will be 
broadcast with regularity and this number will increase 
rapidly as more color sets are installed in homes. He 
said that RCA is confident that it can sell all the color 
sets and tubes it will produce between now and the 
end of this year. 

"Sales of black-and-white television sets are con- 
tinuing at a high level and the extraordinary values 
offered by the industry as a whole, assure a good market 
for the remainder of this year," continued General 
SarnofF. "RCA continues to hold a leading position in 
this field and its production and sales programs for the 
balance of the year are geared accordingly. 

"I expect that in 1956 and the years ahead, RCA 
earnings from sales of color television sets will sub- 
stantially exceed its earnings from sales of black-and- 
white sets during those years." 

NBC Color TV Plans 

General Sarnoff said that today nearly 100 stations 
affiliated with the National Broadcasting Company are 
equipped to handle color programs. Calling attention 
to NBC's plans for expansion of color television in the 



autumn of this year, he said that the schedule will 
include a new dramatic series produced by Maurice 
Evans, featuring plays by Shakespeare, George Bernard 
Shaw and others. The NBC Spectacular color programs 
will be continued on Saturday, Sunday and Monday 
nights as during the past season. In addition, several 
other major color programs are being planned and color 
inserts will be featured in the "Today" and "Home" 
programs. An afternoon color show for children is 
being scheduled for the 5 to 6 o'clock period, and it is 
expected that several football games will be telecast in 
color using the NBC mobile unit, which will go directly 
to the gridirons. 

Radio, "Victrola" Phonographs and Records 

New portable radios and the outlook for pocket-size 
personal radios equipped with transistors will provide 
radio with a new and extended range of service, Gen- 
eral Sarnoff said. Similarly, he pointed out, improve- 
ments in sound recording, in high-fidelity and 3-speed 
phonographs have put the record business on a new 
upward trend. 

Stockholders were informed that first-quarter sales 



4 RADIO AGE 



of the RCA International Division in 1955 reached the 
highest level for any comparable period. 

"A significant development in our international ac- 
tivities during the first quarter of 1955," said General 
SarnofF, "was the incorporation of an RCA licensee 
service and research laboratory at Zurich, Switzerland. 
This laboratory will conduct scientific research and pro- 
vide technical assistance to our European licensees in 
the same way that our licensee laboratory in Japan is 
furnishing assistance to our licensees in that area." 

He stated that RCA operations in Latin America 
were being expanded, as were operations of the RCA 
Canadian Company — RCA Victor Company, Limited 
— which in the first quarter of 1955 was 10% ahead 
in business over the same period last year. He revealed 
that phonograph records manufactured under the RCA 
label were introduced nine months ago in France, 
Belgium and Holland, with encouraging acceptance. 

Airborne Radar 

General Sarnoff called attention to the fact that 
recently RCA received from United Air Lines the 
largest order for RCA airborne radar in the history of 
commercial aviation — $2,500,000. 

"Broad experience in communications, electronics, 
airborne television, radar and navigation systems, quali- 



fied RCA for an ever-expanding role in the field of 
commercial aviation," said General Sarnoff. "Our long 
years of research and development work in military 
aviation and the missile field lead us naturally into 
commercial aviation to enhance its safety, sharpen the 
precision of flight schedules and help to assure dependa- 
bility in plane performance." 

Bizmac 

Applications of electronics to business and industry 
are continually broadening in scope, according to Gen- 
eral Sarnoff. He said that in this field RCA has devel- 
oped a new and highly advanced electronic data process- 
ing system known as "Bizmac." It is designed to handle 
with instantaneous "push-button" operation such busi- 
ness tasks as invoicing, inventory control and other 
clerical routines. For example, if used in department 
stores, insurance companies, banks and other organiza- 
tions which have thousands of accounts, "Bizmac," in 
one minute, can perform file maintenance on 3,000 
accounts. 

Under development for more than five years, the 
first "Bizmac" system is being custom-built for delivery 
next Fall, General Sarnoff said, to the U. S. Army Ord- 
nance Tank-Automotive Command at Detroit, Michigan, 
where it will be used for the stock control of parts for 
military combat and transport vehicles. 



On the production line 
at Bloomington, Ind., RCA 
Victor 21 -inch color TV 
sets are readied for ship- 
ment after final tests. 




RADIO AGE 5 



"Sarnoff Plan" to Win the Cold War 



A 



FIRM and open decision "to win the Cold War," 
as the "surest way to prevent a Hot War," was urged 
upon our Government by Brig. General David Sarnoff, 
Chairman of the Board of RCA, in a memorandum pre- 
sented to the White House on April 5, and made public 
on May 10. 

Pointing out that the Kremlin's fixed goal is world 
dominion by means short of an all-out war — propa- 
ganda, fifth-column subversion, civil strife, terror and 
treacherous diplomacy — General Sarnoff declared: 

"Logically we have no alternative but to acknowledge 
the reality of the Cold War and proceed to turn Mos- 
cow's favorite weapons against world Communism. Our 
political counter-strategy has to be as massive, as in- 
tensive, as flexible as the enemy's. 

"The question, in truth, is no longer whether we 
should engage in the Cold War. The Soviet drive is 
forcing us to take counter-measures in any case. The 
question, rather, is whether we should undertake it with 
a clear-headed determination to use all means deemed 
essential, by governments and by private groups, to win 
the contest." 

Discussed with President Eisenhower 

General Sarnoff's memorandum, entitled "Program 
for a Political Offensive Against World Communism," 
grew out of his discussion of the subject with President 
Eisenhower in Washington on the morning of March 
15, and announced at the time by James Hagerty, White 
House Press Secretary. 

The same afternoon, at the President's request. 
General Sarnoff conferred with Nelson Rockefeller, Spe- 
cial Assistant to the President on psychological warfare, 
and officials from the U. S. Information Service and the 
Central Intelligence Agency. At the end of the meeting 
he undertook to submit his views on the subject and 
a suggested program of action. 

The result was the memorandum, in which he em- 
phasized that "we must go from defense to attack in 
meeting the political, ideological, subversive challenge. 
The problem," he said, "is one of attaining the requisite 
magnitude, financing, coordination and continuity of 
action. The expanded offensive with non-military means 



must be imbued with a new awareness of the great goal 
and a robust will to reach it." 

People everywhere, and especially behind the Iron 
Curtain, General Sarnoff recommended, should be told 
that "America has decided, irrevocably, to win the Cold 
War; that its ultimate aim is, in concert with all peoples, 
to cancel out the destructive power of Soviet-based 
Communism." 

No Substitute for "Adequate Military Vitality" 

General Sarnoff declared that his proposals "should 
not be construed as a substitute for adequate military 
vitality," both in the newest weapons and balanced 
conventional forces. 

"But short of a blunder that ignites the Third World 
War which nobody wants," he added, "the immediate 
danger is the debilitating, costly, tense war of nerves 
that is part of the Cold War. The primary threat today 
is political and psychological." 

If we allow ourselves to be defeated in the cold 
struggle, he warned, "we will have bypassed a nuclear 
war — but at the price of our freedom and independ- 
ence. We can freeze to death as well as burn to death." 

Existing organization for fighting and winning the 
Cold War must be "adjusted and strengthened in line 
with the expanded scale and intensity of operations," 
General Sarnoff said. He proposed a "Strategy Board 
for Political Defense, the Cold War equivalent of the 
Joint Chiefs of Staff on the military side," functioning 
"directly under the President, with Cabinet status for its 
head." 

The conflict on the political front, he said, "is not 
a preliminary bout but the decisive contest, in which 
the loser may not have a second chance. It must there- 
fore be carried on with the same focused effort, the 
same resolute spirit, the same willingness to accept costs 
and casualties, that a Hot War would involve." 

The specific activities cited as examples in the 
memorandum would be carried out not only by official 
agencies but by private groups such as labor unions, 
veterans' organizations, churches, youth and women's 
groups. The Soviet-controlled countries, it showed, are 
extremely vulnerable to precisely the kind of psycho- 



6 RADIO AGE 



logical pressures the Communists are using against free 
nations. 

Emphasizes New Communications Developments 

In outlining a vastly enlarged propaganda effort, 
General Sarnoff drew attention to opportunities opened 
up by new technical developments in communications. 
For instance, "mobile big-screen television units in 
black-and-white and in color" would be effective in non- 
Communist regions where "their very novelty will guar- 
antee large and attentive audiences." 

"Vast regions in Asia and elsewhere, where illiteracy 
bars the written word and lack of radios bars the spoken 
word," General Sarnoff explained, "could thus be 
reached." 

His plan also included mass distribution of "cheap 
and lightweight receivers tuned to pick up American 
signals." In addition, "a simple, hand-operated phono- 
graph device costing no more than a loaf of bread" and 



"records made of cardboard and costing less than a 
bottle of Coca-Cola" could be made available by the 
million in critical areas. 

"Propaganda, for maximum effect, must not be an 
end in itself — it is a preparation for action," the 
memorandum stated. "Words that are not backed up 
by deeds, that do not generate deeds, lose their impact." 

The arena of action is the whole globe. General 
Sarnoff believes. We must aim, he said, "to achieve 
dramatic victories as swiftly as possible, as token of 
the changed state of affairs." He saw great possibilities 
for encouraging and guiding "passive resistance" by 
individuals, with a minimum of risk, in the Soviet 
empire. 

Help for "Pockets of Guerilla Forces" 

At the same time he took note of the fact that 
"pockets of guerilla forces remain in Poland, Hungary, 



Towers of the Radio Free Europe transmitter in Portugal 
symbolize today's U. S. Cold War effort. 



A German worker for Radio Free Europe launches a 
leaflet-laden balloon toward Czechoslovakia. 




the Baltic states, China, Albania and other areas." These 
"must be kept supplied with information, slogans and 
new leadership where needed and prudent." 

"We must seek out the weakest links in the Krem- 
lin's chain of power," General Sarnoff declared. "The 
country adjudged ripe for a break-away should receive 
concentrated study and planning. A successful uprising 



in Albania, for instance, would be a body blow to 
Soviet prestige and a fateful stimulus to resistance else- 
where." 

Among the specific activities discussed in the memo- 
randum were intensive collaboration with emigres and 
escapees from communist countries and special schools 
to train personnel for political-psychological warfare. 



Williamsburg Settlement Award 

o 










■..-., 



T. 



.HE GOLD medal award of the Williamsburg Settle- 
ment was presented to Brig. General David Sarnoff on 
May 15 at a New York dinner attended by leaders in 
the fields of journalism, finance, government and diplo- 
macy. The principal speaker was Senator Lyndon B. 
Johnson, Senate Majority Leader, who paid tribute to 
General Sarnoff as "one man who has given as much 
to his country as he has received." 

Referring to General Sarnoff's "cold war" plan, 
Senator Johnson described it as pointing the way to "a 
solution of the greatest problem before our people." 

"We have much to save, much to preserve," Senator 
Johnson said. "It would be folly if we failed to save 
and failed to preserve because we had placed our faith 
in military strength alone. If David Sarnoff has pro- 
vided us with a clue to the answer — and I believe he 
has — he will have demonstrated once again that free 
men can always conquer tyranny. From the brains of 
such men we can always draw vital ideas." 

Presentation of the medal was made by Bernard M. 
Baruch, who said in part: 

"In a long and rather active life, especially in the 
troublous times through which we have passed and are 
now passing, one meets many men of all races and 
creeds, and all nationalities, and in various arenas of 
life and activities — political, military, scientific, in war 



and in peace. And out of all of these men and women 
we select naturally some of those we consider the best. 
I have always felt privileged to select David Sarnoff 
as one of those men whom I wished to cultivate on 
account of many qualities, particularly his vision. 

"He's a practical engineer; he's a practical scientist 
with all the knowledge of modern electronics and the 
splitting of the atom; he is what I call an industrial 
statesman. I say that because it is evidenced in what 
he did in the work particularly in which he is engaged 
in the corporation which he runs. He thinks not only of 
the interests of his stockholders but the interests of his 
workers and the interests of the public and above all, 
the interests of his country, rhe latest evidence of which 
is in this proposal which Senator Johnson has so 
eloquently spoken of tonight. 

"If in my experience I was asked to suggest a small 
group of men because of their experience, their wisdom, 
to guide this country in war or in peace on any crisis, 
David Sarnoff's name would be high on any list no 
matter how small it would be. . . . 

"When you think of David Sarnoff you have to 
think of him in terms of bigness — of bigness in mind, 
in spirit, in courage, and in his devotion to his coun- 
try. . . ." 

Honored by New York Masons 

The honor was the second bestowed upon General 
S.irnoff during the month by a prominent organization. 
On May 3, he received the seventeenth Grand Lodge 
Medal for Distinguished Achievement at the 174th 
Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of New 
York State Masons. The medal was awarded to General 
Sarnoff as the Masonic man of the year for "his tech- 
nical training, creative vision, executive ability and the 
cultural interest which sparked his plan to carry great 
music into millions of homes." 



8 RADIO AGE 




11 1 






8 .« 



Discussing "Monitor" opening at NBC's new Radio Central are, left to right Sylvester L. Weaver, Jr., NBC Presi- 
dent; James Fleming, Executive Producer and Editor of "Monitor," Robert W. Sarnoff, NBC Executive Vice-President; 
Dave Garroway, "Monitor" Communicator, and Mike Zeamer, program's Entertainment Producer. 



"Monitor" Takes to the Air 



A he National Broadcasting Company has 
opened a new era in network radio with the revolution- 
ary service, "Monitor." Using the immediacy and mo- 
bility of radio, "Monitor" is designed to bring listeners 
whatever is most interesting, important or entertaining, 
wherever it may be happening. 

The new weekend radio service was introduced 
June 12 with an ear-and-eye-opening one-hour similcast 
— a program presented on both radio and television — 
from NBC Radio Central, the network's new §150,000 
world listening post in New York. Continuing on the 
NBC radio network for eight hours in its opening 
broadcast, "Monitor" indicated its scope with a virtual 
kaleidoscope of information and entertainment. Among 
its features were: 

— A tense interview with a prisoner inside the walls 
of the Federal Penitentiary at San Quentin. 

— A jazz concert by Howard Rumsey and his band 
at Hermosa Beach. California. 

— A bewildering conversation between Al Kelly, 
the double-talk artist, and baseball fans in a Manhattan 
tavern. 

— The departure of a London-bound Constellation 
carrying a transmitter for later in-flight reports relayed 
back to "Monitor." 



— A pickup of Jerry Lewis at Brown's Hotel in the 
Catskills and a preview of a segment of his latest film. 

— A discussion of "The Spiritual Climate of Amer- 
ica," with Dr. William Saltonstall, principal of Phillips- 
Exeter Academy, interviewing Dr. Nathan Pusey, Presi- 
dent of Harvard. 

— A dress rehearsal of Victor Jory's "The Fairly 
Fortune" at Bucks County Playhouse, with a com- 
mentary by producer Michael Ellis. 

The Opening Team 

The initial simulcast was presided over by Sylvester 
L. Weaver, Jr., President of NBC, and featured James 
Fleming, executive producer and editor of "Monitor." 
Also on hand were "communicators" Dave Garroway, 
Clifton Fadiman, Walter Kiernan, Morgan Beatty, Frank 
Gallop and Ben Grauer. During the show. Bob Elliott 
and Ray Goulding roamed NBC Radio Central playing 
the roles of an NBC page and a confused tourist. 

Since this first broadcast, "Monitor," which runs con- 
tinuously from 8 a.m. Saturday to midnight Sunday, has 
proven itself as a new concept in electronics — a week- 
end radio service attuned to modern habits of living and 
listening. Over and above such basic services as news, 
sports, time signals and the weather, "Monitor" presents 



RADIO AGE 9 




In the new "Monitor" studio, Editor James Fleming signals 

to control room during initial broadcast. Seated at his 

left is Clifton Fadiman, program "Communicator." 



vignettes of outstanding comedy, drama, theatre, and 
films, as well as such features as panel discussions, spe- 
cial events, commentaries and interviews. 

At the heart of the "Monitor" concept, according to 
the NBC announcement, is the rule that material should 
not be cramped or stretched out to fit arbitrary time 
periods, as in previous radio programming. Rather, 
"Monitor's" services, features and vignettes are presented 
in the length of time best suited to the material itself. 
Thus its content may range from a single gag or a few 
lines of verse to a scene from a Broadway play or a full 
political debate. 

"Monitor" makes full use of the immediacy, mo- 
bility and intimacy of radio. During its eight-hour 
debut, the service made 22 remote pickups from 13 
places, including such overseas centers as London, Paris, 
Vienna, Singapore and Tokyo. In a split second, the 
listener may be transported from the National Open 
Golf Championship in San Francisco to a concert in 
Boston. One minute he may enjoy a chat with "Amer- 
ica's Most Beautiful Bride" and the next he may sit in 
on a discussion in the White House. 

The "Communicators" 

The key people of "Monitor" are its "communica- 
tors," the broadcasting personalities who sit at the con- 
trols, preside over the events, tie one vignette or feature 
to another, and generally add their personal touch to 
the proceedings. Each communicator works for four 
hours at a stretch and each is backed by a team of 
experts, including a disc jockey, a news caster, and a 
sports editor, as well as writers and specialists in program 
development. 



From his post in NBC Radio Central, the communi- 
cator is in push-button touch with all parts of the free 
world. Seated at his control console, he commands 
direct lines to all important news centers in the United 
States, overseas circuits to foreign news capitals, con- 
nections to every NBC television studio, lines to the 
news rooms of NBC affiliated stations in 200 cities, and 
special mobile radio units roving abour the country. He 
can draw on a stockpile of tape recordings, a battery 
of playback equipment, tickers from all the news serv- 
ices, and one of the world's finest record libraries. 

Radio Central, located in the RCA Building, is a 
concentration of the most modern electronic facilities. 
Its glass-enclosed control and news rooms and its tape- 
recording and announce booths are designed for swift 
and smooth coordination. As a single instance of its 
capacity for complex communication, Radio Central 
can handle 12 individual pickup points at one time, 
whether foreign or domestic or a combination of both. 
The layout was planned and constructed under the direc- 
tion of Chester A. Rackey, manager of audio-video 
engineering, in collaboration with Charles Colledge, 
Gerald Sellar, Richard H. Edmondson and John R. 
Kennedy. 

In Radio Central, the communicator has before him 
television monitors carrying whatever NBC-TV program 
is being broadcast at the time. From these he can pick 
up the sound. In this way, "Monitor" both entertains its 
listeners and keeps them abreast of television. 

Music is a Vital Part 

Another vital part of the "Monitor" service is 
music, whether dance music, jazz, classical, bop or pop. 
The communicator can draw on the NBC staff orches- 
tras and the extensive NBC library of high-fidelity 
records. He can call in music from foreign points by 
shortwave and tape and he can reach out over the 
United States by live remote pickup to bring listeners 
the nation's top dance bands and music festivals. 

"Monitor" also features unusual sounds. Its identify- 
ing signal is compounded of a long distance telephone 
tone, and the Morse Code letter "M" sent on an oscil- 
lator. Ever since the service was conceived, NBC cor- 
respondents the world over have been tape-recording 
unusual sounds and sending them into Radio Central. 
Among them: the sounds of corn growing, an earth- 
quake in Madagascar, feeding time in an alligator pit 
and the mating call of the giant tortoise. 

"Monitor" is aimed at being all things to all listen- 
ers, keeping Americans abreast of fast-moving events 
everywhere and entertaining them with the best the 
world has to offer. "Monitor" as its slogan declares, 
"is going places and doing things." 



70 RADIO AGE 



The Case Against Pay -TV 



JL ay-television will degrade and ultimately destroy 
free television, Brig. General David Sarnoff, Chairman 
of the Boards of RCA and the National Broadcasting 
Company, warned in a statement filed on June 6 with 
the Federal Communications Commission in Washing- 
ton. 

"The pay-television promoters' philosophy of cash- 
on-the-barrelhead television is not in the public interest," 
General Sarnoff declared. "Their standard of public 
interest is 'No Fee — No See.' " 

Urging that American radio and television broad- 
casting be kept free to the public, General Sarnoff said 
that coexistence between free television and pay-tele- 
vision is impractical. Pay-television, he added, would 
turn the American system of free broadcasting into a 
restricted system of "narrowcasting." 

"To the extent that pay-television might be finan- 
cially successful, it would jeopardize the basis for eco- 
nomic survival of a free television system," he said. "In 
these circumstances, free television broadcasters would 
inevitably be forced by economic necessity to engage in 
pay-television, and this, in turn, would set off a chain 
reaction which ultimately would mean the end of our 
American system of free television. . . . 

"The American people now receive, free, the best 
television service available anywhere in the world. There 
are more television broadcasting stations in the United 
States than in all the rest of the world combined. There 
are more television receivers in the United States than in 
all the rest of the world combined. American television 
stations offer the American people more television pro- 
grams and a wider choice of television programming 
than any other television service in the world. . . . 
"It would be tragic for this Commission to authorize 
pay-television to cripple this great democratic medium 
for the free dissemination of ideas, education and enter- 
tainment to all the people of America." 

Major Points Against Pay-Television 

Among major points against subscription television 
made by General Sarnoff were: 

1. Free television programming quality would suffer. 

2. Outstanding programs and stars would move 
from free to pay-television. 

3. Sports events would move from free to pay- 
television. 



4. Public service programming would suffer. 

5. Motion picture producers may gain control of 
TV programs. 

6. Pay-television would black out free television 
for millions. 

He pointed out that none of the promoters of pay- 
television had said that he would invest any of his 
money in building new broadcasting stations to transmit 
pay-television programs. They plan, he said, to use the 
facilities that free television has built and supports at 
great cost. 

"The pay-television promoters attack present free 
television programming with the statement that it is 
not in fact free because it is paid for by advertisements 
reflected in the prices of the products," General Sarnoff 
said. "This argument is as absurd as contending that 
purchases of automobiles and clothing subsidize the 
press and that, were there no press, automobiles and 
clothing would cost the consumer less. Of course, it is 
elementary economics that advertising produces in- 
creased sales, which in turn make possible increased 
production, lower costs and lower prices to the con- 
sumer. . . ." 

Free Television Programming 
Pointing out that as the size of the television audi- 
ence has increased the free television broadcaster has 
had more available to spend on improved programming, 
General Sarnoff said: 

"The pay-television promoters assert that their pro- 
grams would attract audiences of many millions. Their 
programs would be broadcast at choice times to ensure 
the largest possible cash audience. Since television re- 
ceivers can receive only one program at a time, the 
audiences available for free television during these hours 
would be diminished by many millions. To the extent 
that the free television audience is diminished, there 
would be less circulation available to the sponsor. And 
if there is less circulation available to the sponsor, there 
would be less money available to stations and networks 
for free television programming. All this would mean 
that the quality and quantity of free television program- 
ming would decline." 

Effect on Programs and Stars 

"The pay-television promoters say they would offer 
better programs because their system furnishes the 



RADIO AGE 11 



means to pay more for stars and program mu'erial," he 
continued. "If this is so, the result would be that any 
free television star or program material good enough 
to attract a large audience would be approached by the 
pay-television promoters who could offer more money 
than free television. 

"Commander McDonald of Zenith has belittled 
NBC's free presentation of Peter Pan by saying that 
'with the same show on subscription television, and the 
same audience paying twenry-five cents per set to watch 
the attraction at home, the box office would have re- 
ceived five million dollars to be divided between the 
producer, the distributors, and the broadcasting stations.' 
Clearly, there can be no Peter Pan or similar broadcasts 
on free television in Commander McDonald's calcula- 
tions; nor can it be suggested that Peter Pan could have 
been a better program if the pay-television promoters 
had been able to exact five million dollars from the 
American TV public. 

"The most popular stars and program material could 
vanish from free television just as soon as they had 
demonstrated their drawing power and were attracted 
by the cash box of pay-television promoters. Free tele- 
vision programming would thus suffer irreparably, and 
the public would have to pay for what it now receives 
free." 

Sports Events 

After citing statements of the presidents of Madison 
Square Garden, the Brooklyn Dodgers and Skiatron in- 
dicating that the public would be expected to pay for 
important sports programs now on free television, 
General Sarnoff said: 

"Bluntly stated, the pay-television promoters are 
speaking out of both sides of their mouth at the same 
time. They tell the public they would continue to get 
the same free programs they now receive and that pay- 
television would be just a 'supplementary service'. . . . 
But these same promoters have already pointed out that 
should this Commission adopt their proposals vast sums 
could be obtained from the public by moving programs, 
such as Peter Pan and outstanding sporting events, from 
free television to pay-television. 

"Further, the petitions these promoters have filed 
with this Commission carefully avoid any commitment 
that pay-television would not carry advertising. Obvi- 
ously this omission was not merely inadvertent." 

Public Service Programming 

Stating that shrinking revenues of television broad- 
casters would force curtailment and perhaps abandon- 
ment of public affairs, cultural and educational programs 
now presented by free television, General Sarnoff said: 

"Under the present American system of free tele- 



vision, broadcasters have assumed a public service re- 
sponsibility to present programs in the public interest 
even though many of these programs represent sub- 
stantial expenditure and may produce no monetary 
return. . . . 

"The pay-television promoters, while promising all 
things to all people, carefully limit their promises to 
all things to all people — for cash. A well-rounded 
TV service should — and under the free broadcasting 
system does — include programs of information, educa- 
tion, culture, and religion, even though these programs 
may not attract sponsors. But because there is no cash 
in such programs, they would not be carried on pay 
television. . . . 

Motion Picture Producers 

"Pay-television makes strange bedfellows, and the 
recent alliance between the powerful motion picture 
interests and the pay-television promoters is highly sig- 
nificant. For years the large motion picture companies 
have refused to make their products available for tele- 
vision. . . . 

"On May 24, 1954, a new approach was signaled by 
the spokesman for the motion picture industry, Eric 
Johnston, President of the Motion Picture Association. 
Mr. Johnston wholeheartedly endorsed pay-television. 

"The reason for the abrupt Hollywood turnabout is 
obvious. Paramount Pictures, promoters of Telemeter 
pay-television, and other motion picture producers, hav- 
ing been legally divorced by the courts from several 
thousand theater box offices to which they were so long 
wedded, are now panting for marriage to cash boxes 
that can be attached to thirty-five million television re- 
ceivers now in American homes. 

"We believe it would be fatal to the continued 
dynamic growth of television to enable Hollywood to 
dominate and control television programming. . . . 

". . . And pay-television, as administered by Holly- 
wood, would operate without responsibility for balanced 
and diversified programming in the public interest — a 
responsibility which the broadcasters have assumed." 

Free Television Blackout for Millions 

General Sarnoff said there are presently forty-five 
areas throughout the country, with six and a half million 
people, in which only one station renders acceptable 
service; that, in addition, there are sixteen areas, with 
about a million and a half people, in each of which 
there is outstanding a single construction permit for a 
television station. Accordingly, he pointed out, there 
are now, or soon will be, more than eight million people 
who receive all their television service from a single 
free television station. 

(Continued on page 30) 



12 RADIO AGE 



Color Telecast from Magnetic Tape 



A 



color television program recorded on mag- 
netic tape was transmitted over commercial television 
network facilities for the first time on May 12 by RCA 
and the National Broadcasting Company. 

The tape-recotded telecast originated with the proto- 
type RCA television tape recorder that has been installed 
for field testing at the NBC studios in Rockefellei 
Center, New York. Transmitted over a closed circuit 
from New York to Saint Paul, Minnesota, it highlighted 
the dedication cetemonies of the new research center of 
Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, makers 
of magnetic tape used in the RCA system. 

The historic program was recorded in advance on 
the developmental video tape system at the NBC studios, 
and the tape was stored until the scheduled transmission 
time. The telecast was sent to Saint Paul over the 
microwave relay facilities used by NBC for commercial 
network programs. 

On the tape were televised remarks by Brig. General 
David Sarnoff, Chairman of the Boards of RCA and 
NBC, who hailed the opening of the new research 
center as a "historic occasion," adding: 

"It is most gratifying to all of us in RCA that the 
scientists and engineers in our laboratories have built 



TV tape recorder at NBC is readied for its first color 
telecast by W. D. Houghton of RCA Laboratories. 




and are now field-testing the first television magnetic 
tape recorder which brings this message and other por- 
tions of this program to you in Minnesota. ... It is 
most fitting that you who developed and made the tape 
and we who developed and built the recorder should 
share in this great achievement." 

On TV Screen and In Person 

In addition to General Sarnoffs remarks, the pro- 
gram included a brief explanation of the system by 
Dr. Harry F. Olson, Director of the Acoustical and 
Electro-mechanical Research Laboratoty, RCA Labora- 
tories, and an entertainment program featuring Eddie 
Fisher, Bambi Linn, Rod Alexander, and Al Kelly. Dr. 
Olson, under whose direction the TV tape recorder 
was developed at the David Sarnoff Research Center of 
RCA in Princeton, N. J., not only appeared on TV 
screens in Saint Paul duting the tape telecast, but at- 
tended the ceremonies in person to discuss the recording 
system. 

Describing the demonstration as "a progress report" 
involving the new equipment installed at NBC, Dr. 
Olson said in the tape-recorded telecast that "some prob- 
lems remain to be solved." 

"These involve both the machine and the tape," he 
said. "We are certain that these problems will be solved. 
. . . We are confident that electronic photography will 
be an important tool first in television and later in 
industry and the home." 

The RCA TV magnetic tape recording system was 
first demonstrated under laboratoty conditions on De- 
cember 1, 1953, at the David Sarnoff Research Center. 
The system was described by General Sarnoff as the first 
major step into an era of "electronic photography," in 
which motion pictures in color or black-and-white will 
be produced quickly and economically, eliminating most 
of the time and all of the chemical processing involved 
in photography. 

It was pointed out at that time that RCA's objective 
in developing such a system was to achieve a swift, 
economical and efficient means of recording color tele- 
vision programs for storage, playbacks or re-broadcast. 

RADIO AGE 13 



How TV Turns . . 



"Strangers into Customers 



» 



J-HE NATIONAL BROADCASTING COMPANY has Com- 
pleted the most far-reaching survey ever attempted in 
television. The monumental Fort Wayne study, which 
took two years and $250,000 to complete, reveals for the 
first time the full impact of television on the way people 
spend their time and money. 

The survey's most startling departure was to cover 
the market both before and after television. Researchers 
interviewed no fewer than 7,500 households — one out 
of every six families — before television came to Fort 
Wayne. Then they re-surveyed the same homes about 
six months after the city's first TV station went on the 
air. As a result of this research in depth, the survey 
came up with such findings as these: 

After getting television, people spend nearly twice 
as much time with it as they spend with newspapers, 
magazines and radio combined. 

Television provides seven out of every ten "ad- 
vertising impressions" absorbed by set owners. 

Brands that are advertised on television enjoy a pref- 
erence of nearly two-to-one over competing non-TV 
brands. 

Motives of the Survey 

The study, titled "Strangers into Customers," was 
undertaken by NBC after a thorough canvassing of 
advertising people. The network discovered that ad- 
vertising leaders were already convinced of television's 
tremendous impact. What they most wanted to know 
was just how the power of television is brought to bear. 
For example: At what stage of the sale does the TV 
influence come in? How does it affect the non-TV 
brand? 

To answer these and other questions would go far 
beyond anything before attempted in TV research. 
Ideally, a solution would require a double survey: first 
in a market without television, then in the same market 
after the advent of TV. NBC chose Fort Wayne, Indiana, 
as a medium-sized, Midwestern city without its own tele- 
vision station. The survey, conducted by W. R. Sim- 
mons & Associates, got underway in October, 1953, a 
month before Fort Wayne's first TV station, WKJG- 
TV, was scheduled to go on the air. 

In the first wave of interviews, researchers questioned 
7,500 households — a sample size approaching a census. 
After about six months of television, the same homes 




Discussing Fort Wayne survey, left to right, are Sylvester 
L. Weaver, Jr., NBC President; Bernard C. Duffy, Presi- 
dent of Batton, Barton, Durstine and Osborn, and Dr. 
Thomas Coffin, NBC Manager of Research. 



were re-contacted, with some 90 per cent being success- 
fully re-interviewed. To make up the survey data only 
those homes interviewed on both occasions were counted. 

Researchers found that between the two interviewing 
waves 35 per cent of the families in Fort Wayne bought 
television sets. These new set buyers, who had owned 
their sets an average of three and a half months, were 
the group whose habits were most closely scrutinized. 

The survey showed that television had a profound 
effect on the way people budget their time. Before tele- 
vision, they spent 190 minutes on all media. Afterward, 
they spent 94 minutes on radio, newspapers, and mag- 
azines combined; and 173 minutes on television. Of 
their total media time, in other words, two out of every 
three minutes were spent with TV. 

"Remembered Advert/sing" 

In this way, television vastly expands the advertiser's 
opportunity to get across his message. The survey 
showed that TV becomes the viewers' most powerful 
source for "remembered advertising." 

One of the most revolutionary aspects of the study 
was its investigation of television's role in pre-selling 
the customer. It was the first time that a survey had 



14 RADIO AGE 



ever measured the influence of TV on the consumer at 
every step along the road to purchase. 

The first step in successful advertising is to make 
people aware of the brand name. Using a check-list in- 
cluding six TV-advertised brands, interviewers found 
that, on the average, television lifted brand awareness 
from 51 per cent "before" to 74 per cent "after". For 
Beautiflor, as an example, brand awareness rose from 
48 to 64 per cent. Kent climbed from 43 to 75 per cent. 

Besides recognizing the brand name, people must 
also associate it with the product. Interviewers used the 
same check-list to press respondents with other ques- 
tions: What is it, what is it used for? In three and a 
half months of television, correct identification of Kents 
sky-rocketed from 27 to 63 per cent; Beautiflor from 41 
to 57 per cent. The overall average for all six brands 
rose from 41 to 65 per cent. 

Driving Home the Trademark 

Still farther along on the road to a sale is recogni- 
tion of the trade mark. Interviewers showed masked 
trademarks ranging from the virtually unknown Arm- 
strong encircled "A" to RCA Victor's attentive dog 
listening to his master's voice. Recognition of Arm- 
strong's mark rose from 1 to 13 per cent after television, 
while RCA's climbed from 66 to 82 per cent. 

Similar results were found in TV's power to put 
across the advertising slogan. In Fort Wayne, it raised 
the best-known slogan to a point where almost nine out 
of ten women knew the product it was selling. This 
was Glo-Coat, which jumped from 62 to 86 per cent. 
Lucky Strike's slogan rose from 37 to 64 per cent and 
Camay's from 54 to 83 per cent. 

What was TV's effect on a brand's reputation? 
Women were asked to offer their opinion of the TV 

Fort Wayne, Ind., selected by researchers for far-reach- 
ing survey of TV's impact on consumers. 




brands on a scale ranging from "Poor" to "Very Good. 
After TV, the "Poor" and "Fair" responses decreased 
while the "Very Good" opinions increased — from 12 
to 17 per cent for Lilt, and from 17 to 24 per cent for 
Cheer. The "Very Good" rating increased on every 
single TV brand checked, for an average increase of 
nine points. 

But television does more than improve a brand's 
score on a rating scale. It literally tips the preference 
scale in favor of the TV brand — the last step before 
purchase. Researchers took pairs of competing products 
— a TV brand and a non-TV brand — and asked the 
direct question: "Which of these two do you think is 
better?" Pet milk started out 19 per cent behind Carna- 
tion, which was a non-TV brand in Fort Wayne. After 
television, Pet emerged 71 per cent ahead. 

The Final Test of Sales 

In the final test — sales — TV achieved some of its 
most spectacular results. After television, the average 
TV brand increased sales to new set buyers by 33 per 
cent. Before TV, for example, 14.8 per cent of the 
respondents bought Gleem; after TV, 24 per cent of the 
new set buyers bought it. In the case of Ajax, the per- 
centage rose from 32.8 per cent to 48.3 per cent. 

Thus, in the chain of converting strangers into cus- 
tomers, television sharpens the awareness of brand 
names, rivets the brand name to the product, drives 
home the trademark, sells the slogan, enhances brand 
reputation, tips the scales of preference and finally 
makes the sale. 

The survey also covered managers of every food 
and drug store in Fort Wayne. Dealers agreed that 
they could hardly fail to notice the effects of TV. As 
one of them put it, "I don't have to look at television 
to see what's being advertised. I can tell from the bare 
spots on the shelves." When dealers were asked which 
national advertising does the best job of moving goods 
in their stores, 47 per cent chose television, as against 
17 per cent for newspapers, seven per cent for radio 
and five per cent for magazines. 

Dr. Thomas E. Coffin, NBC Manager of Research, 
who planned and supervised the survey, summed up the 
lessons of Fort Wayne with these words: "Television 
is a tremendous advertising force with an inherent 
talent for doing the intensive pre-selling job that is so 
vital in marketing today. It is a force for growth- 
minded, survival-minded manufacturers. For under the 
marketing conditions which exist today, few retailers 
have the time, or the inclination, or the capacity to 
influence individual customers as effectively as television 
does — at every stage of the buying process as it con- 
verts 'Strangers into Customers.' " 

RADIO AGE 15 




Products of the Future . . . 



What lies ahead in electronics for the American consumer? 
On the basis of today's research, the devices and systems shown 
on these pages may well form a substantial part of RCA's busi- 
ness by 1975. Prepared in consultation with scientists at the 
David Sarnoff Research Center of RCA, these drawings were 
created for the United States Chamber of Commerce as a repre- 
sentation of the products which RCA may be manufacturing and 
marketing in the years to come. 



PICTURE 

FKAME 

TELEVISION 





ELECTRONIC 
REFRIGERATOR 



Picture frame television, controlled remotely 

from small box on tabic in the foreground, and 

noiseless, portable electronic refrigerators may 

be living room features in 1975. 



Two-way wrist radios, capable of communicat- 
ing over distances of several miles, can be ex- 
pected to develop from today's trend toward 
miniaturization of electronic equipment. 



Portable television sets, with the same type of 
thin screen used in picture-frame TV in the 
home, can ultimately provide versatility avail- 
able today only in portable radios. 





Electronic music synthesizers, developed from 

today's prototype RCA system, will be put to 

ever wider use as a tool for creating recorded 

music for the home listener. 



Portable TV tape recorder, based on today's 
developmental RCA system for broadcast use, 
may be used for home electronic motion pic- 
tures, or for recording favorite TV programs. 



ELECTRONIC EXHAUSTS 




Electronic refrigeration, warming and ventila- 
tion may bring major changes in kitchen design 
by permitting greater dispersal of refrigerator 
and stove. Exhausts have no moving parts. 



ELECTRONIC 

REFRIGERATOR 

DRAWERS 



Electronic room cooling and heating, achieved 
with panels which will cool or heat according 
to the direction of current, may be developed 
on the basis of principles employed in RCA ex- 
perimental electronic refrigerator. 





Color TV broadcast studio, above, was feature of RCA 
exhibit at the NARTB convention. At right, a model of the 
exhibit is studied by T. A. Smith, center, Vice-President 
and General Manager, RCA Engineering Products Divi- 
sion, with A. R. Hopkins, left, Manager, Broadcast 
Equipment Marketing, and John P. Taylor, Manager, 
Advertising and Sales Promotion. 

New Aids to Color 
TV Broadcasting 

T 

J-HREE new developments that promise greater 
flexibility, economy and efficiency in color television 
broadcasting were introduced by RCA during May at 
the annual convention of the National Association of 
Radio and Television Broadcasters in Washington. 
The developments include: 

1. A new-type studio color TV camera that costs 
25 per cent less than previous RCA color camera equip- 
ment, while offering savings in operating costs, studio 
space, and maintenance; 

2. A new universal multiplexer which integrates 
monochrome and color projection facilities, permitting 
broadcasters to use a single multiplexer and the same 
projectors for televising both color and monochrome 
slides and films; 

3. Special color-effects equipment that will enable 
broadcasters to originate television commercials, pro- 
gram titles, and station identification in color from 
black-and-white slides and art work. 

Developed by the RCA Engineering Products Divi- 
sion, the new equipment was shown in a completely 
equipped color TV broadcast studio installed for the 
NARTB meeting. The studio formed the major feature 
of an overall exhibit which also included RCA's new 
"Ampliphase" AM radio broadcast transmitter and a 
versatile, high-power broadcast microwave system cap- 



able of delivering stronger and more stable TV signals 
over greater distances than comparable equipment. 

The new RCA color TV studio camera incorporates a 
revolutionary "all-in-one" signal processing amplifier 
which combines and performs all signal processing func- 
tions and eliminates various components, according to 
A. R. Hopkins, Manager, Broadcast Equipment Market- 
ing, of the RCA Engineering Products Division. Com- 
pared with previous color camera equipment, the new 
model offers a number of important advantages, Mr. 
Hopkins said. Among these he emphasized that the 
new camera equipment requires little more studio space 
than do black-and-white camera chains, employs 134 
fewer electron tubes, and eliminates 50 per cent of the 
DC power supplies required previously. 

Discussing the new color-effects equipment, Mr. 
Hopkins emphasized its value to television stations now 
equipped to transmit network color programs. At the 
present time, such stations return to black-and-white 
during station breaks in network programs, unless they 
happen to be equipped with live or film color cameras. 
With the new equipment, however, they will be able to 
add electronically up to 24 different pre-selected colors 
to the black and to the white portions of a picture. 



78 RADIO AGE 



X 



"Harmony— Keynote for Our Times" 



HE DAY OF "warrior leaders," on the side of either 
capital or labor, is history, Brig. General David Sarnoff, 
Chairman of the Board of RCA, told the American 
Federation of Musicians in an address to its annual 
convention in Cleveland on June 7. General Sarnoff 
was the first representative of business management ever 
to address the convention. 

"Together," he said, "we have made America a 
nation of music lovers." He called attention to the fact 
that more people attend musical concerts than major 
league baseball games — 15 million Americans pay to 
attend baseball games in a year, 35 million pay to attend 
classical musical concerts, and the amount of money 
spent at the music box office is S50 million compared 
with baseball's $40 million. 

Selecting "Harmony" as the keynote of his address. 
Gen. Sarnoff said that in this advanced era, honest 
differences must be settled by negotiation characterized 
by reason, understanding and fair-dealing. 

"Never before has economic statesmanship, on the 
part of leaders of management and of labor, been more 
essential," he said. "Fortunately we have, together, al- 
ready mapped out vast areas of agreement and common 
interest. Our job is to protect those areas and constantly 
to enlarge them, so that we may confront and solve the 
inevitable problems of living together in a mood of 
mutual trust and respect. 

"Because we live in a time of great technological 
development and rapid change, the need for under- 
standing and adjustment is imperative. Above all, it 
applies to the relations between employers and em- 
ployees. The machinery of our nation's life is too 
complex, too deeply integrated, too finely balanced, to 
be subjected to the blows of unnecessary, unwanted, un- 
economic strikes, lockouts, or boycotts." 

General Sarnoff said that some people seem to be 
scared by a new word in the industrial lexicon — 
"automation" — which he defined as "the process of 
substituting automatic for human controls in the manu- 
facture, packaging and distribution of goods; and the 
equivalent process in mines, office work, accounting and 
the like." 

The only thing really new about automation, he 
asserted, is the label. 

"The evolutionary process of mechanizing work has 
been going on for a long time, and at an accelerated 
rate of change. Surely we have no reason for regrets 
on that score, as we look around this great nation, freer 
and more prosperous than any in history. We may be 
confident that a generation hence our posterity will 



have just as little regret about the fruition of the 
progress now in blossom." 

Pointing out that the American workman's right to 
organize and to bargain collectively for a larger share 
of the fruits of his labor has not merely been recog- 
nized but is sanctioned and protected by law, General 
Sarnoff added, "labor has won its long and heroic 
struggle, but capital has not lost it." Both, he declared, 
share equally in the victory, which has brought them a 
substantial measure of enduring peace. 

"Harmony is desirable at all times, by any common 
sense test," said General Sarnoff. "In the present period 
it has become an absolute necessity. For America it has 
become the very condition of survival. 

"We are living in a world of unprecedented change 
and great peril. Our civilization, our morality, every- 
thing we cherish for ourselves and our children is today 
at stake in the contest between freedom and slavery. 

"The challenge is real and the danger is present 
Not in centuries has mankind faced a historical crisis 
as basic, or as far reaching in its possible consequences. 
Destiny has placed our beloved America in a position 
of leadership on the side of freedom. It is a position 
we must not surrender." 

"It is to the eternal glory of American labor," he 
said, "that it has never allowed itself to be trapped by 
Communist blandishments." 

Pioneering in Television 

The following testimony to General Sarnoff's far- 
sighted encouragement of television was offered by 
Harold Hough, Director of Radio and TV for WBAP, 
Fort Worth, Texas, at the Washington convention of 
the National Association of Radio and Television Broad- 
casters in May: 

"It was not until the NAB (National Association 
of Broadcasters) meeting in Atlantic City in the spring 
of 1947 that we really got in high. Our plans up to 
that time were timid, but like many others after listen- 
ing then to General Sarnoff's authoritative and electri- 
fying picture of television, we began to realize its real 
possibilities — then we got hot. Many of you felt the 
same shock. I know I rushed home, went in to see my 
boss and tried to deliver word for word the ideas the 
General had given us. Of course, you understand I used 
much smaller words! At the conclusion, the boss said, 
'Well, the General seems to be quite bullish on tele- 
vision.' And I remember saying, 'Bull nothing, he is 
elephant' — whereupon I was instructed to get into it 
on an elephant scale." 



RADIO AGE 79 



Official Opening . 



New RCA Center at Cherry Hill 



_I_ he COMPLETION of an ultra-modern five-building 
center for the administrative and engineering facilities 
of RCA consumer products and the RCA Service Com- 
pany was marked with an "open house" on May 6 at 
Cherry Hill, a suburb of Camden, N. J. 

The official opening of the new center, in construc- 
tion for more than a year, was commemorated by the 
regular meetings of the Boards of Directors of RCA, 
the National Broadcasting Company, and RCA Com- 
munications, Inc. Brig. General David Sarnoff, Chair- 
man of the Boards, presided, and later joined with Frank 
M. Folsom, President of RCA, and other executives to 
welcome local community leaders and other guests in- 
vited to inspect the premises. 

The new installation, located on a 58-acre tract, was 
designed to accommodate the executive, administrative 
and engineering staffs of the RCA Victor Television 
Division, the RCA Victor Radio and "Victrola" Divi- 
sion, and the RCA Service Company, Inc., which for- 
merly were located in Camden and Gloucester, N. J., 
respectively. RCA's Engineering Products Division, as 
well as various RCA Corporate Staff activities, still are 
maintained in downtown Camden. 




Brig. General David Sarnoff and Frank F. Folsom inspect 
an early "Victrola" phonograph in the historical exhibi- 
tion at the new Cherry Hill Center of RCA. 



Equivalent of 31-Story Office Building 

Approximately 1,400 persons are employed at the 
new center. The two- and three-story buildings, de- 
signed to blend with the rolling countryside in which 
they are located, have a total of 325,000 square feet of 
space — roughly the equivalent of a conventional 35- 
story office building. 

A major attraction at the Cherry Hill installation 
is the "RCA Hall of Progress," a historical exhibition 
located on the entrance floor of the administration build- 
ing. The exhibit is devoted to a visual history of the 
development of "Victrola" phonographs, radios and 
television. 

Among the displays of principal interest is a collec- 
tion of RCA Victor television sets, ranging from a 
pioneer 5 -inch model of pre-war days to the latest 21- 
inch color receiver, and including the famed 630TS 
which helped to launch television as a nation-wide 
public service in the immediate post-war period. 

Also on hand in the exhibit is a replica of the earliest 
hand-wound "Victrola" phonograph, leading into a dis- 
play culminating in the latest RCA Victor $1,600 high 
fidelity phonograph. Tubes on display range from the 
first practical radio tubes to a replica of the mammoth 
RCA transmitter tubes used at the powerful U. S. Navy 
radio station at Jim Creek, Washington. The radios on 
display cover an equal range, beginning witli a replica 
of the set with which Marconi sent the first signal across 
the Atlantic. 

Already the exhibition has started to establish itself 
as a tourist attraction, with groups visiting the displays 
almost daily. 

New Construction Method Used 

Two years of planning preceded the start of con- 
struction which utilized newest building techniques, 
including the so-called "lift slab" method of pouring 
all floors at ground level and lifting them to position 
by means of hydraulic jacks. It was estimated that use 
of the latest building development resulted in a 20 per 
cent saving in the usual time to build such a project. 

Each of the structures was designed to permit peak 
efficiency while employees work in pleasant surround- 
ings. The layout of the floors permits a maximum num- 



20 RADIO AGE 







An air view of RCA's new five-building center at Cherry Hill, near Camden, N. J. Executive offices and museum are 
housed in building in left foreground. Others contain offices and engineering laboratory. 



ber of persons to occupy space near windows, thus 
giving them more natural light. The artificial lighting 
system was scientifically planned to reduce glare. 

The buildings feature year-round air conditioning. 
Office and laboratory space is acoustically treated to 
minimize noise. Work space is arranged to achieve a 
minimum of travel between floors and buildings. Ad- 
jacent paved parking lots provide adequate facilities 
for all employees, as well as visitors. 

A completely modern cafeteria and dining room. 



equipped to serve more than 1,400 people in shifts, also 
is included. Plans call for the future development of 
such employee recreational facilities as a picnic ground, 
Softball diamond and tennis courts. 

Vincent G. Kling, Philadelphia, was the architect on 
the project. Turner Construction Co., Philadelphia, was 
general contractor. Supervising construction activities 
of RCA were Frank Sleeter, Vice-President, Facilities 
Administration, and Robert F. McCaw, Manager, Facil- 
ities Planning Division. 



Transistorized Car Radio 

An experimental transistorized automobile radio that 
operates directly from a 6-volt car battery and requires 
only about one-tenth the power used by a conventional 
car radio has been developed by RCA Scientists. 

The new radio, employing nine transistors and no 
electron tubes, is equal in performance to standard car 
radios, according to its developers — a team including 
Larry A. Freedman, Thomas O. Stanley, and David D. 
Holmes, of the technical staff at the David Sarnoff Re- 
search Center of RCA. 

The scientists emphasized that the set requires no 
vibrator, power transformer or rectifier — elements needed 
in vacuum-tube car radios. 



Synthesizer Record Released 

The first record of simulated musical sounds made by 
the RCA Electronic Music Synthesizer, which creates by 
electronic means any known or imaginable combination 
of tones, will go on sale to the public this month through 
RCA Victor record dealers. 

The historic recording, "The Sounds and Music of 
the RCA Electronic Music Synthesizer," has been de- 
signed to explain how it is possible to create electroni- 
cally any musical sound and to demonstrate the infinite 
versatility of the synthesizer. 

Released both as a 12-inch long-playing disc and as 
a 45-rpm album, the record bears the RCA Victor desig- 
nation LM-1922, Experimental, and is priced at $3.98. 



RADIO AGE 2? 



s 



RCA Introduces New Hi-Fi Line 




O, 



"n THE BASIS of surveys indicating that the public 
now wants "ready-to-plug-in" high fidelity equipment. 
RCA introduced on June 1 a complete line of assembled 
high fidelity phonographs embodying a number of new 
features and ranging in price all the way from $129.95 
to $1,600. 

Speaking at a press preview of the new models in 
New York, Robert A. Seidel, Executive Vice-President, 
RCA Consumer Products, pointed to the possibility that 
the high fidelity market can be more than doubled within 
the next few years. 

"Best available industry estimates are that $300,- 
000,000 worth of assembled high fidelity phonographs, 
tape recorders and component parts will be purchased 
this year by the American public," he said. "This com- 
pares with total sales of approximately $241,000,000 
in 1954. 

"The tremendous growth of high fidelity in the past 
several years is just the beginning of this new experi- 
ence in musical enjoyment. I am confident that high 
fidelity is going to revitalize the phonograph industry 
in the months and years ahead." 

Five Models in New Line 

J. M. Toney, General Manager, RCA Radio and 
"Victrola" Division, told guests at the preview that the 
new line of five New Orthophonic "Victrola" models 
makes true high fidelity available for every taste and 
pocketbook. 

Each of the models features for the first time the 
new RCA Victor Panoramic Speaker System, employ- 
ing at least three separate speakers in each instrument, 
meeting the highest standards known in sound reproduc- 
tion, he said. In addition, the angle of the speakers in 
relation to one another provides for room-wide disper- 
sion of high and low frequencies. 

The models range from the $1,600 Mark I, a twin- 
console unit with four speakers in a separate cabinet, 
a high fidelity tape recorder, 3-speed record changer and 
AM-FM radio, to the $129.95 Mark VI, a table model 
with three speakers and 3-speed record changer. 

One of the new features of the Mark I and Mark 
II is the first use of transistor circuits in commercial 
phonographs, delivering quieter performance and greatly 
reducing hum level, Mr. Toney said. He explained that 
RCA Victor engineers had devoted more than a year 
of research, development and testing to create the new 

22 RADIO AGE 



line, starting with construction of "the finest high fidelity 
instrument without price limitations." This became the 
Mark I, he added, and as many of its features as possi- 
ble were incorporated in the design of the lower-priced 
instruments. The transistor circuits are used in the pre- 
amplifiers of the Marks I and II to eliminate hum when 
the volume is turned high. 

Popularity of Hi Fi Music 

Mr. Seidel, citing the possible doubling of high 
fidelity equipment in the next several years, said: 

"It has become apparent that music lovers of all 
kinds, whether 'pops' or classic, are talking about high 
fidelity. This interest and enthusiasm cuts across all 
economic levels. We are convinced that it is no pass- 
ing fad." 

A prediction that popular music fans will account 
for a majority of the sales of assembled home high 
fidelity instruments in the next few years came from 
George R. Marek, Manager of the Artists and Repertoire 
Department, RCA Victor Record Division. 

"One of the popular misconceptions about high 
fidelity is that it is primarily for classical music," he said. 
"This is definitely not true. Eddie Fisher, the Three 
Suns, or any of the other 'pop' music artists sound just 
as thrilling in high fidelity as does a Beethoven piano 
concerto or a Brahms symphony." 



The Mark VI, $129.95 table model with three speakers 

and 3-speed record changer, is feature of the new RCA 

line of high fidelity phonographs. 




Television in an Ultra-Modem Style 





Two of the new RCA Victor television receivers, showing 

design change eliminating visible controls from the front 

of the black-and-white sets. 



A, 



-N ULTRA-MODERN new line of RCA Victor tele- 
vision receivers, featuring important technological de- 
velopments and what is described as "the first major 
change in television styling since the introduction of 
table models and open-face consoles," was announced 
on June 8 by Robert A. Seidel, Executive Vice-President, 
RCA Consumer Products. 

A prominent style innovation in the new line, which 
is being introduced to the public this month, is the 
complete elimination of any visible controls from the 
front of the black-and-white sets. Besides twenty-three 
basic black-and-white models in 17-, 21- and 24-inch 
screen sizes, the line includes two basic models of com- 
patible color 21-inch receivers priced at $795 and $895. 

The new color receivers, production of which was 
announced in May by Mr. Seidel, feature greatly simpli- 
fied electronic circuits. Both incorporate a 26-tube 
chassis, a reduction of fourteen tubes from the forty 
used in RCA Victor's previous 21-inch color sets. 

In his announcement of the new color receivers, Mr. 
Seidel emphasized that nine years of development were 
required to reduce the number of tubes in black-and- 
white television sets from thirty to twenty, while the 
reduction from forty to twenty-six tubes in RCA colot 
sets had been achieved in a single year. 

"As in the case of black-and-white receivers, this 
reduction has been accomplished not by sacrificing per- 
formance but by improving it," he said. 

Simplification of the circuit and improved perform- 
ance in the new color sets were credited by Mr. Seidel to: 

The development and use of entirely new circuit 
designs not previously available; 

RADIO AGE 23 



The use of engineering and production techniques 
previously tested and proven in black-and-white 
receivers, such as printed circuits in various parts 
of the chassis; 

The use of newly-developed RCA dual-purpose recti- 
fier and triode-pentode tubes. 

Printed Circuits Used 

Describing the new RCA black-and-white receivers, 
Mr. Seidel emphasized that every instrument in the new 
line has a totally new chassis in which printed circuits 
are used extensively. Five printed circuit boards are em- 
ployed in each of the receivers in all three of the series 
which comprise the new line. 



Production of 21 -inch color picture tubes for the new 
RCA color TV sets at Lancaster, Pa., tube plant. 



*» 



*._«-*» 





The "Seville," new simplified RCA Victor 21 -inch color receiver, has suggested list price of $795. 



"Use of printed circuits will provide consumers with 
greater reliability and freedom from service, since each 
of the printed circuit boards is used in an important 
phase of the overall circuitry of the chassis," Mr. Seidel 
said. 

"Tests, both in the field and in our laboratories, have 
conclusively proven the advantages of printed circuits 
for greater reliability and improved performance for 
viewers. In the new RCA Victor chassis, we believe 
we are making a more extensive use of printed circuits 
than anyone else in the television industry." 

Technical Advances Listed 

In addition to the wider use of printed circuits, 
other technical advances in the new RCA Victor tele- 
vision sets include: 

1. A "noise suicide circuit" which automatically 
sets up voltages to "kill off" various types of 
interference before the picture on the TV screen 
is disturbed; 

2. Increased second anode voltage, which will pro- 



vide greater brilliance in the picture; 

3. Greater video drive voltage, resulting in better 
picture contrast; 

4. Improved automatic gain control, which assures 
the consistency of a picture in the face of widely 
varying signal strengths. 

"We have sought to create a new concept in tele- 
vision styling which we call the 'big change,' " said Mr. 
Seidel. "Not only does the entire line represent the first 
major change in television styling since the debut of 
table models and open-face consoles, but the receivers 
also feature the latest technical developments designed 
to provide viewers with unsurpassed performance and 
values. 

"In designing these new instruments, we asked our 
engineers, technicians and craftsmen to come up with 
three things: new and better performance, new and 
better styling, and new and better value. We are con- 
fident that the RCA Victor merchandisers and the 
American public from coast to coast will agree that 
these objectives have been achieved." 



24 RADIO AGE 




TV on the Tepee 



Chief White Eagle and his TV-equipped tepee. 



JL ROM SMOKE SIGNALS to television signals is a long 
step forward, but Chief White Eagle of the Iroquois 
Tribe at Caughnawaga, Quebec, made the transition 
with no trouble at all. 

Two years ago, the Chief, whose legal name is 
Stanley Myiow, collected enough wampum to buy his 
RCA Victor television set, a twenty-inch model called 
the "Shelby". The flickering magic of the white man 
provided good entertainment for White Eagle, his wife 
and five daughters as they watched the programs from 
CBMT and CBFT, Montreal. 

Then word was received that TV stations had opened 
at Burlington. Vermont and Plattsburg, New York. 
Being a curious fellow, the Chief began seeking a place 
to erect an outdoor antenna so that he could receive 
the more distant American stations. 

Now many moons ago, Chief White Eagle had gone 
into the forest and had cut a number of stout saplings. 
Stripping the branches from the young trees, he lashed 
them together in his front yard in the shape of a cone 
forty feet high. Then he peeled the thick white bark 

RADIO AGE 25 



from the trunks of many birch trees and covered the 
framework with the bark to form a huge tepee. It 
stood for many seasons by the highway, a landmark 
for motorists driving to and from Caughnawaga. 

Looking for a place to erect his antenna, Chief 
White Eagle's gaze fell on the top of the tepee standing 
only a few yards from his house. Since the Chief, 
among other things, is a skilled bridge worker, it was 
a simple matter for him ro scale the tepee and fasten 
the antenna in place. 

Chief White Eagle, born and educated in Caughna- 
waga, says he is able to trace his ancestry to the first 
Iroquois settlers at the Indian Mission in the reserve. 

"I'm one of the few remaining pure-blooded Indians 
in Caughnawaga," he states. "My forefathers came from 
New York and Pennsylvania to the Jesuit mission here.' 

Chief White Eagle is multi-vocational. He can turn 
his hand to almost anything. Apart from being a bridge- 
worker, he also prepares secret Indian herbal medicine, 
he is a professional wrestler, Indian souvenir maker and 
well-known lecturer on Indian folk lore. And too, he is 
probably the first Indian to place a TV aerial on his 
genuine birch bark wigwam. 

As a result, when night comes on and the fire burns 
low, and the wind sighs across the marshlands that 
stretch behind the house, Chief White Eagle and his 
family sit before their set enjoying Deep Image tele- 
vision at its best, while outside the lonely tepee reaches 
up into the sky to bring in the signal from many miles 
away. 

In his modest home, Chief White Eagle poses with his 

RCA Victor television set, connected to antenna on the 

birch bark tepee in his front yard. 




North of the Border 



RCA Grows with Canada 



By F. R. Deakins 

President 

RCA Victor Company, Ltd. 



M 



.ANY YEARS older than RCA itself is its Canadian 
subsidiary, RCA Victor Company, which started in 1898 
and became a member of the RCA family in 1927. Its 
growth and its national importance have paralleled that 
of Canada, which during the last few decades has been 
transformed from an agricultural to an industrial nation. 
RCA Victor Company, Limited, of Canada, still 
manufactures records as it did back in the early days of 
the century, and as the RCA Victor Record Division 
of RCA does today. Like RCA, it is also an important 
electronics company, serving the defense needs of both 
Canada and the United States, supplying superior trans- 
mitting and studio equipment for commercial broad- 



casters and telecasters, and manufacturing radio and 
television sets for home listeners and viewers. 

Recently the Canadian company added to its line 
home appliances, and it now supplies Canadian house- 
wives with freezers, ranges and other household equip- 
ment. In this field, as in others it has occupied for a 
longer period, it is establishing a reputation for quality 
and service. 

A significant fact about the Canadian company, in 
which the parent company also takes pride, is that in 
consumer products RCA Victor Company leads all other 
manufacturers in sales of radio, television and records. 
With over twenty other companies in Canada vigor- 
ously seeking larger shares of the Canadian market, 
there are today more entertainment instruments in 
Canadian homes bearing the familiar trademarks of 
RCA than of any other make. 




A night view of the RCA Victor Company, Ltd., head office and plant at Montreal. 



16 RADIO AGE 




MAP OF CANADA 



Above, a government inspector looks on as radar set 
control and pedestal are tested at RCA Victor Montreal 
plant. At right, new RCA antenna provides communi- 
cations link in British Columbia. 

The Canadian company also occupies the leading 
position in the sale of television transmitters. Three 
years ago, it provided the antenna and transmitter for 
the first television station to go on the air in Canada. 
Since then it has furnished 16 of the 26 transmitters 
installed, including the first station in Newfoundland, 
which goes on the air this summer. Much of this suc- 
cess in the commercial telecasting field has been due 
to the record and prestige of the company in Canada. 

Specialized TV Antenna Development 

But credit is also due to the Canadian company's 
research and development activities, which in 1953 
resulted in an entirely new type of television antenna 
being developed by one of RCA's Canadian professional 
engineers. Following a considerable period of experi- 
menting, the Montreal plant produced the Wavestack 
antenna, which has many qualities particularly suitable 
to Canadian conditions. Its design is so simple that it 
is easy to maintain, a boon when Canadian winter 
storms make prolonged work atop an antenna dangerous. 

Resembling a smokestack, the main supporting sec- 
tion also serves as a wave guide, conducting audio and 
visual signals to the slotted antenna at its top. Highly 
efficient, it limits signal loss from transmitters to antenna 
to a negligible amount. It can be erected by any regular 
crew of steelworkers supervised by one trained erector. 

Because of its high percentage of radio and tele- 
vision consumer market and the fact that it is serving 
many of the nation's radio and television stations, RCA 
Victor Company is recognized as the leading Canadian 



IEGEND 




Map shows location of RCA Victor installations. 




RADIO AGE 27 



company in the field of communications other than 
wire lines. During and since the second World War, 
however, RCA Victor Company has moved far beyond 
rhe home entertainment and commercial communica- 
tions fields to become one of the important designers 
and manufacturers of North American defense equip- 
ment. 

A Major Role in Defense 

It was RCA Victor Company's staff and engineers 
who worked with McGill University to develop the 
internationally famous McGill Fence. Ships of the Royal 
Canadian Navy are equipped with radar equipment 
from RCA Victor. The Canadian company is supply- 
ing radar and other equipment for the Mid Canada 
Line and Pinetree, both of which are essential to North 
American Arctic defense. While the importance of 
these defense projects is recognized in Canadian defense 
circles and generally understood by many Canadians, 
many of the vital contributions being made by the 
Canadian company are virtually unknown to the public 
because of their "classified" nature. In the Arctic and 
at bases where American and Canadian forces are oper- 
ating jointly, RCA Victor engineers are working with 
government and armed forces officials bringing to these 
extensive defense operations the benefit of years of 
engineering and development experience under northern 
Canadian conditions. 

In the over-all picture of RCA, the Canadian com- 
pany occupies a unique and particularly significant 
position. In the first place, it is one of eleven associated 
companies in RCA's International Division, and as such 
it gains from and contributes to all other companies in 
the group. A certain amount of work is carried on in 



the Montreal laboratories for the parent company as well 
as for the Canadian government and the government of 
the United States. There are plans for extending this 
research activity in the near future. 

The Canadian company shares, of course, the re- 
search and engineering developments at Princeton and 
Camden, N. J., which help to keep RCA in front of 
the world-wide electronics field. However, much origi- 
nal development is carried on in the Montreal Engineer- 
ing Products Department. Here, too, U. S. designs are 
adapted to Canadian conditions. 

More than 75 engineers are constantly at work on 
special Canadian projects in this department and from 
their activity have come original achievements in design. 

Transistor Pilot Plant 

A pilot plant for the manufacture of transistors is in 
operation in the Montreal plant to permit the Canadian 
company to acquire the experience and knowledge for 
large scale transistor production when this becomes 
necessary. 

Physically, the growth of the Canadian company 
has been in keeping with the sudden and immense 
industrial expansion in Canada. When the company 
started as the Berliner Gramophone Company in 1898, 
it had fewer than 10 employees. It now employs 
throughout Canada more than 3,500 people and is 
steadily adding to its technical and work force. In 
1954, the Canadian company spent more than $22,000,- 
000 in Canada for materials; its payroll was more than 
$12,000,000 and it paid $8,000,000 in taxes to Can- 
adian governments. 

RCA Victor Company has established itself in a 
strong position to take advantage of the expanding 



Demand keeps production line active at the Prescott, 
Ontario, RCA Victor television plant. 



At Montreal plant, RCA Victor has designed Canada's 
most powerful radio transmitter, shown here in assembly. 




Canadian economy. Canada's population is steadily in- 
creasing; there are approximately a million more Can- 
adians now than there were a year ago. The nation's 
vast hinterland, unexplored and undeveloped for cen- 
turies, is being opened up — another process in which 
RCA Victor is involved through such contributions as 
microwave communication through hitherto inaccessible 
areas. New industries are establishing themselves in 
each of the ten provinces, and construction of the St. 
Lawrence Seaway is regarded by Canadians as the great- 
est impetus to new industrial development in the coun- 
try's history. 

In view of all these important changes, eighty-five 
per cent of the Canadian company's earnings have been 
reinvested in new plant, machinery and service. 

Plant Expansion 

Before the war, RCA Victor Company served all 
of Canada from one plant located at Montreal. 

In the spring of 1953, a new radio and television 
manufacturing plant was built at Prescott, Ontario, and 
all the company's home receivers are now made there. 
At peak employment more than 900 workers are em- 
ployed at Prescott. In addition to supplying Canadian 
consumers, this plant has shipped radio sets to 49 
countries and television sets to two. These shipments 
are made, of course, through the International Division. 

Also in 1953, the company opened a new plant at 
Smith's Falls for the manufacture of records. Here, 
high fidelity records are manufactured for the home 
and for broadcasting stations. Both the radio and tele- 
vision manufacturing and record production were for- 
merly carried out at the Montreal factory. 

RCA Victor Company pioneered in the recording 



of music in Canada and maintains Canada's outstanding 
recording studios in Montreal and Toronto. Through 
the decades it has fostered Canadian talent, and Canada's 
largest chemical firm awards a Victor Red Seal record- 
ing contract as part of its grand prize in an annual 
nation-wide singing competition. 

At Owen Sound the company operates its own 
cabinet and woodworking plant. Here, wood is proc- 
essed from log to finished cabinet for the company's 
own use and for sale to others. 

Later this year, the company will open another new 
plant at Renfrew, Ontario. This will add to the com- 
pany's electronics production. In the meantime, the 
original Montreal plant has been expanded and modern- 
ized to provide greater facilities for the engineering 
products department and to allow for an expanded tube 
manufacturing department to make vacuum tubes pre- 
viously purchased from other sources. 

The demand for tubes in Canada continues to rise 
sharply. Accordingly, the Canadian company is now 
producing miniature tubes at the Montreal plant. While 
the bulk of the output goes to the Prescott, Ontario, 
plant for RCA Victor TV sets, the company expects to 
sell to other manufacturers and to distributors. 

Accompanying this expansion of production facil- 
ities has been an even greater expansion in company- 
owned distribution centres. The company operates 
distributing offices, warehouses, showrooms, and service 
centres in all the principal cities of Canada. Within 
the last three years it has built new, modern-type centres 
at Vancouver, Calgary, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal 
and Halifax. A new television and engineering prod- 
ucts service centre has also been opened in Montreal as 
headquarters of what is regarded as the best nation-wide 
service system in the industry. 



Winter weather fails to interfere with operations at RCA 
Victor cabinet factory in Owen Sound, Ontario. 



Chassis and cabinet meet on the television assembly line 
at the Prescott, Ontario, plant. 




The Case Against Pay -TV 

(Continued from page 12) 

"None of the pay-television promoters even remotely 
suggests that he would risk any investment of his own 
to build new stations for pay-television," he declared. 
"Each of the pay-television promoters wishes to utilize, 
without any investment of his own, the facilities free 
television has built and supports. If the pay-television 
promoters should be successful, the more than eight 
million people living in single station areas would be 
deprived of all free television service whenever pay- 
television programs were broadcast. . . . 

"In addition, there are sixty-four areas in which 
acceptable television service can be obtained from but 
two TV broadcast stations. About twelve and a half 
million people live in these areas. Whenever one of 
the two stations in these areas transmits a pay-television 
program, these twelve and a half million persons would 
lose half of their free programming. And, if pay-tele- 
vision is not to be the monopoly of one promoter alone, 
competing pay-television programs could completely 
black out all free television service in two-station areas. 
The result would be that about twenty million Amer- 
icans would have their choice of pay-television — or 
nothing." 

In conclusion, and apart from the question of the 
Commission's authority to determine that it is in the 
public interest to authorize pay-television, General 
Sarnoff said: 

"We believe that before the Commission adopts a 
policy the end result of which might well prove to be 
the end of the American system of free broadcasting, 
there are matters of political, economic and social im- 
port which should properly be resolved only by the 
Congress. 

"Unlike the present free system of television, pay- 
television would come into homes like gas and light 
and telephone service for which the consumer pays. The 
rates and other aspects of such public utility services 
are now regulated by the Government. If pay-television 
were to be authorized, the public interest may require 
that it likewise be treated as a public utility and made 
subject to similar regulation by the Government. In 
such an event, the practical difficulties of maintaining 
part of the American radio and television system free 
and part regulated, would seem almost insurmountable. 
Such a situation might ultimately lead to Government 
regulation, on a common carrier basis, of all radio and 
television broadcast services — a result that no one 
advocates but all must guard against. Only the Congress 
can set the legal bounds of such regulation. 

"Many years ago I said 'The richest man cannot buy 



for himself what the poorest man gets free by radio.' 
After almost a half century of service in this science, 
art and industry, I am proud that we have thus far been 
able to keep both radio and television free to the 
American people. 

"My earnest plea to the Federal Communications 
Commission is: Keep American Radio and Television 
Broadcasting free to the public." 

Sarnoff Testimony of 1924 Cited 

In a brief submitted to the FCC subsequently against 
pay-television, the National Association of Radio and 
Television Broadcasters cited testimony given by Gen- 
eral Sarnoff in 1924 at a public hearing before the 
House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries in 
Washington. It was made clear in the NARTB brief 
that General Sarnoff had studied the problem far back 
in the days when "coin-box-radio" was proposed. 

The extract from the NARTB brief follows in part: 
"Perhaps one of the most foresighted statements 
made during these early hearings was that by David 
Sarnoff, then Vice-President of the Radio Corporation 
of America, who in his testimony and examination on 
H.R. 7357 stated the case against 'fee' radio so cogently 
that his statement merits quotation . . . 

'It has been said by a great many people and a 
great many corporations, some very large and able, 
that broadcasting depends upon a solution of the 
problem whereby the consumer will pay for the 
entertainment which he receives . . . 

'I want to go on record very definitely today . . . 
in saying to you that it is my firm conviction that 
that sort of solution to the problem is not necessary, 
that broadcasting can be made commercially prac- 
ticable without any means being found for collecting 
from the consumer, that the greatest advantage of 
radio lies in its universality, in its ability to reach 
everybody, everywhere, anywhere, in giving free 
entertainment, culture, instruction, and all the items 
which constitute a program . . . 

'I cannot help feeling that not only should the 
public be left free from the payment of any license 
fee to the Government or others for the privilege of 
listening on a broadcast receiver, but that it should 
also be free from fees or tolls of any kind in the 
field of broadcasting through space . . . The air be- 
longs to the people. It should be regulated by the 
will of a majority of the people. Its main highways 
should be maintained for the main travel. To col- 
lect a tax from the radio audience would be a 
reversion to the days of toll roads and bridges, to 
the days when schools were not public or free, and 
when public libraries were unknown. . . .' " 



30 RADIO AGE 






Quotes from R CA 




Dr. E. W. Engstrom, Exec- 
utive Vice-President, RCA 
Research and Engineer- 
ing, at Engineers Club 
of Minneapolis, April 19, 
1955. 



Industrial Research: 

"Our great problem today is the 
proper cultivation and exploitation of 
the nation's intellectual resources. We 
must learn to make the most effective 
use of our research staffs. We must 
know what we want and what we 
can expect to get from the research 
worker. We must understand his 
motivations and his personal charac- 
teristics. Having an understanding of 
these things, we must provide an en- 
vironment conducive of good research. 
We must use creative imagination in 
the administration of research. We 
must follow this with sound engineer- 
ing and good business planning. This 
is effective research, the kind which 
will maintain our position today and 
control our destiny tomorrow." 



Ewen C. Anderson, Execu- 
tive Vice-President, RCA 
Commercial Department, 
to Chicago press repre- 
sentatives at RCA Labora- 
tories, June 10, 1955. 



Patent Licenses and 
Competition: 

"Our patent licenses stimulate com- 
petition. They render impossible mo- 
nopoly and restraint of any branch of 
the radio business by RCA or others. 
They make it impossible for RCA or 
any of its licensees 'to put on the 
shelf any radio invention and thus 
keep it from the public. . . . That 
these licenses are in the interest of the 
public, and that the public receives 





great benefit from them, is beyond 
reasonable doubt." 



Robert A. Seidel, Execu- 
tive Vice-President, RCA 
Consumer Products, to 
National Appliance and 
Radio-Television Dealers 
Association, Milwaukee, 
May 17, 1955. 

Dealers are Important: 

"Alert dealers, working with pro- 
gressive, intelligent distributors and 
manufacturers, form the distribution 
pattern that has taken television from 
a dream into the home of 36,000,000 
persons. Dealers today have a greater 
opportunity for progress and profit 
than at any time since the early kick- 
off days of television." 



Dr. Douglas H. Ewing, 
Administrative Director, 
RCA Laboratories, at 
RCA Tube Division dinner, 
Newark, N. J., April 26, 
1955. 

Broader Tasks for Engineers: 

"With more enterprises than ever 
before engaged in the innovation of 
new systems and devices through re- 
search and engineering, there is an ever 
greater need for good engineers in 
areas hitherto remote or at least totally 
distinct from engineering! In the field 
of merchandising, for example, the 
client who is planning installation of 
a complete electronic business machine 
system needs far more than an ener- 
getic sales talk and prompt delivery 
of the equipment. These may have 
sufficed for the simpler types of equip- 
ment designed to perform existing 
tasks more efficiently. They will hardly 
do for complex data handling or micro- 
wave radio relay systems." 





W. Walter Watts, Execu- 
tive Vice-President, RCA 
Electronic Products, to a 
press group at RCA's Lan- 
caster, Pa., tube plant, 
June 9, 1955. 



Color Tube Development: 

"RCA's color tube has been tested 
and proved through substantial factory 
production; it has proved itself on the 
receiver production line; and it has 
stood the test of nationwide introduc- 
tion to the public. . . . We know now 
that we can meet reasonable demands 
for color tubes — and can accelerate 
our program to keep pace with the set 
makers. We know, too, that a number 
of other tube makers now share our 
confidence and will produce this type 
of tube as a demand develops." 



Edward Stanley, Mar 
of Public Service 
grams, NBC, at Scho 
Radio and Televi 
University of Indi 
May 5, 1955. 



Enlightenment through 
Exposure: 

"We are continuously expanding 
and extending not only those programs 
which are essentially cultural, such as 
the NBC Opera Company presenta- 
tions and the Wisdom Series . . . but 
we are constantly seeking ways to in- 
corporate this aspect of our civiliza- 
tion into every program, even football. 
This is a small thing, perhaps, but you 
may have observed that when NBC 
presents football, the camera takes a 
little tour of the campus before the 
game, and there is discussion of what 
the school does, and some of its dis- 
tinguished graduates. Just a reminder 
for the watching millions that it is, 
first of all, an educational institution." 




RADIO AGE 31 





Another Eye 

RCA's "TV Eye,'* the versatile 
closed-circuit television system for in- 
dustry, has worked its way into a new 
location. It is now keeping a watch 
over a critical operation in one of the 
nation's largest cigarette paper plants. 
The installation has been made at the 
Spotswood, N. J., plant of Peter J. 
Schweitzer, Inc., for remote observa- 
tion of a paper-pulp washing tank to 
guard against jamming or plugging 
that could result in a costly shutdown 
for repairs. The camera, about the size 
of a home movie camera, is focused on 
the pulp washing tank and projects a 
continuous picture of operations to a 
monitor for viewing by an attendant 
in charge of various pulp-preparation 
machines. 

Treasure Chest 

A happy premium for the radio-TV 
serviceman is announced by the RCA 
Tube Division in the fotm of a new, 
improved carrying case for electron 
tubes. Known as the "Treasure Chest," 
the case weighs eleven pounds and has 
room for 134 tubes as well as the small 
tools most frequently needed in home 
service calls. Dealers will be able to 
obtain the new case by turning in to 
distributors a total of 20 RCA "Treas- 
ure Notes," one of which is given to 
dealers with each purchase of 25 RCA 
receiving tubes or one RCA picture 
tube. 



Trois, Deux, Un — 

In addition to its other distinctions, 
NBC is helping to train French army, 
navy and air force officers. The French 
Ministry of National Defense recently 
asked NBC for copies of the prize- 
winning television films "Three, Two, 
One — Zero" and "Victory at Sea" for 
use as training films in the instruction 
of officers and officer candidates of the 
French military services. "Three, Two, 
One — ■ Zero" was the first TV program 
to tell the over-all story of atomic 
energy, while "Victory at Sea" was a 
26-week TV film series on the history 
of naval operations in World War II. 
Both were produced by Henry Saloman, 
chief of the NBC Television Film 
Documentary Unit, who presented 
copies to French Ambassador Maurice 
Couve de Murville in response to the 
French request. 




sharing arrangement will result in sub- 
stantial economies. The two transmit- 
ters are the sixth and seventh fur- 
nished by RCA to Cuban broadcasters. 

Station Switch 

NBC and the Westinghouse Broad- 
casting Company have agreed to ex- 
change their radio and television sta- 
tions in Philadelphia and Cleveland, 
subject to approval by the Federal 
Communications Commission. Under 
the agreement, announced by Sylvester 
L. Weaver, Jr., President of NBC, and 
Chris J. Witting, President of WBC, 
the Westinghouse stations in Philadel- 
phia, WPTZ and KYW, will be taken 
over by NBC, while NBC will turn 
over to Westinghouse its Cleveland 
stations WNBK and WTAM and 
WTAM-FM. The agreement calls for 
payment of $3 million to the Westing- 
house Broadcasting Company in addi- 
tion to the exchange of stations. 



Good Neighbors 

Two key television stations in Cuba's 
Television Nacional and CMQ net- 
works are installing their new 10 KW 
RCA television transmitters in a single 
Havana building and will use the same 
tower. The two stations, broadcasting 
on Channels 4 and 6, have had separate 
locations. The combined installation 
was instigated by construction of a 23- 
story hotel near their present sites, and 
officials of both networks think the 



C w 







Find that Ore 



Now you can get an RCA Geiger 
counter for your uranium hunting. 
Six models, ranging in sensitivity and 
price to suit the requirements of pro- 
fessional and amateur prospectors as 
well as laboratory technicians, have 
just been introduced by the RCA Tube 
Division. The two simplest models, 
weighing only 5 pounds including bat- 
teries, are intended basically for the 
weekend and vacationing prospector. 
As the Tube Division puts it, anyone 
who can operate a portable radio can 
operate an RCA Geiger counter. At 
the upper end of the scale is a sturdy 
model equipped wirh ten Geiger tubes, 
sensitive enough to measure radiation 
in certain types of surveys conducted 
from the air and moving vehicles. 



32 RADIO AGE 




^£! 

"■***-- <**£& 



Superimposed over this mans head is the matrix {or heart) of RCA Electronic "Memory." See description below. 

New RCA Magnetic "Memory" recalls 
thousands of facts in a fraction of a second 



Each dot you see in the squares above 
is actually a magnetic "doughnut" 
so tiny that it barely slides over a 
needle point. Despite its size, how- 
ever, each "doughnut" stores away 
one bit of information for future ref- 
erence. And 10,000 of them fit on a 
framework smaller than the size of 
this page! 

Here are the cells of the RCA 
magnetic "memory" that is the key 
element in virtually all high-speed 
electronic computers now being pro- 
duced or in development. Perhaps the 
greatest significance of this "mem- 



ory" is its ability to deliver, in a few 
millionths of a second, any informa- 
tion it stores away. 

Almost instantly, an insurance 
company can process a claim. Just 
as fast, a manufacturer with inven- 
tories spread around the country can 
determine what products are making 
money — and where. 

With the help of such magnetic 
"memories," electronic computers 
will be able to make accurate predic- 
tionsof the next day's weather for the 
nation, using data on atmospheric 
pressure, temperature, and wind ve- 



locity from every part of the United 
States and from overseas as well. 

The leadership in electronics that 
created this man-made RCA "mem- 
ory" is responsible for one achieve- 
ment after another in television, 
radio, radar — as well as any other 
RCA product or service you may 
name. And continually, RCA scien- 
tists at the David Sarnoff Research 
Center, Princeton, N. J., are think- 
ing, planning, pioneering even greater 
triumphs in "Electronics for Living" 
— electronics that make life easier, 
safer, happier. 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

ELECTRONICS FOR LIVING 



\£" 





,** I'lrnirif^i'* 







go 

everywhere 




L everyi 
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a new kind of radio listening! 



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show business: Highlights from current movies, plays and TV specials . . . dressing room visits with stars 
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Your MONITOR hosts, ready to switch you anywhere in the world at a moment's notice, are all favorites of yours : 

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RESEARCH • MANUFACTURING • COMMUNICATIONS • BROADCASTING • TELEVISION 




OCTOBER 1955 




FOOTBALL ON COLOR TV 



RCA COMMUNICATIONS, INC. 



announces a significant development in its 



Overseas Teleprinter Exchange Service 






Effective immediately, RCA's Overseas Teleprinter Exchange 
Service, (TEX), is available to Bell System Teletypewriter Ex- 
change Service (TWX) customers in the Metropolitan New York 
and Northern New Jersey areas. 

These TWX customers can now place TEX calls on a cus- 
tomer-to-customer basis with more than 25,000 teleprinter users 
abroad by calling RCA at New York. During the next few 
months, TEX will be made available to every TWX customer 
in the United States. 

Pioneered and developed by RCA Communications, Inc. in 
1950, trans-Atlantic TEX service has grown from a single circuit 
with Holland to a network which now reaches 17 countries in 
Europe, Africa, and Latin America. TEX communication is 
two-way, and both parties, at the conclusion of a call, have a 
printed record of everything communicated. 

RCA Communications, Inc. is proud to add this latest devel- 
opment in Overseas Teleprinter Exchange Service to the long 
list of radio, television, and electronic "firsts" which have been 
conceived and perfected by Radio Corporation of America.. 



RCA COMMUNICATIONS, INC. 

66 Broad St., New York 4, N. Y. 



A Service of 



VOLUME 14 NUMBER 4 



•ARCH • MANUFACTURING • COMMUNICATIONS 
BROADCASTING* TELEVISION 



OCTOBER 1955 



CONTENTS 




COVER 

Major college football games 
are being seen on color TV 
this season as part of the ex- 
panded NBC color schedule. 
(Story on Page 7). 



Page 

The Moral Crisis of Our Age 3 

Color Television for Medicine 5 

RCA, NBC Accelerate Color TV Drive 7 

Hundred Year Association Honors General SarnofF 9 

In Defense of a Continent 10 

Parties Urged to Make Issue of Pay-TV 13 

Two RCA Activities Join a New Corporation 14 

More Recordings by the Boston Symphony 15 

A Visit to the "RCA Hall of Progress" 16 

The Need for Civil Defense Planning 18 

Electronics and High-Speed Flight 19 

RCA Equipment Withstands Atomic Blast 20 

RCA's "Weather Eye" is Shown in Action 21 

Electronic Horizons: A Revolution in Materials 22 

Underwater TV for Fishery Research 24 

RCA's Pocket-Size Two-Way Radio 25 

Shoran Helps the Mapmakers 26 

Evaluating Children's TV Programs 27 

Prehistory at Princeton 29 

Electronic Merchandising by NBC 30 

RCA Transistor Radios 31 

News in Brief 32 



NOTICE 



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address please include the code letters 
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Radio Age is published quarterly by 
the Deportment of Information, Radio 
Corporation of America, 30 Rocke- 
feller Plaza, New York 20, N Y. 

Printed in U.S.A. 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

RCA Building, New York 20, N.Y. 



DAVID SARNOFF, Chairman of Ihe Bo 
JOHN Q. CANNON, Secretory 



FRANK M. FOLSOM, President 
ERNEST B. GORIN, Treasurer 



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RCA's new 3-Vidicon color TV camera covers an operation in Philadelphia. (See Page 5). 



The Moral Crisis of Our Age 

True Progress and Real Security Found in Principles of Universal 
Morality, Sarnoff Says in Accepting Notre Dame Honorary Degree 

T 

J-H 



-HE moral LAW has become the law of survival. Brig. 
General David Sarnoff, Chairman of the Board of RCA. 
declared in an address on Sept. 30 at the University of 
Notre Dame, where he received an Honorary Degree of 
Doctor of Science. 

"Many more people now sense the need of a moral 
compass to steer by, if only because they recognize that 
today a single blundering act may prove fatal to our 
civilization, if not to the continuance of the race of 
man," he said. 

General Sarnoff delivered the principal address and 
received the honorary degree at a special Notre Dame 
convocation marking the dedication of WNDU-TV, the 
University's new television station. He was cited as 
"an American genius of public communications" whose 
"contributions to the twentieth century wonders of radio 
and television have put our country and the world im- 
measurably into his debt." Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh, 
C.S.C., Notre Dame president, conferred the degree at 
exercises in the University Drill Hall attended by more 
than 3,000 persons. 

"In a simpler past, people and nations could afford 
to treat 'good will toward men' as an adornment of 
existence — desirable but not imperative," General 
Sarnoff said. "The penalties for failure to adhere to this 
ideal were harsh but within tolerable limits. There was, 
at worst, always a second chance. Today, the realization 
grows upon many of us that the ideal has ceased to be 
a luxury and has become an absolute necessity. Today, 
in a literal sense never before so apparent, the moral 
law has become the law of survival." 

Says Crisis of Our Time is /Moral 

Stressing that the crisis of our time "is not political, 
or economic, but moral," General Sarnoff declared: 

"The problems with which nations are so concerned 
— problems of boundaries, governments, trade, reduc- 
tion of armaments — are, in the last analysis, symptoms 
rather than causes. Temporary solutions and delaying 
expedients may be found, but they cannot be dependable 
or enduring as long as the moral ailments from which 
the problems derive remain and fester. 

"Most of these problems, of course, are related to 
the great struggle now under way between the Soviet- 
ized and the relatively free worlds. Outwardly that 



struggle involves issues of power and territory and con- 
trasting economic systems. But under the surface it is 
a deep-reaching contest between our Judeo-Christian 
civilization and a Godless way of life and thought. 

"It is not the Communist economic theories or the 
Soviet political theories which threaten us. These we 
regard as false, but they do not engage our emotions. 
Our fears are engendered, in the final analysis, by the 
essential immorality of the Soviet system — by its open 
renunciation of truth, justice, kindness and other values 
we cherish. Our compassion is aroused for the victims 
of systematized brutality and the suppression of simple 
human rights." 

Cites Kremlin's Denial of God 

"It is the Kremlin's denial of God in words and in 
terrifying actions, that we recognize as the real menace. 
The great Russian writer and spiritual leader, Leo 
Tolstoy, once said that he feared the rise of 'the savage 
with the telephone.' He meant, of course, the moral 
savage armed with the tools of modern Science. Un- 
happily his prophetic image has turned into grim reality 
in his own country and the countries under its iron heel. 

"To us, human life is sacred and inviolable. To the 
Communists, the individual is a cipher; people are so 
much brick and mortar for the construction of their 
soulless Utopia. They demolish a human community as 
nonchalantly as if it were an ant hill. 

"That, I believe, is why the Church has been fighting 
Communism, courageously and consistently, refusing to 
compromise on essentials in the name of expedience. 
It is not an accident that totalitarian states, whether 
uniformed in Black, or Brown, or Red, find themselves 
in stubborn conflict with Religion. If the issues be- 
tween them were merely political or economic, some 
modus vivendi might be found. But the overriding issue 
is always moral — the value of human rights, the 
sacredness of the individual soul — and therefore not 
subject to compromise in formulas of coexistence. Yes, 
the crisis of our time is fundamentally moral." 

Without minimizing the need for military strength 
and an alert civil defense, General Sarnoff said that 
"the only real protection remaining is the spirit of man. 
Consequently we cannot afford to compromise with 
moral principles." Continuing, he said: 



RADIO AGE 3 



"But who can best alert and guide humanity under 
the new conditions we face? I do not think that the 
scientist — concerned with physical forces, and the 
politician — dealing with men as he finds them, are 
adequate for this task. The challenge must be met 
primarily by Religion, which has the greatest responsi- 
bility and the finest opportunity to advance the good 
cause of Peace on Earth. 

Says Man is His Brothel's Keeper 

"Man must be awakened to the fact that, as never 
before, he is his brother's keeper. The human race 
must be made aware that unethical conduct now 
amounts to race suicide — that man's true progress and 
real security are to be found in the principles of uni- 
versal morality. 

"Science is coming close to providing a universal 
storehouse of plenty; but that will avail us nothing un- 
less Religion leads mankind to practice the principles 
of universal morality. 

"The final test of Science is not whether its accom- 
plishments add to our comfort, knowledge and power, 
but whether it adds to our dignity as men, our sense of 
truth and beauty. It is a test Science cannot pass alone 
and unaided. I dare to suggest that the principle burden 
rests on Religion — to show to all men and institutions 



the way to life based on a foundation of moral prin- 
ciples." 

"To provide a peaceful and happy life on earth for 
all God's children, Science alone is not enough. Man's 
yearnings require the satisfactions he receives from Re- 
ligion. Today, both Religion and Science have vital 
roles to play. They must play them together in a com- 
mon effort. The University of Notre Dame with her 
record of splendid achievements stands as an inspiring 
symbol of that partnership." 

Congratulates University on New TV Station 

Congratulating Notre Dame on its "vision and 
initiative" in establishing its own television station, 
General Sarnoff said: 

"Television on the campus is the modern counter- 
part of the blackboard and textbook. In your Convoca- 
tion Program, I note Father Hesburgh's statement that 
'a university can no more ignore television today than 
universities of the past could have ignored the discovery 
of printing.' I am impressed with the cogency and 
aptness of this comparison. We are too prone to make 
technological instruments the scapegoats for the sins of 
those who wield them. The products of modern Science 
are not in themselves good or bad; it is the way they 
are used that determines their value." 




Brig. General David Sarnoff, center, receives honorary Doctor of Science degree from the Rev. 
Theodore M. Hesburgh, C.S.C. left, President of Notre Dame, at special convocation marking ded- 
ication of WNDU-TV, the University's new television station. At right is the Rev. Edmund P. Joyce, 
C.S.C, Executive Vice-President of the University. 



4 RADIO AGE 




Under the eye of the new RCA color TV camera for medical use, an operation is performed at 
Veterans Administration Hospital in Philadelphia for viewing by International College of Surgeons. 



Color Television for Medicine 



\^jOLOR TELEVISION, expanding into a great new 
medium of mass communication and entertainment, is 
assuming added importance today as a vital new tool 
for medical science. 

Two recent developments have emphasized the 
growing interest in compatible color TV as a means for 
transmitting on-the-spot information from the operating 
room and the pathological laboratory for diagnosis, 
consultation, and medical training: 

— The nation's first installation of compatible color 
TV for hospital use was announced jointly on Septem- 
ber 8 by the Walter Reed Atmy Medical Center, Wash- 
ington, D. C, and RCA. 

— More than 1,000 American and Canadian sur- 
geons, meeting in Philadelphia, witnessed on September 
12 a major operation televised from the operating room 
of a nearby hospital by means of a new color television 
cameta designed by RCA specifically for medical use. 

First Demonstration of New Camera 

The Philadelphia demonstration, highlighting the 
opening session of the 20th Annual Congress of the 
United States and Canadian sections of the International 
College of Surgeons, was the first demonstration in 
action of the compact, 3-Vidicon color camera devel- 
oped by scientists of the RCA Laboratories for televising 



surgical operations. Under the "eye" of the new camera, 
Dr. W. G. Nichols, chief surgeon of the Veterans 
Administration Hospital in Philadelphia, removed an 
internal growth from a 65-year-old patient. The tele- 
vised image was transmitted by a closed circuit to Phila- 
delphia's Convention Hall, where it appeared on a 
15 x 20 foot theater-size color television screen and on 
standard 21 -inch RCA Vicror color TV sets for viewing 
by one of the largest professional audiences ever to 
witness such an event simultaneously. 

Two studio-type color cameras also were employed 
during the operation. One provided wide-range roving 
views of activities in the operating room, including Dr. 
Nichols' explanation of the surgery to be performed, a 
brief discussion of x-rays by Dr. George Wohl, Chief 
Radiologist, and assistance by Dr. Anthony Pietroluongo, 
Chief Pathologist, in a biopsy. The other camera, em- 
ployed with a Bausch & Lomb Speed Matic Micro- 
projector, flashed views of a tissue specimen to the 
audience of surgeons. 

Goldsmith Foresees "Super-Clinic of Future" 

As a prelude to the demonstration, the surgeons 
heard a discussion by Dr. Alfred N. Goldsmith, New 
York television and electronics consultant, on the grow- 
ing importance of color television as a medical tool. By 



RADIO AGE 5 




W. Walter Watts, Executive Vice-President, Electronic 
Products, of RCA, discusses operation of RCA color TV 
camera with Maj. General Leonard D. Heaton, Com- 
manding General, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 
where RCA will install compatible color television system 
for hospital use. 

means of color television. Dr. Goldsmith said, widely 
separated hospitals may be interconnected and combined 
into "the super-clinic of the future." 

Furthermore, he said, "any medium which permits 
round-table discussions, with sight and sound contacts, 
between as many groups as desired, and wherever 
located, is a highly important educational agency. It 
may well lead to a basically expanded type of educational 
institution. This 'University of the World' could have 
its lecture rooms and speakers' platforms all over the 
earth. It could tie together scientists, doctors, teachers, 
demonstrators and students into one vast and integrated 
audience. This is indeed something new under the sun, 
which will be a potent force for the welfare and health 
of humanity." 

The surgeons heard a description of the new RCA 
equipment from Theodore A. Smith, Vice-President and 
General Manager of the RCA Engineering Products 
Division, who emphasized that the compatibility of the 
system permits transmission of medical information over 
commercial TV relay facilities directly from the operating 
room or laboratory to doctors and scientists throughout 
the country. 

Details of Vidicon Camera 

The new camera, mounted directly over the oper- 
ating table, employs three Vidicon pickup tubes similar 
to the type widely used in RCA's industrial television 
system— one each for the red, green and blue primary 
colors of color TV. Use of the small pickup tubes has 
permitted design of a color camera approximately the 
same size and weight as standard black-and-white TV 
studio cameras. Associated with the camera in a compact 



chain are packaged units for camera control, monitoring 
and power supply. The entire assembly, including 
equipment to feed signals into standard home color 
sets without alteration, weighs about 300 pounds. 

The compact medical system was designed and built 
by scientists at RCA's David Sarnoff Research Center 
in Princeton, N. J., working under the direction of Dr. 
Vladimir K. Zworykin, Honorary Vice-President of 
RCA and Technical Consultant to RCA Laboratories. 

Announcement of the plans for a color television 
installation at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center 
in Washington preceded and perhaps added emphasis 
to the Philadelphia demonstration for American and 
Canadian surgeons. The plans, involving a $425,800 
contract, were announced by Maj. General Leonard D. 
Heaton, Commanding General of the Walter Reed 
center, and W. W. Watts, Executive Vice-President, 
Electronic Products, of RCA. 

To be completed early next year, the comprehensive 
installation will provide three complete color television 
systems for use by the Armed Forces Institute of Pathol- 
ogy, the Walter Reed Army Hospital, and the Army 
Medical Service Graduate School. The system will be 
operated by the Army Signal Corps. 

"The compatible color television system will be the 
first such installation in the Washington area, and the 
largest and most modern TV studio in the military 
services," General Heaton said. "It will be available to 
other Defense Department agencies in the event of 
national emergencies. Ultimately, the system will be 
expanded to connect other Governmental hospitals and 
military medical installations into a medical network 
for exchange of information and services." 

The installation, he added, will include three separate 
and complete color TV broadcast studios which can be 
operated independently, or joined for operation as a 
combined network. Each will be equipped for closed- 
circuit operation and for direct transmission to commer- 
cial TV network lines. 

Mr. Watts disclosed that the installations also will 
include thirty RCA Victor 21-inch color TV receivers, 
which will be distributed among the three locations for 
viewing the pictures transmitted from the three broad- 
cast studios. The transmitted pictures, he said, can be 
fed to a central control at the AFIP building for dis- 
tribution over an RCA Antenaplex system to all 30 
receivers. 

Major equipment involved in the total installation 
includes RCA's latest studio color TV camera; three of 
the new 3-Vidicon cameras designed specifically for 
medical use; 30 21 -inch color TV receivers; an Antena- 
plex distribution system; three monitrans, which serve 
as low-power closed-circuit transmitters; and associated 
audio, video, intercommunication, and test equipment. 



6 RADIO AGE 




Howdy Doody, shown with Buffalo Bob Smith and Heidi Doody, stars in new daytime color series. 



RCA, NBC Accelerate Color TV Drive 



I ' XPANSION of color television service is being ac- 
celerated by RCA and the National Broadcasting Com- 
pany with important new developments in broadcast 
programming and in the production and merchandising 
of color television sets. 

The major current advances in the color campaign 
are these: 

— Expansion of NBC's color broadcasting schedule 
to nearly five times as many hours of color as were 
broadcast last season, including, for the first time, 
regular daytime color programs. 

— Completion of arrangements by RCA to purchase 
an additional 285,000 square feet of building space 
at Lancaster, Pa., for accelerated production of color 
television picture tubes. 

— Inauguration on September 18 of the most ex- 
tensive advertising drive so far launched by the RCA 
Victor Television Division to promote its 21 -inch 
color television receivers. 

NBC Color Programming 

Discussing the expansion of the NBC color schedule, 
Robert W. Sarnoff, Executive Vice-President of NBC, 
described it as a fulfillment of NBC's role in a two- 
pronged color TV campaign by NBC and its parent 
organization, RCA. 



"RCA and NBC are pledged to make color television 
a truly mass medium as rapidly as possible," he said. 
"We expect the new NBC color schedule to be a 
powerful force in that direction." 

As examples of the increase in color telecasts, he 
cited these comparisons: 

In October, 1955, NBC will broadcast 37 hours of 
live studio color programs, in contrast with a total of 
7 hours in October, 1954; 

For November, 1955, the total will be 41 hours, as 
against 8! 2 hours in November, 1954; 

In December, 1955, there will be 38 hours of color 
as against 9 hours in December, 1954. 

These figures refer only to live studio color pro- 
gramming and do not include outside pickups such as 
those for the World Series and football games, and pro- 
posed mobile unit coverage for such programs as "Wide 
Wide World," "Today," "Home," and "Tonight," he 
said. 

The expanded color schedule includes a number of 
major sports events, and special programs such as the 
"Spectaculars," a multi-million dollar motion picture 
and great dramas, in addition to a number of programs 
to be broadcast in color on a regular basis. 



RADIO AGE 7 



Besides the Davis Cup tennis matches, the World 
Series, and the Miami-Georgia Tech football game al- 
ready broadcast, the color coverage of sports events will 
include the Notre Dame-Michigan State game on Octo- 
ber 15; Iowa-Michigan on October 29, and Army-Navy 
on November 26. 

Daytime Color Schedule 

The innovation of regular daytime color presenta- 
tions started on August 1 when 15-minute color seg- 
ments were introduced on a daily basis on the popular 
"Home" program. This was followed on September 12 
by the conversion to color of "Howdy Doody," which 
is now being presented from 5:30 to 6 p.m., New York 
time, Monday through Friday, from NBC's new color 
studio 3-K in Radio City, New York. 

A third step will be taken on October 31 with 
introduction of "Matinee," an hour-long mid-afternoon 
color program to be presented from 3 to 4 p.m., New 
York time. Originating from NBC's Color City in 
Burbank, Calif., "Matinee" will consist of live dramatic 
shows produced in Hollywood by Al McCleery and 
presented as a "national theatre." 

Referring to the start of daytime color program- 
ming, Mr. Sarnoff said: "We believe that daytime pro- 
grams will increase customer traffic in dealer showrooms 
and generate even greater consumer interest." 

The array of new color programming also includes 
these highlights: 

1. Milton Berle has become the first leading tele- 
vision star to be presented in color on a regular basis, 
opening on September 27 with the first of his series of 
13 evening color shows originating at Color City in 
Burbank; 

2. "Color Spread," a new Sunday night Spectacular 





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series presented approximately one Sunday in four, 
opened on September 11 with "The Skin of Our Teeth," 
starring Helen Hayes and Mary Martin. Coming attrac- 
tions in this series are a variety show starring Maurice 
Chevalier, and a pre-theatrical premiere of the new 
British color film, "The Constant Husband," starring 
Rex Harrison; 

3. The Sunday afternoon "Hallmark Hall of Fame" 
series, featuring Maurice Evans, will open in color on 
October 23 with "Alice in Wonderland," following on 
November 20 with "The Devil's Disciple." Mr. Evans 
will produce the series and will star from time to time 
in its presentations. 

"Babes in Toyland" and "Peter Pan" 

4. The Max Liebman Spectaculars, inaugurated in 
color last season, will be continued in a series of Satur- 
day night programs which includes a repetition of last 
year's successful presentation of "Babes in Toyland." 

5. Producers' Showcase, an outstanding feature of 
last season, is continuing with a color presentation every 
fourth Monday from 8 to 9:30 p.m. As a part of the 
series, a repeat performance by Mary Martin in the 
memorable production of "Peter Pan" has been sched- 
uled for next January 9. 

6. On-the-spot color programming from all parts 
of the nation will be furnished by the NBC color mobile 
unit for portions of several shows, including the unique 
"Wide Wide World" as well as "Today," "Home," 
"Tonight," and "Howdy Doody." 

To facilitate these extensive productions, NBC is 
further expanding its color facilities, already unmatched 
in the industry. The expansion includes opening of the 
new color studio 3-K in Radio City, installation of 
color equipment in the "Home" studio in New York, 
and acquisition of the Ziegfeld Theatre in New York 
as a color studio. 

Expanding Picture Tube Production 

RCA's plans for expansion of plant space in Lan- 
caster, Pa., for color picture tube production were an- 
nounced on September 14 by D. Y. Smith, Vice-Presideni 
and General Manager, RCA Tube Division. Purchase 
of the additional 285,000 feet of building space pro- 
vides RCA with more than 1,000,000 square feet of 
space at Lancaster, where all color picture production 
has been concentrated. 

"This move marks another major step in RCA's 
program for stepped-up production of color picture 



Helen Hayes, right, and Mary Martin starred in a two- 
hour color telecast of "The Skin of Our Teeth." 

8 RADIO AGE 



tubes." Mr. Smith said. "It is geared to meet the con- 
stantly mounting demand which will result from in- 
creased color television programming and the produc- 
tion of greater numbers of color TV receivers." 

The property to be acquired consists of a group of 
buildings formerly occupied by Stehli & Company, Inc. 
It is located on a 14-acre tract near the present Lan- 
caster plant of the Tube Division. RCA will take 
possession of the new facilities "as soon as possible," 
Mr. Smith said, adding that "immediate steps will then 
be taken to equip the new buildings for the efficient 
handling of color kinescopes and other electron tubes 
manufactured by RCA at Lancaster." 

The new advertising drive by the RCA Victor Tele- 
vision Division was described by J. M. Williams, Man- 
ager, Advertising and Sales Promotion, as designed "to 
integrate with the mounting public interest and excite- 
ment being generated by the vastly increased number of 
hours of color programming to be telecast by NBC as 
well as other networks and local stations." 




Opening NBC's color season was "The King and Mrs. 
Candle," starring Joan Greenwood and Cyril Ritchard. 



Hundred Year Association Honors General Sarnoff 



T 

1h 



.he 1955 Gold Medal of the Hundred Year Associa- 
tion of New York was presented on Sept. 29 to Brig. 
General David Sarnoff in recognition of his work as 
"pioneer, founder and leader in electronic communica- 
tion." 

The presentation was made by Mayor Robert F. 
Wagner of New York at the Association's annual 
dinner at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, attended by civic 
and business leaders. The citation accompanying the 
medal said that General Sarnoff's "accomplishments as 
a civic leader, patron of the arts, and head of the Radio 
Corporation of America make him the embodiment of 
the ideal of equal opportunity at work in a free society." 

Among the tributes read at the dinner was one from 
President Eisenhower, written the day before he was 
stricken with a heart attack at the Summer White House 
in Denver. In a letter to Howard S. Cullman, Chairman 
of the dinner committee, the President said: 

"Please extend my congratulations to General David 
Sarnoff and my greetings to the members of the Hun- 
dred Year Association who honor him September 
twenty-ninth. Through his brilliant accomplishments 
in the field of communications and his devoted and 
enlightened services to his country, he has contributed 
much, in the course of a distinguished career, to the 
welfare of his fellow men and to the cause of freedom 
and peace in the world. 



"With all of you I am delighted to join in tribute 
to him and in warm best wishes for his continued 
achievement and happiness in the years to come." 

In accepting the Gold Medal Award, General Sarnoff 
said that "dramatic as the advances in the past century 
have been, they are certain to be dwarfed by far-reaching 
changes to come." 

"In this great land of outs science has flourished 
under freedom," he said. "It has been one of the con- 
spicuous dimensions of freedom. Its victories will there- 
fore be empty unless we safeguard our heritage of 
liberty, unless we protect at every step our freedom to 
think, to research, to invent and to develop. Precisely 
because change in the physical world is so rapid and 
tempestuous, the unchanging values that make man 
'only a little lower than the angels' must be cherished 
and defended." 



In another ceremony on Sept. 14, General Sarnoff 
received the "Hands of Applause" award of the Sales 
Executives Club of New York "for outstanding sales- 
manship and public service." The presentation was 
made at a luncheon of the club, at which a feature was 
the projection on a screen of a group of photographs 
especially chosen by Life magazine to portray "The 
David Sarnoff Story," with a commentary on General 
Sarnoff's career of fifty years in the electronics industry. 



RADIO AGE 9 



In Defense of a Continent 




Domes housing electronic equipment stand against winter sky at an RCAF radar station. 



by J. L. McMurray 

Vice-President. Technical Operations, 

RCA Victor Company, Ltd. 



A, 



-CROSS A vast northern territory stretching almost 
three thousand miles from east to west, military and 
electronics experts of the United States and Canada are 
building the most comprehensive defense system in 
history. 

Unlike the Chinese Wall of ancient history, or the 
Maginot and Siegfried Lines which proved almost com- 
pletely ineffectual in World War II, this North Ameri- 
can defense system offers no physical obstruction to 
potential invaders. Ranging across the cold, barren and 
rugged territories of the Canadian North, it consists of 
an elaborate series of early warning radar stations which 
would flash back to defense headquarters the reports of 
an approaching enemy. Thanks to such early warning, 
defense units would be alerted, and defending planes 
would be in the air to meet the aerial invaders before 



they reached targets of industrial and strategic im- 
portance. 

Defense preparations in this era of terrible weapons, 
swift communications, and surprise attack have become 
highly scientific, extremely costly, and continental rather 
than purely national in scope. Hence the United States 
and Canada are working as close partners in the pro- 
tection of the continent which they share. And on both 
sides of the border, RCA is providing intricate equip- 
ment, scientific development and electronic know-how 
to the armed forces. 

Costs and Effort are Shared 

In the over-all radar project, involving three defense 
lines, the costs, design and development of equipment 
and the manning of the warning stations are being 
shared by the two countries on a mutually agreed basis. 
Among the factors involved in the sharing are the 
relative sizes, populations and wealth of the two nations, 
plus the location on Canadian territory of a defense 
system also essential to the protection of the United 
States. 



10 RADIO AGE 



V 




"DEW" 

McGILL FENC1 
PINE TREE 




To protect North America from surprise air 
attack across the Arctic waste, Canadian and 
American electronics and military experts are 
building three radar screens indicated on this 
map. All are on Canadian territory. 



Radar belts indicated on the map, above, consist of 
stations equipped with latest electronic gear. Shown 
at right is antenna which detects and tracks approach- 
ing aircraft: it is housed within a dome composed of 
rubber material. 



RCA Victor Company, Limited, RCA's Canadian 
subsidiary, is actively involved in development of two 
of the three northern defense lines. 

The first of these, called "Pinetree," is the closest 
to the Canadian-United States border. It is located rela- 
tively close to the thickly-populated strip of Canada 
adjacent to the United States — although in the vast 
distances of Canada, "relatively close" is still measured 
in hundreds of miles. 

RCA Victor is one of the main equipment suppliers 
on the "Pinetree" project. One of the radar units at 
each station in the line carries the RCA Victor label, 
and RCA transmitters handle the greater part of the 
air-ground communications load. Construction of many 
of the "Pinetree" stations was carried out by RCA Victor 
engineers whose technical skills and familiarity with 
conditions in the Canadian North contributed substan- 
tially to the building of the line. 




RADIO AGE 11 



RCA microwave radio relay equipment is also used 
on the important "Pinetree" trunk communication sys- 
tem. And on the western portion of "Pinetree," hundreds 
of miles of communications facilities are provided by 
the North-West Telephone Company on a lease basis, 
with an integral part of the service provided by RCA 
relay equipment designed and manufactured by the 
Canadian company. 

Far to the north, in and near the Canadian Arctic 
regions, the United States is building the DEW line, 
North America's first line of defense against approaching 
aircraft. This is an exclusively U. S. project, but ap- 
proximately midway between DEW and "Pinetree," near 
the fifty-fifth parallel, work is progressing on the third 
line — the "Mid-Canada," commonly known as the 
"McGill Fence." 

The equipment being installed on the "Mid-Canada" 
line involves new concepts of radar defense, and the 
RCA Victor Company has been associated with the 
engineering and production of this equipment since 
inception of the project. Working with scientists of the 
Canadian Defense Research Board and the Eaton Elec- 
tronics Laboratory of McGill University in Montreal, 
RCA Victor engineers produced the first experimental 
and prototype equipment, and installed and operated 
extensive experimental systems both in the populated 
areas of Canada and in the far north. 

RCA Scientists on Loan 

Following these test operations, in which the value 
of the new system had been thoroughly proven, RCA 
Victor engineers began active participation in the overall 
planning of the "Mid-Canada." One form of this par- 
ticipation has been the loan of RCA Victor scientists to 
various government organizations associated with the 
project. 

While a major part of RCA Canadian defense 
activities are concerned with the transcontinental early 
warning system, RCA also is helping to equip the Royal 
Canadian Air Force squadrons which depend upon the 
warning stations for any word of an invading force. RCA 
radar equipment used by RCAF auxiliary squadrons is 
helping to train new airmen, and the No. 1 Air Division 
of the RCAF now operating in Europe depends upon 
RCA Victor mobile microwave communications equip- 
ment for communication lines vital to its operation. 

Basically, the North American continental defense 
system is dependent upon electronics rather than man- 
power. As the leading Canadian company in this field, 
RCA Victor has become a major part of the defense 
system upon which the safety of the United States as 
well as Canada may ultimately depend. 

72 RADIO AGE 




On a plotting table in surveillance room at an RCAF 
radar station, paths of unknown planes are noted. 




On a plan position indicator scope, a member of the 
staff at one of the radar stations maintains watch. 



Nesting on a lakeshore are living quarters for RCAF 
personnel who staff a radar station on one of the lines. 




Parties Urged to Make Issue of Pay -TV 



A 



recommendation that free-television versus 
"fee-TV" be made an issue by candidates in the 1956 
Presidential election was presented by Brig. General 
David Sarnoff in an address before the Advertising Club 
of Washington, in Washington, D.C., on Sept. 20. 

"We hear a good deal these days, and are likely to 
hear more, about the relative merits of free-TV and 
fee-TV," he declared. "I was among those, a generation 
ago, who fought the self-same fight when broadcasting 
was a fledgling effort. So I naturally have strong con- 
victions in the matter. 

"It does seem to me, however, that Radio and Tele- 
vision Week offers an appropriate occasion to underline 
the importance of the subject — and the self-evident 
fact that, when all is said and done, it is the American 
people who should constitute the judge and jury. The 
ultimate decision, for good or ill, will have a direct 
impact upon their everyday life, their economy, their 
culture. 

"I do not think I am exaggerating when I suggest 
that the issue is as impottant to our entire citizenry as 
was, for example, prohibition in its time. I feel justi- 
fied in proposing therefore that it be submitted to the 
ultimate suffrage of public opinion — a suffrage based 
not on guesswork, slogans or prejudices, but on wider 
knowledge and understanding of all the facts. 

"How can that knowledge and understanding, and 
a sense of the seriousness of the problem, be achieved? 
Well, we are approaching a Presidential election year, 
which is traditionally the time when questions of gen- 
uine concern to our whole population are thrown into 
the hopper of popular discussion. 

Suggests Declaration by Candidates 

"I recommend in all seriousness that the issue be- 
tween free and paid television be considered by those 
who draft the programs of the major political parties; 
and that candidates for public office be encouraged to 
study the problem and declare themselves to the elec- 
torate. That seems to be the American way, the effective 
way, to educate the country on the subject in a broad 
democratic spirit. If this issue receives the forthright 
attention it deserves, the voters in our land will have 
the opportunity to decide the question for themselves." 

Declaring that change is a natural and basic element 
in the radio-television industry, General Sarnoff asserted 
that the "big change" in television is the addition of 
color, which he said is certain to exert great impact on 



the American home and the nation's economy. He 
added : 

"We are now witnessing the beginning of the break- 
through of color television. And I believe that by the 
end of 1956, it will be a major factor in the industry. 

"Virtually every product with which you of the 
advertising fraternity are concerned will increasingly be 
recognized and sold by its distinctive color combina- 
tions. The human eye, after all, has been created to 
behold, appreciate and discriminate colors in every 
phase of life. Color is to vision what melody is to sound. 

"The alert broadcaster and sponsor is therefore em- 
bracing color to keep abreast of progress and to take 
fullest advantage of what television has to offer. It 
seems to me that the broadcaster who is in a position 
to add color to his programs and fails to do so is 
handicapped in the race for business. The sponsor who 
adopts a waiting attitude will lose markets to competi- 
tors who go all out for color." 

General Sarnoff, suggesting that the observance of 
Radio and Television Week was a convenient time for 
those in the industry to take stock of achievements and 
of the direction in which industry is moving, continued: 

"In scatcely more than a generation, a new industry 
that gears into or affects many other industries, has 
come into being and has flourished. Consider a few 
telltale figures: 

"The electronics industry, of which radio and tele- 
vision are today the predominant elements, has 2,550 
manufacturers and 3,730 broadcasters. 

"The number of wholesale distributors, retail dealers 
and service shops, exceeds 150,000. 

"The electronics industry now employs directly 
1,600,000 people. Adding those who serve it indirectly 
brings the total to more than 3,000,000. 

"Sales are now running at the rate of 11 billion 
dollars a year, making electronics the thirteenth largest 
industry in our country. 

"Even more dramatic than the expansion of the 
industry has been its rapid rate of change. There have 
been so many 'revolutions' in this field that revolution 
may be set down as its natural condition. Consider 
one revealing fact: 

"The Radio Corporation of America is geared to a 
billion dollats of business in the ptesent year. Of this 
total, fully 80 percent will be products and services not 
on the market only ten years ago! Many of them, in 
fact, were little more than gleams in the eyes of our 
imaginative leaders back in 1945." 



RADIO AGE 13 



Two RCA Activities Join a New Corporation 



R< 



.CA's stove and air conditioning departments have 
become part of a new corporation established in Sep- 
tember by agreement among RCA, the Whirlpool Cor- 
poration and the Seeger Refrigerator Company. The 
new organization, known as the Whirlpool-Seeger Cor- 
poration, will manufacture and market major home 
appliances, including home laundry equipment, refrig- 
erators, stoves and air conditioners, bearing the brand 
name "RCA-Whirlpool." 

Details of the new association were worked out in 
early summer by the three companies and were ap- 
proved subsequently by Whirlpool and Seeger stock- 
holders. In a letter to Whirlpool stockholders in July, 
Elisha Gray, President of the Whirlpool Corporation, 
stated that the new company would have total assets of 
approximately $130,000,000, and a net worth of about 
$85,000,000, and that it would own and operate the 
businesses carried on by Seeger and Whirlpool, plus the 
stove and air conditioning divisions of RCA. 

The Seeger Refrigerator Company has for many 
years manufactured the "Coldspot" refrigerators and 
freezers sold by Sears, Roebuck and Company. The 
Whirlpool Corporation has manufactured the "Ken- 
more" home laundry equipment sold by Sears, and since 
World War II has manufactured and sold home laundry 
equipment under the "Whirlpool" trademark through 
dealers and distributors. RCA's gas and electric stoves 
have been manufactured and sold under the trademark 
"RCA Estate," while its room air conditioners have 
been sold with the trademark "RCA." 

Explains Reason for Merger 

In a subsequent letter to Whirlpool stockholders 
prior to a special meeting held in September at which 
the merger was approved, Mr. Gray explained that 
"there are compelling economic reasons which justify 
the proposed merger." 

"Trends in the appliance industry clearly indicate 
that success depends upon aggressive research, low cost 
manufacturing and comprehensive distribution," he said. 
"All of these requirements are best realized, in our 
opinion, through the larger volume and the broader lines 
which the merged company can offer." 

After citing experience of the past fifteen years, 
during which, Mr. Gray wrote, only 8 out of 25 single 
or limited line manufacturers offering laundry equip- 
ment had survived as independents, he added: 

"We believe that the proposed merger will put the 



new company in a far stronger position to realize the 
economies of manufacture and distribution and to main- 
tain a favorable competitive relationship to the larger 
companies which have had such a marked success over 
the past 15 years." 

Sears, Roebuck, a stockholder in both Whirlpool 
and Seeger, continues as such in the new company. At 
the same time, RCA has a stock interest in the new 
company, but the total holdings of both RCA and Sears, 
amount to less than 50 percent of the total outstanding 
stock. By agreement between RCA and Sears, the letter 
said, the common stock owned by each in excess of 20 
percent is to be voted by the President of Whirlpool- 
Seeger. The officers of the new corporation include 
Walter G. Seeger as Chairman of the Board and Mr. 
Gray as President and chief executive. 

Mr. Gray explained that the balance of the new 
company's management personnel would be selected 
principally from the merging businesses, and that both 
Sears and RCA would have minority representation on 
the Board of Directors. Frank M. Folsom, President of 
RCA, and Charles M. Odorizzi, Executive Vice-President, 
Corporate Staff, RCA, are members of the Board of 
Directors of the new company. 

Stock Arrangements 

According to the statement to Whirlpool stock- 
holders prior to the September meeting it was expected 
that the new corporation would, upon the merger be- 
coming effective, have outstanding 5,792,816 shares of 
common stock with a par value of $5 per share, and 
211,122 shares of 4V4 percent cumulative convertible 
preferred stock with a par value of $80 per share. 

To Whirlpool stockholders, 3,086,024 shares of the 
common stock are being issued on a share for share basis. 

To Seeger stockholders go 1,548,229 shares of com- 
mon stock and 211,122 shares of preferred stock of 
Whirlpool-Seeger. These are being issued in the ratio 
of 1% shares of common stock and 3/16 share of pre- 
ferred stock for each outstanding share of Seeger com- 
mon stock. 

To RCA go 1,158,563 shares of Whirlpool-Seeger 
common stock in exchange for cash, the RCA stove, 
and air conditioning businesses, and an agreement cover- 
ing use of the trademark "RCA" in combination with 
"Whirlpool" on products of the new company. 



14 RADIO AGE 



More Recordings by the Boston Symphony 



T 

In 



.he Boston Symphony Orchestra, which estab- 
lished a major musical precedent in 1916 by becoming 
the first symphony orchestra in the nation to make 
phonograph records, renewed its 40-year recording 
association with RCA Victor Records with the signing 
of a long-term contract in mid-August at the Berkshire 
Music Festival in Tanglewood, near Lenox, Massachu- 
setts. 

The ceremonial signing, which took place during 
the course of "Tanglewood on Parade" festivities, ex- 
tends an exclusive recording association involving both 
the Boston Symphony, under its conductor Charles 
Munch, and the Boston Pops Orchestra, conducted by 
Arthur Fiedler. 

In a related ceremony several days later, Frank M. 
Folsom, President of RCA, presented a silver baton to 
Mr. Fiedler to commemorate Mr. Fiedler's twentieth 
year of recording with the Boston Pops Orchestra for 
RCA Victor. The presentation was made during Mr. 
Fiedler's first annual appearance of the 1955 season at 
the Boston Esplanade Concerts, held on the banks of 
the Charles River in Boston. 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra held the first re- 
cording session under its new contract on August 15 
and 16 at Symphony Hall, Boston. Conducting one 
session on the eve of his departure for a European 
holiday prior to the opening of the orchestra's fall season 
was Mr. Munch, with Pierre Monteux, guest conductor, 
conducting the second session. 

Orchestra Founded hi 18S1 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra, perhaps the most 
active in the country today, was founded in 1881 by 
Henry L. Higginson, Boston financier. By meeting all 
deficits out of his own pocket, Mr. Higginson founded 
the first permanent orchestra in the United States that 
was assured adequate financial support for achievement 
of the highest standard of excellence. 

From 1881 until his death in 1919, Mr. Higginson 
built the orchestra with a watchful eye, engaging a series 
of conductors who brought it to a state of perfection 
that became a model for other symphony organizations. 
By 1918, he had exhausted his own financial resources, 
and after his death the following year the orchestra 
passed from its status as a privately owned organization 
to that of a public trust. Since Mr. Higginson's death, 
the tradition of perfection that he established has been 




Left to right, at signing of new contract between Boston 
Symphony and RCA Victor, are Frank M. Folsom, Presi- 
dent of RCA; Charles Munch conductor of the Boston 
Symphony, and Arthur Fiedler, conductor of the Boston 
Pops Orchestra. 



carried on by conductors Pierre Monteux (1919-1924), 
Serge Koussevitsky (1924-1949), and Charles Munch, 
the present musical director. 

To its annual fall and winter schedule of approxi- 
mately 100 concerts per season, the orchestra adds a 
two-month series of Boston Pops concerts in Symphony 
Hall each spring under the direction of Mr. Fiedler, and 
an annual series of open air concerts on the Esplanade 
of the Charles River. 

The Boston Symphony began its recording sessions 
in 1916 for the Victor Talking Machine Company, sub- 
sequently RCA Victor. The new contract was signed at 
Tanglewood by Henry B. Cabot, President of the Board 
of Trustees of the Boston Symphony; Thomas D. Perry, 
Jr., Manager, and Mr. Munch, the Music Director, and 
by Lawrence W. Kanaga, Vice President and Operations 
Manager, RCA Victor Records. The signing was wit- 
nessed by Mr. Folsom and by members of the Board of 
Trustees of the Boston Symphony. 



RADIO AGE 15 




NEW 
JERSEY 




A Visit to the 

RCA HALL OF PROGRESS 



The milestones of electronic communication, from the earliest talking 
machines, radios and television sets to the fine instruments of today, form 
an impressive historical exhibit for the public at the "RCA Hall of Progress" 
in RCA's new center at Cherry Hill, N. J., six miles east of Camden, as 
shown on map at left. Highlights of the Exhibit are shown on these pages. 



j Visitors pause at entrance to the exhibition, located 
on the entrance floor of the administration build- 
ing at the Cherry Hill center. 

~ This 1916 statement of David Sarnoff heralded 
— the establishment and rapid growth of radio 
broadcast service to the public in the '20's. 

j Early receivers and a replica of Marconi's his- 
toric trans-Atlantic set introduce a visitor to the 
story of radio and its earliest role. 

Forerunner of today's RCA Victor high fidelity 

instruments was the 1895 hand-operated Berliner 

"Gram-o-phone" being demonstrated here. 

f This first automatic record changer in the RCA 
Victor line of 1927-28 was a major step forward in 
phonograph development. 

, The story of television is told in a succession of 
RCA sets including the pre-war projection model 
and the famed 630TS at right in this photo. 




The Need for Civil Defense Planning 



W, 



ith the advent of nuclear warfare, civil defense 
is as important as military defense, it was stated in a 
memorandum on "Civil Defense Planning," submitted 
by Brig. General David Sarnoff and presented by Gov- 
ernor Averell Harriman of New York to the Governors' 
Conference in Chicago during the summer. 

The memorandum emphasized that civil defense and 
military defense are so intermeshed that it is no longer 
easy to define where one ends and the other begins. 
In it, General Sarnoff recommended that the President 
appoint a Temporary Commission to study the entire 
field of civil defense, and he outlined the purposes of 
such a commission as follows: 

1. To formulate the basic requirements of a com- 
prehensive, national non-military defense program which 
will match in actual and potential post-attack effective- 
ness our diplomatic and military programs. 

2. To define a basis for integrating such a non- 
military defense program with our military program, 
both before and after attack; this will involve particu- 
larly the two crucial problems of manpower use and 
effective civil government in a damaged economy, as 
well as a host of related problems and conflicts. 

3. To recommend an adequate organization struc- 
ture in the Federal Government capable of coordinating 
and directing such a program. 



4. To specify the changes and adjustments in legis- 
lation, appropriations, and Federal-state relations, which 
will be necessary to carry out the program. 

"It appears vitally necessary to develop a single 
national plan under a single national organization with 
the requisite responsibility and authority," the memo- 
randum stated. "A national plan of civil defense can 
pay no more attention to state lines than a falling 
bomb does. . . . 

"But that does not imply that the national govern- 
ment must do all the work and carry all the burden. 
Essential tasks will have to be shouldered by the states, 
counties, municipalities, as elements in regional and 
national entities. Nevertheless, during the emergency, 
local action must remain under centralized direction 
and not subject to weakening or diversion by local con- 
siderations. . . . 

"Breakdown in the rear — in terms of transporta- 
tion, communications, production, manpower, food and 
medical supplies, business and credit, civil government 
— would quickly paralyze the combat forces. And a 
breakdown of such proportions could be imposed upon 
a nation in a few massive blows, unless it is thoroughly 
prepared to absorb immense damage and to carry on 
notwithstanding. Today the penalty for failure in civil 
defense, no less than on the military side, is defeat." 



Honored by SMPTE 

Dr. E. W. Engstrom, Executive Vice-President, Re- 
search and Engineering, of RCA, and Dr. Harry F. 
Olson, Director of the Acoustical and Electromechanical 
Research Laboratory, RCA Laboratories, were honored 
by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engi- 
neers on October 4 for their contributions to the mo- 
tion picture and television arts. 

Dr. Engstrom received the society's Progress Medal 
Award, presented to "a candidate who by his inventions, 
research or development has contributed in a significant 
manner to the advancement of motion picture tech- 
nology." 

To Dr. Olson, the SMPTE presented the Samuel L. 
Warner Memorial Award for 1955. The award is 
made to "a candidate who has done outstanding work 
in the field of sound motion picture engineering and 
in the development of new and improved methods or 
apparatus designed for sound motion pictures." 



X 



New TEN Service 



HE transatlantic Teleprinter Exchange Service 
(TEX J of RCA Communications, which now provides 
two-way communication by teleprinter for subscribers 
in New York and Washington and 17 countries of 
Europe and Africa, will be connected at RCA operating 
centers to the Bell System TWX network in the United 
States by means of perforated tape, according to a recent 
announcement by Thompson H. Mitchell, President of 
RCA Communications. 

The extended service, resulting from arrangements 
between RCA Communications and the American Tele- 
phone and Telegraph Company, initially will make it 
possible for TEX subscribers in Europe and Africa to 
communicate by teleprinter with TWX subscribers 
served by Bell System exchanges in the Metropolitan 
New York and Northern New Jersey areas, Mr. Mitchell 
said. Extension of the service throughout the United 
States is planned "for the near future," he added. 



78 RADIO AGE 



Typical of today's swift fighters is the North American F-100, shown in this U. S. Air Force photo. 



Electronics and High-Speed Flight 



T 

JLh 



.HE INCREASING dependence of military aviation 
upon electronic controls to solve the problems of high- 
speed flight was underlined in special conferences of 
top-ranking military, government and industry leaders 
held in August and September under the joint sponsor- 
ship of the U. S. Air Force and RCA. 

At the initial two-day conference, held in Phila- 
delphia, designers, manufacturers and users of military 
electronics participated in discussion of advanced ideas 
and techniques for designing greater operating reliability 
into increasingly complex equipment. The second con- 
ference was held in September at Wright-Patterson Air 
Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. The keynote of the confer- 
ences was stated by Maj. General Thomas P. Gerrity, 
Assistant for Production Programming, Deputy Chief of 
Staff for Materiel, U.S.A.F., who told the group in 
Philadelphia: 

"There is no aspect of operation and control of 
modern aircraft that does not depend in large measure 
on electronics. . . . 

"Of necessity, because of the speed and altitude at 
which our aircraft now operate, we have substituted 
electronic equipment for human direction wherever pos- 
sible — for navigation, fire control, bombing, detection, 
and evasion. While the substitution of electronics for 
human control has given us the high performance re- 
quired of our aircraft, it also has greatly increased our 
dependence on equipment for the success of our missions. 
At the same time, it has imposed a heavy responsibility 
and obligation on the electronics industry to develop and 
produce equipment of the highest degree of reliability. 

"Our dependence upon electronic controls will in- 
crease. If we are to solve the problems of high-speed 
flight which now confront us, the need for reliability 
will become even more urgent. Now is the time to 



take a bold approach, to exploit new techniques in com- 
ponent development. We must set our sights on elec- 
tronic aids that will continue to operate without failure 
at speeds of Mach 3 and above. (Mach 3 is three times 
the speed of sound at sea level, or about 2,000 miles 
per hour). 

"I am confident that the electronics industry will 
find a solution to the urgent problem of combining high 
performance and reliability in the electronic equipment 
which we must have. Further, I feel that we in the Air 
Force, jointly with the Radio Corporation of America, 
have gained some very valuable experience over the 
past few years which will be helpful to industry in the 
solution of this problem." 

Attending the conference were, in addition to top- 
ranking officers of all the military services, officials of 
the Department of Defense, and executives and engineers 
of the nation's principal electronic equipment and parts 
manufacturers, aircraft companies, and commerical air- 
lines. 

The first day's sessions were devoted primarily to 
discussions of numerous phases of equipment reliability, 
based on results obtained by three RCA efforts which 
have made important contributions to advancing re- 
liability in military equipment. These are ( 1 ) estab- 
lishment of an internal reliability organization devoted 
exclusively to the research and development of advanced 
reliability procedures; ( 2 ) development of procedures 
which make it possible for engineers to predict in the 
laboratory the reliability performance of new equipment 
in design or development, and (3) development of fac- 
tory tests which enable engineers to determine the re- 
liability performance of equipment under field condi- 
tions. 



RADIO ACE 19 



RCA Equipment Withstands Atomic Blast 



R 



.ADio BROADCAST and two-way mobile equipment 
built by RCA has withstood an atomic blast at a range 
of less than a mile and emerged in full operating con- 
dition, with only minor surface damage. 

Official details on the effect of an atomic blast on 
commercial communications equipment, tested last 
spring at the Atomic Test Site on the Nevada desert, 
were cleared for release during the summer by authori- 
ties in Washington. The test was held under auspices 
of the Federal Civil Defense Administration, and in- 
cluded participation of member companies of the Radio- 
Electronics-Television Manufacturers Association. 

RCA provided a standard commercial 250-watt radio 
transmitter and associated equipment for a fully opera- 
tive AM broadcasting station, a complete mobile radio 
base station operating in the 25-to-50 megacycle range, 
and two mobile radio units installed in automobiles. 
All of the equipment was housed less than a mile from 
blast center, with the exception of one two-way radio 
located 10,500 feet away. 

While the buildings and automobiles containing the 
equipment suffered partial-to-complete destruction, the 
transmitter, mobile station and two-way radios remained 
completely operative, suffering only surface damage 
caused by flying glass and debris. The blast had virtually 
no effect on the antenna tower of the AM station, 
although it snapped a smaller one erected for the mobile 
radio station. 



Photos taken before (left) 
and after (below) atomic 
blast show that RCA trans- 
mitter and associated 
equipment emerged with 
only minor damage. 





Through window of building housing RCA broadcast 
equipment atomic tower is seen less than a mile away. 



The 250-watt transmitter, housed in a building which 
was heavily damaged, was itself unscathed, although a 
power break occurred when power lines connected to 
an outside gasoline generator were snapped by falling 
telegraph poles. The broken lines were repaired in less 
than 15 minutes, and it was emphasized by RCA officials 
that the power failure in this specific case would have 
been obviated by underground wiring. 

House Wrecked, Equipment Operative 

The blast demolished the house in which the RCA 
mobile radio station was installed, hurling the station 
equipment from the second floor to the top of a pile 
of debris at ground level. Inspection teams arriving later 
on the scene found, however, that the equipment was 
operative. 

The radio-equipped automobile closest to blast cen- 
ter, parked outside the transmitter building, was re- 
ported to have been badly wrecked. Its two-way radio, 
however, suffered only minor scratches and dents. The 
second car, parked 10,500 feet from blast center, suf- 
fered only slight damage, and its two-way radio was 
untouched. 

The purpose of the rest was to determine whether 
commercial electronic communications equipment would 
remain operative under detonation conditions, or, if 
failures developed, to determine the nature and extent 
of the damage, and the time and effort required to return 
the equipment to service. 




R. 



.CA's "WEATHER eye" airborne weather radar system, 
which enables pilots to see and avoid storm centers that 
lie miles ahead in their paths, was demonstrated in action 
recently by United Air Lines, which is installing the 
equipment in its entire fleet of planes in a $4,000,000 
program. 

Newsmen invited to New York's LaGuardia Airport 
were taken aloft in United's executive plane, the Main- 
liner O'Connor, to see the new RCA equipment in 
operation. In flights well beyond the New York area, 
they were shown at first hand how the system not only 
detects storms and tutbulent air, but also provides the 
pilot with a picture of such distinctive terrain features 
as streams, mountains and shorelines. 

The weather-detection system, developed by RCA 
and put into commercial production following extensive 
field tests, has been ordered by a number of American 
commercial airlines. In addition, it was announced in 
September that the equipment is to be installed within 
the next several months on DC-7C aircraft to be put 
into service next year by the British Overseas Airways 
Corporation and by Swissair, the airline of Switzerland. 

A specific system for weather detection and recon- 
naissance, the RCA "weather eye" equipment differs 
substantially from military airborne radar, also being 
built by RCA, which is designed primarily for terrain 
mapping. Compact and light, the weather radar equip- 
ment weighs less than 125 pounds, compared with 185 
pounds for military units now in use. 

Its contribution to airline passenger comfort and 
safety is emphasized by an incident which occurred 
during evaluation tests by United Air Lines of the 
C-band (5.5 megacycle) equipment in 1953, when the 
system was still in the experimental stage. According 
to the United account, the DC-3 test plane, flying out 
of Denver, flew between cells of a cloudburst so violent 
that it inundated railroad tracks, washed out highway 
bridges, and flooded entire ranching communities. The 
Air Force weather station at Lowry Field, Denver, meas- 
ured 3.10 inches of rainfall in 50 minutes. The RCA 
C-band radar, effectively penetrating the cloudburst, 
enabled the pilot to follow a smooth corridor. 

RADIO ACE 27 



RCA's "Weather Eye" 
Is Shown in Action 




RCA weather radar is housed in nose of this UAL 
Convair executive plane. 




Nose of UAL Convair has been extended 28' 2 inches 

to house antenna and gear mechanism of RCA weather 

radar. Below, engineer checks radar installation in 

plane cockpit. Arrow indicates radar scope. 




Electronic Horizons: A Revolution in Materials 



X-/LECTRONIC SCIENCE, transformed by a revolution 
in the materials with which it works, is developing new 
techniques that will re-shape industry, promote greater 
prosperity, and increase individual well-being, according 
to Dr. E. W. Engstrom, Executive Vice-Presidenr, Re- 
search and Engineering, of RCA. 

In an address on August 26 at the All-Industry 
Luncheon of the Western Electronics Show and Con- 
ference in San Francisco, Dr. Engstrom said: 

"While obsolescence is overtaking the methods and 
the means upon which we have built our products and 
services in the past, our horizon is being expanded 
beyond any limits we may discern today. With an 
ever-increasing flow of new materials and a wealth of 
research and engineering skills, the electronic science 
that was confined, in the past, largely to the field of 
communications is today penetrating into all areas of 
our technology. 

"The results of this invasion already are becoming 
evident in the changes wrought by electronics in the 
factory, the office, and the home. But these changes, 
radical as they may appear, give only a faint indication 
of the astonishing developments now brought within 
our reach by recent and continuing scientific discovery 
in the area of new materials. Tomorrow's systems, based 
on achievements in the laboratory today, promise to 
re-shape many of our industrial processes and business 
methods. They promise to carry our national economy 
to even higher levels. These trends, together with the 
perfection of many new electronic systems for the home, 
promise above all to increase our enjoyment and well- 
being as individuals." 

Electron Action in Solid Materials 

Describing the revolution in materials as a result of 
research based on controlled action of electrons in solid 
materials as opposed to the vacuum of the electron tube. 
Dr. Engstrom said: 

"Today we have learned how to exercise this control 
with ever greater precision over the three basic types 
of electron action to perform the conducting, insulating 
and magnetic functions essential to all electronic circuits. 
At the same time, we have found both challenge and 
promise in the achievement of hitherto unfamiliar 
effects." 

Dr. Engstrom described the progress of research in 
developing new or improved materials of greater effi- 
ciency in controlling the flow of current and creating 
magnetic fields, adding: 




Dr. E. W. Engstrom. 



"The revolution in materials is far more, however, 
than a process of discovering more efficient substitutes 
for the materials and techniques we have used in the 
past. Our sights are fixed not so much on the improve- 
ment of existing systems — although this is an inevitable 
result — but rather upon the creation of new systems and 
techniques to perform entirely new tasks. 

"Here, a promising development relates to materials 
capable of interchanging light and electrical energy. In 
this area, we have for some time worked with photo- 
conductors. Here the conductivity is influenced by light. 
With cathodoluminescence, we have worked with ma- 
terials which emit visible light under electron bombard- 
ment. As we have improved these materials, our research 
has penetrated more deeply into the nature and potential 
use of the newer, more challenging phenomenon known 
as electroluminescence. 

"Electroluminescent materials, placed directly be- 
tween two electrodes, emit visible light under the influ- 
ence of an electric current. Materials with this property 
do not exist in nature; they have been created entirely 
within our research laboratories through the greater 
understanding brought about by our earlier discoveries 
in the solid-state field. In some respects, we may con- 
sider them as symbolic of the advances which we may 
anticipate from today's research in materials." 

Electroluminescent materials, Dr. Engstrom said, 
point the way to radical changes in television receivers. 



22 RADIO AGE 



"It appears now that our bulky picture tube, in which 
electron gun and phosphor screen are segregated at either 
end, will give way, in the future, to a thin layer of 
electroluminescent material within which the same func- 
tions are performed," he said. "This development, 
together with the miniaturization of other elements in 
our receiving circuits, will give us mural television. Its 
form will be that of a thin screen decorating a wall, and 
controlled remotely from a small box beside the viewer 
elsewhere in the room." 

Among other developments resulting from the dis- 
cover)' of new materials, Dr. Engstrom emphasized the 
transistor and the electronic memory unit. In the tran- 
sistor, he said, the ability to control electron action 
within small amounts of solid materials has resulted in 
a "novel and significant means of achieving control over 
a wide range of important electronic functions in devices 
that are tiny, rugged and simple." He added: 

"The trend here, spurred largely by transistor devel- 
opment, is toward the creation of miniature electronic 
devices. Such devices are more economical of power, 
materials and space than their counterparts of the past 
and present. This trend has been aided by the parallel 
development of ferromagnetic materials which furnish 
small and efficient coupling transformers and antennas, 



and of new dielectric materials for tiny condensers that 
may be used in transistorized circuits. Today's prototype 
of the pocket portable radio, incorporating these devices, 
heralds an era of personal and mass radio communi- 
cation." 

Summarizing the change brought about by new ma- 
terials, Dr. Engstrom said that the simplicity and com- 
pactness that may now be achieved in electronic devices 
lead to two major results — "increased markets for pres- 
ent types of equipment because of decreased size and 
complexity, and new markets for newly conceived ap- 
paratus which were never before economically feasible." 

Concluding, he said: 
"So far, we have responded with enthusiasm to the 
challenge. In the areas of communications theory and 
systems engineering we have been taking full advantage 
of the opportunities offered by new materials. The pace 
has been swift, but there is every indication that its swift- 
ness will increase, and that our progress today will breed 
further progress tomorrow. Clearly the organization 
which makes the best and fullest use of these materials 
will be in the forefront of progress. To an industry and 
to a research fraternity with a tradition of pioneering, 
this is a challenge we face with confidence regarding the 
achievements which will be ours." 



Fifty Color TV Sets 
For New York Hotel 

Fifty 21 -inch RCA Victor color television receivers 
were installed during September in guest rooms at the 
Hotel Governor Clinton in New York in the nation's 
first substantial hotel installation of color TV. The hotel, 
which already has 700 RCA Victor 21-inch black-and- 
white sets in use, has placed the new color sets in 
various rooms and suites as part of the regular furnish- 
ings, at no extra charge to guests. 

Signing of the contract for the installation is shown 
in the photograph at right. Here Leo A. Fields ( second 
from left) President of the Hotel Governor Clinton, 
uses one of the new color sets as a desk for the contract 
signing. Looking on (left to right) are Bertram and 
Irwin Fields, executives of the hotel; Frank M. Folsom, 
President of RCA, and Arnold and Jay Wells, of Wells 
Television, Inc., which arranged for the installation as 
a representative of RCA in the hotel television field. 




RADIO AGE 23 



Underwater TV for Fishery Research 



R t 



..CA's industrial television system, which has pro- 
vided a useful extension of human sight in many indus- 
trial, commercial and research operations, has now gone 
under water on a novel research assignment. 

Working beneath the coastal waters around Florida, 
the closed-circuit system is helping the U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, to observe 
and test the performance of experimental fishery meth- 
ods and equipment under actual oceanic conditions. 
The work represents the first practical demonstration 
in this country of underwater television as a research 
tool for experimental fishery operations, and gives 
promise of a wide range of uses in marine biology and 
explorations. 

Details of the operation were recently disclosed 
jointly by Theodore A. Smith, Vice-President and Gen- 
eral Manager of RCA's Engineering Products Division, 
and Reidar F. Sand, Chief of the Fish and Wildlife 
Service's Gear Research and Development Program. 
Most recently, according to Mr. Sand, the Service has 
been employing closed-circuit television in connection 
with development of a midwater trawling net and in a 
remote study of shrimp in their natural habitat. 

"Operation F/sbeye" 

The underwater TV experiments were initiated with 
"Operation Fisheye," conducted recently in the Gulf 
Stream off the east Florida coast, it was disclosed by 
Mr. Smith. A standard RCA ITV closed-circuit televi- 
sion system provided remote observations of experi- 
mental fishery gear towed at depths of more than 60 
feet. The gear was illuminated only by natural sun- 
light, and the views produced on a TV monitor aboard 





Reidar F. Sand, of U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 

readies diving bell which houses RCA TV camera used 

to observe fishery gear under water. 



the U. S. research vessel Pompano were sufficiently clear 
and sharp for photographing by both still and motion 
picture cameras. 

"Research in the field of fishery methods and equip- 
ment has been hampered by the limited access to direct 
observations of fishing gear in operation," Mr. Sand ex- 
plained. "Advances in the design and construction of 
nets, trawls and other devices have resulted latgely from 
trial and error, scanty information obtained from work 
with models, or information supplied by divers working 
with underwater film cameras. 

"The advent of underwater TV research in orher 
fields, indicating the possibilities of closed-circuit TV 
as a means for securing direct observation of fishing 
gear and methods, led to the assignment of such a project 
to the Service's Exploratory and Gear Development 
Station at Coral Gables, Florida." 

Inquisitive fish are televised as they inspect experimental 

shrimp trap on ocean bottom. Photo was taken from 

screen of monitor. 

24 RADIO AGE 



In underwater operations, the RCA ITV camera is 
housed inside a watertight steel cylinder devised by 
technicians of the Fish and Wildlife Service. The cylin- 
der is mounted in a submersible free-flooded, ball-type 
"diving bell." Atop the bell, and connected to it by a 
gear train and yoke assembly, is a watertight electrically 
driven power unit which permits remote control of the 
TV camera's scanning action — 360 degrees around, and 
90 degrees in elevation. What the camera "sees" is 
projected over a flexible multiconductor cable to a re- 
mote control TV monitor aboard the Pompano. 

System Eliminates Risks 

Mr. Sand pointed out that such a system can con- 
ceivably be operated at much greater depths than a diver 
can withstand, and for much longer periods of time. In 
addition, a television system eliminates any risks which 



may be incurred when a diver operates an ordinary 
underwater film camera. 

"The value of underwater television as an aid to 
investigations in marine biology has been demonstrated 
in these operations," Mr. Sand said. "In addition to 
gear research in the commercial fisheries, it may prove 
to be of assistance in the delineation and harvesting of 
clam, oyster and scallop beds. Closer views might also 
be obtained of bottom formations, bottom-type fish, and 
fish in their natural habitat. At the present time, these 
may be located only with difficulty by depth-sounding 
equipment. 

"Furthermore, underwater television offers possibili- 
ties of direct monitoring of water temperatures, current 
flows, turbidity, and other oceanographic data related to 
the fisheries." 



RCAs Pocket-Size Two-Way Radio 



J- he SMALLEST two-way FM radio ever built is now 
being tested by the U. S. Army Signal Corps and the 
Department of Defense as a possible communications 
device for squads and other small tactical military groups 
in the field. Developed experimentally by RCA's Engi- 
neering Products Division, the transistorized instrument 
is tiny enough to be carried in a shirt pocket, yet power- 
ful enough for two-way communication over a quarter- 
mile range. 

Announcement of the new development was made 
recently by Theodore A. Smith, Vice-President and Gen- 
eral Manager of the Engineering Products Division, who 
disclosed that a quantity of the tiny transceivers had 
been purchased by the Signal Corps for testing by the 
Operations Research Office, Department of Defense, 
at Fort Carson, Colorado. 

Uses Twelve Transistors 

Mr. Smith disclosed these details of the unique 
instrument: 

Built around twelve transistors and a single electron 
tube, the pocket-size transceiver is a new design ap- 
proach to two-way portable radio equipment. The ultra- 
miniature unit was made possible by the use of tran- 
sistors and new electronic circuitry which present at the 
same time advantages of high stability, dependable per- 
formance, long battery life, and ruggedness. In addition, 



Smallest portable two-way FM radio ever built is shown 

in Signal Corps field tests in Colorado. Tiny unit is 

strapped to soldier's helmet. 

RADIO AGE 25 



he said, the equipment is readily adaptable to fully 
automatic operation. 

The transceiver incorporates two simple controls for 
two-way communication — a push-to-talk button, and a 
combination of on-off and volume-control switch. No 
tuning or adjustment is required, and the built-in micro- 
phone-earphone provides clearly audible reception when 
it is held several inches from the ear. 

The receiving unit itself is small enough to store in 
a vest pocket. Produced as an independent unit for 
one-way communication, it could be used to link a 
platoon or squad leader with individual soldiers. The 
RCA transistorized transceiver weighs only 15 ounces 
and is about the size of a small tobacco tin. 





v3horan, the high-precision position-finding radar 
system developed by RCA during World War II and 
used for precision bombing and reconnaissance mapping 
as well as air navigation, is providing peacetime "seven 
league boots" for one of the most extensive land-map- 
ping projects ever undertaken. 

In only four summers, Shoran is making possible a 
geodetic and photographic grid survey of more than 
500,000 square miles of the Canadian Far North — a 
project which would require decades with usual map- 
ping techniques, according to officials of the aerial 
survey organization handling the project. 

The Shoran equipment is being used by Canadian 
Aero Service Limited, of Ottawa, and its affiliate, Spartan 
Air Services, Limited, for the Army Survey Establish- 
ment of the Canadian Department of National Defense. 
Covering a largely unmapped area on both sides of the 
Arctic Circle, the territory is bounded on the southeast 
by Hudson Bay, on the north by the Northwest Passage, 
and on the west by the Mackenzie River. 

Shoran operates this way: a plane equipped with 
Shoran transmits radio signals to each of two land-based 
Shoran stations, which receive and immediately relay 
the signals back to the plane. Automatic, electronic 
measurement of the time required for the signals to 
make the round trip permits computation of the plane's 
exact position in relation to the two fixed stations. 

Six Land-Based Stations Used 

According to Thomas M. O'Malley, President of 
Canadian Aero Service, Limited, the two organizations 
engaged in the survey are using six land-based Shoran 
field stations which are moved progressively as each 
unmapped section is geodetically and photographically 
surveyed. Two airborne Shoran units, he said, are at 
work in the survey aircraft. 

The Canadian survey, now in its fourth year, is 
employing RCA Shoran because "it is the only long- 
range measuring device which provides the speed, ac- 
curacy and detail essential for completion of so extensive 
a project," Mr. O'Malley said. 

"The position-finding electronic aid is enabling 
Canadian Aero and Spartan mapping crews to measure, 

26 RADIO AGE 



Shoran Helps the Mapmakers 



with unprecedented accuracy, many geographic points 
200 to 300 miles apart," he added. "The aerial measure- 
ments are made in a fraction of the time required to 
measure points only several miles apart with conven- 
tional ground surveys." 

Canadian Aero Service is part of the largest com- 
mercial aerial mapping and geophysical organization in 
the world — Aero Service Corporation, of Philadelphia. 
Mr. O'Malley said that use had been made of Shoran by 
Aero Service in the aerial photomapping of large areas 
in Liberia, where dense forest cover would make con- 
ventional ground surveys slow and costly. 

It was pointed out that Aero Service already has 
carried out a survey of 85,000 square miles in the 
Bahamas for five major oil companies — a project involv- 
ing an airborne magnetometer survey of an area 90 per- 
cent of which was covered by water and lacked adequate 
landmarks. Without Shoran, the RCA officials said, the 
survey would have been impossible: with Shoran, the 
oil reconnaissance survey was performed in less than a 
year. 



This is one of six RCA Shoran ground stations used by 

Canadian Aero Service Ltd. in survey covering vast area 

of Canada's Far North. 




Evalua 




ams 



by George Frey 

Vice-President in Charge of 

NBC Television Network Sales 

T 

JL HE FIRST MAJOR effort by a broadcasting network 
to obtain expert evaluation of its children's program- 
ming has resulted in a series of recommendations by 
the newly-created Children's Program Review Com- 
mittee of the National Broadcasting Company. 

The report, in part commendatory and in part criti- 
cal, was made by the three members of the committee, 
all nationally known authorities — Mrs. Douglas Horton, 
a member of the Boards of Directors of RCA and NBC 
and former president of Wellesley College and wartime 
director of the WAVES; Dr. Frances Horwich, producer- 
star of NBC-TV's award-winning "Ding Dong School" 
and one of the country's leading specialists on primary 
education; and Dr. Robert M. Goldenson, psychologist, 
educator and author. The committee was created as 
part of our over-all NBC effort to increase the educa- 
tional value of children's television. 

At NBC we are deeply conscious of our position as 
broadcasters and our responsibilities in relation to social 
problems of the day. It is for this reason that the 
Children's Program Review Committee was created by 
NBC, and it is for this reason that we welcome the 
group's first report. 

The report will be distributed to the producers of 
every children's and family-type program seen on 
NBC-TV and to the program directors of all NBC- 
owned stations. They will be asked to study the com- 
mittee recommendations and give us their comments. 
We will then sit down with the committee to review 
the course of action to be taken. Out of this, we feel, 
will come a realistic program that will result in even 
higher standards of TV for the nation's children. 



The committee had special praise for the policy of 
enlightenment through exposure. 

"The maintenance of Program Analysis with its 
Responsibility Reports seems to us strong evidence of 
the sincerity of the company in carrying out this phase 
of its policy," the report said. "A comparison of the 
programs offered in March, 1955, with those offered in 
December, 1953, indicates that NBC has doubled the 
amount of 'integrated enlightenment' in this short time." 

Use of Code is Commended 

The committee likewise commended the broadcast- 
ers' code as adopted by NBC. 

"We are impressed by the efforts of the company 
and all its representatives to interpret and apply the code 
carefully. Not only are we impressed by the Continuity 
Acceptance reports, but we note with real satisfaction 
the efforts of the producers and the performers in exist- 
ing shows, to adapt their programs to conform to the 
code and to a wide range of public expectation." 

The committee also praised NBC for appointing a 
Supervisor of Children's Programs. 

In its critical sections the report called attention to 
such points as over-excitement, bad grammar, poor 
pronunciation, name calling, overdone slapstick, crude- 
ness, action tending to frighten children, exploitation of 
children on shows, over-emphasis on money, misuse of 
commercials, insufficient enlightenment, and stereotypes 
in plot and character. 

Commenting on this last point, the report noted: 
"There are too many stereotypes (Indians and others) 
in some of the older Western movies. The hero and the 
villain as symbols of all-good and all-bad tend to suggest 
black and white distinctions and misrepresent ordinary 
experience. We also question the emphasis on an un- 
conquerable hero who takes all responsibility, and some- 
times the law itself, into his own hands." 



RADIO AGE 27 




Dr. Frances Horwich 



Dr. Robert M. Goldenson 



Mrs. Douglas Horton 



Such concerns as these, the committee said, call for 
general correction. To this end and to effect other 
improvements, the committee submitted the following 
recommendations : 

1. The code might be amended to include positive 
emphasis on the company's intent to provide not only 
entertainment in its children's programs but such public 
service as the fosteting of proper language, correct 
grammar, and a better understanding of the world. 

2. Special attention might well be given to teen- 
agers, who are apt to prefer family or adult shows but 
who seem to be neglected as compared with younger 
children. 

3. The hour of 5 to 6 p.m. on weekdays and Satur- 
day mornings might well be geared to the 6-12 year-old 
groups, since the willingness of older children to listen 
at those hours would help to keep the younger children 
interested and, in general, contribute to family harmony. 

4. Exploitation of children might be avoided by 
such standards as these: 

Any children used in commercials should be 
professional actors and actresses; 

Children may take part in some games and skits 
and the like but they should be selected before air 
time and instructed as to what will be expected of 
them; 

A child may be used on a show to "participate 
for the viewer" in receiving explanations or asking 
questions; 

If audience shots of children are used, they should 
be simply shots of children as interested spectators, 
with no participation; 

In no case should ad lib remarks be definitely 
elicited in order to make entertainment for adults. 



5. Western programs might be used as vehicles for 
a positive program of enlightenment by including nature 
lote and folklore. The time now allocated to Westerns 
on some of the NBC-owned stations might be devoted 
to other types of adventure programs in order to achieve 
a better balance. 

6. Children's programming as a whole should be 
better balanced to do fuller justice to the wide range 
of interests among young people. 

7. When commercials are incorporated into chil- 
dren's shows and when performers are used to sponsor 
any commercial item, the commercial should conform 
to all the standards desirable for children's programs. 

8. There should be less repetition of popular per- 
sonalities and such popular features as cartoons and 
slapstick, if public reaction against them is to be avoided. 

9. Sensitive areas of social behavior should be dis- 
cussed with experts in the specialized fields, preferably 
by script writers. Advice to children by entertainets 
should be cleared with the Supervisor of Children's 
Programs. 

10. NBC should follow up its recent innovations 
in program patterns with "an equally distinguished 
schedule of programming plans for children." Such a 
plan should be well-rounded, balanced, and properly 
supervised, and would require company organization 
toward long-range planning. 

11. If the committee's recommendations could be 
distributed to producers of children's and family-type 
programs they might be of help in strengthening the 
position of people who would like to offer the public 
the best kind of programming. 

12. The company might encourage a full-scale pro- 
fessional study of the effects of television, especially on 
children. 



28 RADIO AGE 



inr JJ^W^ 




Archaeological diggings at the David Sarnoff Research Center in Princeton are examined by G. D. 
Nelson, left, Director of Laboratory Services, and Dr. Irving Wolff, foreground Vice-President, Re- 
search, while Dr. D. H. Ewing, left background, Administrative Director of RCA Laboratories, watches 
removal of a pottery fragment by Dr. Donald Hartle, in charge of the project. 



Prehistory at Princeton 



R 



.CA Laboratories, which normally specializes in 
looking ahead to the electronic future, glanced the other 
way recently just long enough to assist in the discovery 
of relics left by Indian hunters over a span of perhaps 
3,000 years. 

The relics have been excavated from a site on the 
property of the David Sarnoff Research Center in 
Princeton, N.J. Under the joint sponsorship of RCA 
Laboratories, the Archeological Society of New Jersey, 
and the New Jersey State Museum in Trenton, explora- 
tion of the site was carried out during the summer. 
The project was under supervision of Dr. Dorothy 
Cross, head of the Anthropology Division of Hunter 
College, New York, and the field work was conducted 
by Dr. Donald D. Hartle, archeologist on the Hunter 
College teaching staff. 

The fruits of the search include more than 1,000 
early artifacts, ranging through various types of pottery, 
spearheads, arrowheads, knives and grinding and ham- 
mering stones. According to expert analysis, they indi- 
cate that the site was used at different times as a camp, 
providing an unwritten history of the Indians who 
occupied the area in several eras starting with the 
Archaic Period (about 3,000 B.C. to 100 A.D.). 

According to officials of the New Jersey State 
Museum, the RCA site has long been known by local 
collectors and was recorded during a state archeological 



survey in 1940. Its importance became evident on a 
larger scale early this summer when the Museum dug 
several test-pit excavations. Among the discoveries 
were fragments of pottery tempered with steatite ( soap- 
stone), the earliest type of clay vessel manufactured by 
Indians of New Jersey, and a crude, crescent-shaped 
knife chipped out of shale. In addition, some later type 
tools and pottery indicated that the site had been 
inhabited at later times. 

At this point, the State Museum discussed with RCA 
Laboratories the possibility of joint sponsorship in order 
to undertake excavation on a larger scale. RCA agreed, 
and, through the assistance of Dr. Douglas H. Ewing. 
Administrative Director of RCA Laboratories, the ex- 
cavations were started by Dr. Hartle and continued 
through August. 

Excavation of this sort is a precise and delicate 
operation. Digging is done in five-foot squares and in 
three-inch levels, down to a depth of 30 inches. With 
this depth control, the chronology of various types of 
artifacts can be determined according to their depth, 
since the earlier types are located farther down than the 
more recent ones. After dirt is removed, it is screened 
to catch small objects that might otherwise be over- 
looked. During the summer digging, 4,000 cubic feet 
of dirt were removed at the RCA site by this method. 



RADIO AGE 29 




NBC's Merchandising Department reviews program material with clients with the help of a rear- 
screen projector on which kinescope recordings or TV films are shown. 



Electronic Merchandising by NBC 



by Thomas McAvity 
Vice-President in Charge, 
NBC Television Network 

_L/LECTRONiCS is now being used to increase its ad- 
vertising power in a novel merchandising program con- 
ducted by the National Broadcasting Company as a 
special service for television and radio sponsors. 

The instrument is our Merchandising Department, 
whose function is to extend the selling power of tele- 
vision and radio advertising through the entire chain 
of product distribution, from the wholesale level to the 
retail store. It does this by a variety of techniques de- 
signed to call the widest attention on the part of whole- 
salers and retailers to broadcast advertising campaigns. 

Today, keeping pace wih trends toward increased 
self-service, keener competition among brands, and the 
growing value of shelf space for products in retail and 
wholesale markets, the department has adapted to its 
uses such electronic aids as closed-circuit television and 
kinescope recordings, or TV films. 

The NBC Merchandising Department was estab- 
lished early in 1952 and was organized from the start 
on a nation-wide basis. The department consists of a 
New York headquarters and 12 merchandising districts 
covering more than 50 major markets across the nation. 
Manager of the department is Murray Heilweil, who has 
had long and varied experience in all phases of adver- 
tising and business. Assigned to each district is an NBC 



Merchandising Supervisor, a man with wide experience 
in advertising, merchandising and sales. 

In addition to this organization, the department is 
backed by our entire network, which provides a group 
of local operations of a kind available to no other adver- 
tising medium. Our affiliated stations add local power 
to a campaign with mailings, bulletins, on-the-air pro- 
motions and other assistance. 

The Merchandising Department plans each cam- 
paign to fit the needs and meet the objectives of the 
individual sponsor. The campaign is developed in a 
meeting of the advertiser, the agency and the NBC mer- 
chandising staff. Complete and detailed instructions are 
then sent out to the NBC District Supervisors and in 
specific instances to the NBC affiliated stations carrying 
the sponsor's program. 

As the campaign gets underway, our merchandising 
supervisors work closely with the advertisers' own sales 
staff, especially in the demonstration of electronic mer- 
chandising techniques. The supervisors also make con- 
tact with the merchandising staffs of NBC affiliated 
stations to coordinate the basic campaign with station 
activities and thus achieve the greatest possible local 
impact. They make personal calls on key wholesalers 
and jobbers to stimulate their interest and to gain pre- 
ferred attention to the product at the point of sale. At 
the consumer level, they arrange promotions for all net- 
work programs, with special emphasis on daytime 
shows in which local sponsors may participate. 



30 RADIO AGE 



The department's use of kinescopes and closed-circuit 
telecasts has added a new feature to the techniques of 
merchandising. The staff is equipped with portable 
rear-screen projectors for showing kinescopes at adver- 
tiser sales meetings, to dealers and distributors, and at 
the point of sale itself in stores and supermarkets. With 
these projectors, the advertiser, NBC executives, and 
most important, the stars themselves are brought on the 
screen to talk about the advertising campaign and the 
part which each dealer and distributor can play in it. 

The same effectiveness has been achieved with closed- 
circuit telecasts. Star Kist Tuna Company, a client on 
"Today," "Home," and "Tonight," recently gathered 
2600 of its own sales representatives, as well as brokers 
and representatives of the country's leading food chains, 
in 50 television studios across the country to view a 
closed-circuit color telecast. Both the client and the 
brokers agreed that the show had an enthusiastic re- 
sponse from their customers, and that hence they them- 
selves were given a flying start in the over-all campaign. 




Emphasis on New Techniques 

The department is constantly testing and developing 
new ideas, methods and services. Under the "Depart- 
ment Store of the Week" plan, 43 leading stores across 
the country related their efforts with NBC's "Home" 
show during a 14-month period with newspaper ads, 
special window features and interior store displays. 
Twelve NBC advertisers signed up for the NBC "Star 
Value Parade" promotion, which was joined by 48 
grocery chains and supermarket groups representing 
3,493 stores and which used more than 350,000 pieces 
of special display material. Other equally successful 
promotions include the "Christmas Shopping Festival," 
the "Father's Day Promotion" and the "Home Food 
Promotion." 

In 1954, NBC's Merchandising Supervisors covered 
more than 1,000,000 miles, made over 15,000 personal 
calls on wholesalers, retailers and affiliated stations, and 
arranged for the distribution of more than 10,000,000 
pieces of point-of-sale material. This year, with requests 
from advertisers running 40 per cent over 1954, accom- 
plishments of the Merchandising Department will be 
correspondingly greater. 

The sponsors who have used the NBC service range 
in size from the Aluminum Co. of America to the 
Appian Way Pizza Pie Co. Their enthusiasm has been 
summed up by an executive of American Home Foods, 
Inc., who wrote us: 

"We have received glowing reports from our men 
in the field and I consider it an outstanding job and 
evidence of the far-sightedness of NBC to permit the 
latitude to do this for a sponsor." 



RCA Transistor Radios 



R< 



lXA's pocket-size all-transistor radio and a larger 
transistorized portable comparing in size with the 
present RCA Victor "Personal" portable radio will 
make their commercial debut before the end of the 
year, according to plans announced recently by the 
RCA Victor Radio and "Victrola" Division. 

The miniature portable, with six transistors, is housed 
in a plastic case measuring only 5Vi inches wide, 3!4 
inches high, and \Vj inches thick, making it suitable 
for carrying in a pocket or a handbag. The larger set. 
roughly twice as large, has seven transistors and is housed 
in a case of leather covered wood with aluminum trim. 

Announcing plans to show the two sets to distribu- 
tors during the autumn, James M. Toney, General Man- 
ager of the division, stated that the larger of the two 
portables will have a battery life "approximately four 
times that of the finest conventional portable with elec- 
tron tubes." The miniature set also will have much 
longer battery life than ordinary portable radios, he 
added. 

"Both radios will feature circuits especially designed 
for use with transistors, which tests indicate will deliver 
better all-around performance than any other transistor 
radio now on the market, and even superior to most 
conventional portables," he said. "In addition, these 
radios will have greater reliability and greater resistance 
to shock." 



RADIO AGE 31 





Salute from the Photographers 

The Photographers Association of 
America honored RCA in August 
with a citation commending RCA "for 
outstanding research in the newest of 
photographic fields, television, and its 
relation to the more established 
branches of photography; and for sig- 
nificant contributions to the develop- 
ment of photographic equipment." 
RCA was the only representative of 
the television industry to be honored 
by the award, made for the first time 
by the Association to 26 individuals, 
publications and organizations. 

Calling All Trucks . . . 

Seven of the country's major 
ready-mix cement companies have 
acquired RCA two-way radio systems 
to link mixing plants with delivery 
trucks. Supplied by RCA's Engineer- 
ing Products Division, the Carfone 
and Fleetfone equipment will enable 
the station-equipped plants to main- 
tain continuous control of truck fleets, 
promising reduction in operating costs, 
speedier customer service, and more 
efficient use of rolling stock. Largest 
of the installations has been made for 
Materials Service Company, Chicago, 
which is acquiring 167 Carfone mobile 
radios and eight base stations. The 
other companies are located in Cincin- 
nati, Dayton, and Lakewood, Ohio; 
Indianapolis, Ind., Seattle, Wash., and 
Johnson City, N. Y. 



Candelabra 

Two Dallas, Tex., television sta- 
tions are being outfitted by RCA with 
a unique "candelabra" TV antenna 
which will permit them to share 
antenna site and tower while achiev- 
ing the maximum height allowable 
under aeronautical regulations. De- 
scribed by A. R. Hopkins, Manager, 
Broadcast Equipment Marketing, of 
RCA's Engineering Products Division, 
as "a radical approach to TV antenna 
design," the candelabra arrangement 
towers 1521 feet above the surround- 
ing territory, making it the second 
tallest man-made structure in the 
world — the tallest being the 1572-foot 
tower installation erected for an RCA 
antenna in Oklahoma City. The co- 
operating Dallas stations are WFAA 
and KRLD. 




Cap and Gown 

Diplomas were awarded to 226 
graduates of RCA Institutes, Inc., at 
commencement exercises in New York 
on August 12. The graduates in- 
cluded students from Argentina, Col- 
umbia, Venezuela, England, Israel, 
Transjordan, Greece and the British 
West Indies, and more than 60 per- 
cent of the class were veterans of 
World War II and the Korean War. 
The diplomas marked succesful com- 
pletion of courses of study in radio 
and television broadcasting, radio, and 
television servicing, advanced tech- 
nology, and radiotelegraph operating. 




Ernie 

The combat television telecast 
from Fort Meade, Md., last summer 
won an "Ernie" award from The Air- 
borne Association recently as "an out- 
standing contribution to national se- 
curity by a telecast." The award, 
presented in Washington, is given 
by the association to honor the mem- 
ory of Ernie Pyle, who was killed 
ten years ago while covering the fight- 
ing in the Pacific area. The program 
which won the award was presented 
by NBC in color on Aug. 11, 1954, 
during field exercises at Fort Meade 
demonstrating the use of television in 
warfare to give commanders a front- 
line view of operations. 

Microwave Manual 

A new 226-page service manual 
on wave propagation and other as- 
pects of very-high frequency and 
microwave radio relay systems has 
just been published by the Govern- 
ment Service Department of the RCA 
Service Company, Inc., for the bene- 
fit of electronics engineers, technicians 
and students. Entitled "Point-to-Point 
Radio Relay Systems— 44MC to 13000 
MC," the manual was published orig- 
inally under contract for the Air 
Force, which has now approved re- 
printing the commercial sale. Copies 
are available from the Government 
Service Department, RCA Service 
Company, Inc., Camden, N.J., at $2 
each, postpaid, or, for training pur- 
poses in quantities of 10 or more, at 
$1.80 each, postpaid. 



32 RADIO AGE 



OVER 600 
EXPERIENCED ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS* 

CHOSE RCA SYSTEMS, DESIGN OR DEVELOPMENT 



co 



US' 



e" 



-vvji£- 



CAREERS IN THE LAST YEAR 






SYSTEMS ENGINEERING 

COMPUTERS 

GUIDED MISSILE ELECTRONICS 

AVIATION ELECTRONICS 

ELECTRON TUBES 



*P/us hundreds of service, 
recent graduates and other 
engineers. 



FIELDS OF ENGINEERING ACTIVITY 


TYPE OF DEGREE AND YEARS OF EXPERIENCE PREFERRED 


Electrical 
Engineers 


Mechanical 
Engineers 


Physical 
Science 


Chemistry 

Ceramics 

Glass Technology 

Metallurgy 


1-2 


2-3 


4 + 


1 2 


2 3 


4 + 


12 


2 i 


4 l 


1 2 


2 3 


4 . 


SYSTEMS 

(Integration of theory, equipments and environment 




























AIRBORNE FIRE CONTROL 






W 
M 






M 






W 
M 












DIGITAL DATA HANDLING DEVICES 






C 






C 






c 








MISSILE AND RADAR 






M 
X 






M 






M 








INERTIAL NAVIGATION 






M 






M 






M 








COMMUNICATIONS 






C 
1 












C 








DESIGN • DEVELOPMENT 

KINESCOPES (B & W and COLOR), OSCILLOSCOPES— Electron 

Optics— Instrumental Analysis— Solid States (Phosphors, High Tempera- 
ture Phenomena, Photosensitive Materials and Glass to Metal Sealing) 


L 


L 


L 


L 


L 


L 


L 


L 


L 


L 


L 


L 


RECEIVING TUBES— Tube Design— Test and Application Engineering- 
Chemical and Physical Development — Methods and Process Engineering 
— Advanced Development 


H 


H 


H 




H 


H 




H 


H 




H 


H 


SEMI-CONDUCTORS— Transistors— Semiconductor Devices— Materials 


H 


H 


H 








H 


H 


H 








MICROWAVE TUBES— Tube Development and Manufacture (Traveling 
Wave — Backward Wavel 




H 


H 




H 


H 




H 


H 




H 


H 


GAS, POWER AND PHOTO TUBES— Photosensitive Devices— Glass 
to Metal Sealing 


L 


L 


L 


L 


L 


L 


L 


L 


L 


L 


L 


L 


AVIATION ELECTRONICS— Radar— Computers— Servo Mechanisms 
— Shock and Vibration — Circuitry — Remote Control — Heat Transfer — 
Sub-Miniaturization — Automatic Flight — Design for Automation — Tran- 
sistorization 


M 

C 
X 


M 

c 

X 


M 

C 
X 


M 

c 


M 

c 

X 


M 
C 
X 


M 

c 

X 


M 

c 

X 


M 

c 

X 








COMPUTERS— Systems— Advanced Development— Circuitry— Assembly 
Design— Mechanisms— Programming 


c 


c 

X 


M 
C 
X 


c 


c 

X 


M 

c 

X 


c 


c 


M 

c 








RADAR— Circuitry — Antenna Design — Servo Systems — Gear Trains — 
Intricate Mechanisms — Fire Control 


M 

c 

X 


M 

c 

X 


M 

C 
X 


M 

c 

X 


M 

c 

X 


M 
C 
X 


M 

c 

X 


M 

C 
X 


M 

c 

X 








COMMUNICATIONS — Microwave — Aviation — Specialized Military 
Systems 


c 


c 


c 




c 


c 




c 


c 








RADIO SYSTEMS— HF-VHF— Microwave — Propagation Analysis- 
Telephone, Telegraph Terminal Equipment 




1 


1 




1 


1 




1 


1 








MISSILE GUIDANCE— Systems Planning and Design— Radar— Fire 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 








COMPONENTS — Transformers— Coils— TV Deflection Yokes (Color or 
Monochrome) — Resistors 


c 


z 
c 


z 
c 


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z 
c 


Z 

c 


c 


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Z 


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MACHINE DESIGN 

Mechanical and Electricol — Automatic or Semi-Automatic Machines 




L 


L 




L 
H 


c 

L 
H 




L 


L 









Location Code; C-Camden, N.J. H — Harrison. N.J. I — International Div. L-Lancaster, Pa. M-Moorestown, 
Modern benefits program . . . Liberal relocation assistance. 
Please send resume of education and experience, with location preferred, to 




N.J. W-Wallham, Mass. X-Los Angeles. Calif. Z-Findlay, Ohio 



Mr. John R. Weld, Employment Manager 
Dept. A-6K, Radio Corporation of America 



RADIO CORPORATION of AMERICA 



Copyright 1955 Radio Corporation ol Amen 



NBC MATINEE THEATER 
A Great One -Hour Play 



Every Day 



Premiere: October 31st, 
8:00 to h:0Q p.m. 
New York Time 



T 



c/ %, 



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1 5 1 1 3 

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For the first time in television his- 
tory—a great full-hour dramatic 
show every day! The new NBC 
MATINEE theater will bring you 
260 different, full-hour plays a 
year. Every weekday afternoon, 
Monday through Friday, you can 
now enjoy serious dramas and 
comedies, originals and adapta- 
tions of books, revivals of classics 
and repeat performances of out- 
standing TV plays-a daily hour 
of fine dramatic entertainment 
that measures up to the highest 
standards of the best nighttime 
television series. 

It's by far the biggest theatrical 
enterprise of all time, involving 
five separate production teams, 
scores of writers and hundreds 
of Hollywood's most accom- 
plished actors. Supervising the 
production is Albert McCleery, 
who has produced such distin- 
guished programs as Cameo 
Theatre and Hallmark Hall of 
Fame. For the most part, the NBC 

MATINEE THEATER shows will be 
done live— with all the immediacy 
and excitement of a "first night" 
event. And most of them will be 
presented in full color, as well as 
in black-and-white. 

For absorbing, worthwhile enter- 
tainment, all year long, you have 
reservations every weekday at 
3:00 p.m., New York Time, for 
great, full-hour plays on the new 

NBC MATINEE THEATER. 

exciting things are happening on 



t £ NBC MATINEE THEATER j 5 § NBC MATINEE THEATER 1 1 | S I ^ 

s 3 5 "ill is' «" ™ 

% G> A GREAT PLAY EVERY DAY ! - © A GREAT PLAT EVERY DAY gfl| ■ — 

« I MONDAYS THROUGH FRIDAYS | 5 J MONDAYS THROUGH FRIDAYS I i I JZw*'<n!*t 




Television 







RESEARCH • MANUFACTURING • COMMUNICATIONS • BROADCASTING - TELEVISION 




KANSAS CITY, MO 
PU&Li y 



JANUARY 1956 




SADLER'S WELLS BALLET PRESENTS "SLEEPING BEAUTY" ON COLOR TV 



New, consolidated 

TEX 

Overseas Teleprinter 

Exchange Service 

Network 



STOCKHOLM a 



*** N EW YOR K 

WASHINGTON 





LEOPOLDVILLE 



PORTANT NEW 
TEX LINK 



JOINS ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC TEX NETWORKS; ENABLES ALL TEX CUSTOMERS 



IN UNITED STATES TO "TALK IN WRITING" WITH 21 POINTS IN EUROPE, 
AFRICA, THE CARIBBEAN, AND THE PACIFIC 



Now, with the establishment of a TEX 
link between New York and San Francisco, 
one consolidated Overseas Teleprinter Ex- 
change Service network serves TEX cus- 
tomers in the United States and 21 overseas 
countries. 

The new trans-continental TEX link joins 
what were formerly separate RCA Atlantic 
and Pacific TEX networks. As a result. I no- 
way teleprinter-to-teleprinter connections 
can now be made between all TEX cus- 
tomers in the United States'- and 26.000 



subscribers throughout Europe, Africa, the 
Caribbean, and the Pacific (sec map). 

If von do business with any of the coun- 
tries shown on the map, investigate the 
many advantages which this RCA-pioneered, 
commercial Overseas Teleprinter Exchange 
Service offers you. Ask your RCA Represen- 
tative, or write RCA Communications, Inc. 
at any one of the offices listed below. 

*TEX culls may not be made between cities within the 



OTHER RECENT 
TEX DEVELOPMENTS 



Sept. 1 — Service inaugurated to Puerto Rico 
Nov. 1 — Service inaugurated to Manila 
Dec. 5 — Service inaugurated to Ireland 



RCA COMMUNICATIONS, INC., 



NEW YORK 4 

66 Brood Street 

el: HAnover 2-1811 

TWX: NY 1-1345 



WASHINGTON 6, D. C. 

1812 M Street, N.W. 

Tel: NAtionol 8-2600 

TWX: WA 156 



SAN FRANCISCO 5 

135 Market Street 

Tel: GArfield 1-4200 

TWX: SF 861 




VOLUME 15 NUMBER 1 



EARCH • MANUFACTURING • COMMUNICATIONS 
BROADCASTING ^TELEVISION 



JANUARY 1956 




COVER 

Margot Fonteyn starred in the 
first color TV appearance of 
the Sadler's Wells Ballet with 
the NBC presentation of 
"Sleeping Beauty." 



NOTICE 



When requesting a change in mailing 
address please include the code letters 
and numbers which appear with the 
stencilled address on the envelope. 

Radio Age is published quarter!/ by 
the Department of Information, Radio 
Corporation of America, 30 Rocke- 
feller Plaza. New York 20, N Y. 

Printed in U.S.A. 



CONTENTS 



Page 

RCA Achieves Billion-Dollar Business in 1955 3 

Folsom Foresees Quality Market in 1956 6 

RCA's BIZMAC Goes to Work 8 

RCA Scholarships Awarded to 28 College Students 10 

Weaver Named Chairman of NBC; Robert Sarnoff Becomes President 11 

Automation and Economic Growth 12 

The First All-Color TV Station 13 

3-Point National Security Program Urged by Sarnoff 15 

What's The Latest? 16 

A Cold War Weapon for 50 Cents 18 

Expansion of RCA Marine Operations 19 

Laboratories RCA, Ltd 20 

The Far East Sees TV 22 

Wide Wide World 25 

TV's First Touring Opera Company 26 

Solving a Radio Traffic Problem 27 

Overseas Message Volume Reaches New High 28 

Scatter Propagation 29 

New Visual Effects for Color TV 31 

News in Brief 32 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 



RCA Building, New York 20, N.Y. 



DAVID SARNOFF, Choirr 
JOHN Q. CANNON, Se 



of the Board 



FRANK M. FOLSOM, President 
ERNEST B. GOR!N, Treasurer 




The new RCA pocket-size transistor radio is displayed by Brig. General David Sarnoff. 



RCA Achieves Billion-Dollar Business in 1955 



Sarnoff, in Year-End Statement, Notes Rise of 320% Over Past Decade: 
Kuls 1955 as the Year Color TV Got "Off the Ground 3 ' 



T 

J-H 



-HE Radio Corporation of America did a billion- 
dollar business in 1955 for the first time in its history, 
Brig. General David Sarnoff, Chairman of the Board, 
announced on December 27 in a year-end statement in 
which he hailed 1955 as the year that saw color television 
get "off the ground" and predicted that it would con- 
tinue to gain in momentum. 

"Total sales of products and services by RCA, in 
1955, have exceeded $1,000,000,000," General Sarnoff 
said, noting that this puts RCA among the top twenty- 
five industrial companies in the United States. "It is 
equivalent to more than four million dollars' business 
for each working day of the year. At the beginning of 
1920, when RCA commenced its operations, the volume 
of business was running at the rate of one million dollars 
a year. 

"From a million to a billion in thirty-five years is 
a record that gives all of us in RCA a sense of pride 
in the past and confidence for the future. 

"Our achievements in electronics, radio and television 
establish 1955 as our best year on record. I look forward 
to 1956 as a year of continuing progress." 

General Sarnoff said dividends to stockholders, de- 
clared for the year 1955, amounted to $24,069,000 
(Preferred — $3,153,000, Common — $20,916,000). 
Employment totaled 78,000 persons, including 8,000 
overseas. Government business accounted for about 
$220,000,000 of the 1955 total volume, and the current 
backlog of Government orders is about $275,000,000. 
RCA's billion-dollar business in 1955 is 320 per cent 
greater than its sales volume of $237,000,000 just ten 
years ago, and compares with $941,000,000 in 1954. 

Prospects for Color Television 

"This year saw color television get 'off the ground' 
as a new service and become commercially established," 
said General Sarnoff. "The "initial steps are behind us. 
With more and more color TV receivers being installed 
in homes daily, the entertainment value and other ad- 
vantages of color pictures become increasingly apparent 
and are stimulating the desire of more people to acquire 
color sets. To meet the demand, RCA has introduced a 
complete line of big-screen color receivers, including a 
table model, consolette and three consoles. As demand 
increases, production will increase and prices will de- 
crease. 



"Color TV will continue to gain in momentum and 
will make an impact on the American home and the 
nation's economy. In 1956, color programming will be 
substantially increased by the National Broadcasting 
Company and we hope by others in the broadcasting 
industry. This will accelerate the transition from black- 
and-white to color." 

General Sarnoff expressed the firm belief that "the 
sale of color sets will eventually exceed the sale of 
black-and-white sets." 

NBC TV Programming 

The National Broadcasting Company, a subsidiary of 
RCA, now has a telecast schedule of Color Spectaculars 
that is by far the largest in the industry, General Sarnoff 
pointed out. 

A leading NBC color attraction during the fall season 
was "Alice in Wonderland," adapted for TV. 




RADIO AGE 3 



"In expanding and developing its service to the 
American home, NBC is concentrating on the quality of 
its programs," he said. "Fully aware of the great educa- 
tional and cultural opportunities in television, NBC is 
emphasizing quality not only in programs of popular 
entertainment, but in all programs — drama, operas in 
English, education, news and public affairs." 

He mentioned "Wide Wide World" as a program 
esteemed for its educational as well as its entertainment 
value. He also noted the increased TV attention during 
the year to informative programs on Government ac- 
tivities. 

"The National Broadcasting Company is now enter- 
ing its thirtieth year and 1955 has been the greatest 
year in its history," General Sarnoff said. "NBC's em- 
phasis on quality, as well as circulation, stimulates the 
public's taste for the better programs on the air and 
encourages others in the industry to follow NBC's 
path toward higher program plateaus." 

Progress In Other Directions 

General Sarnoff said industrial uses of TV and elec- 
tronic controls hold promise of great expansion. He 
noted that marked progress is being made in RCA's 
development of an electronic light amplifier; a magnetic 
tape recorder for television; a high-speed electronic 
printing process known as Electrofax; an electronic air 
conditioner; and microwave two-way radio communica- 
tion for virtually all types of vehicles. 



In the high fidelity field, he reported that both in- 
struments and records gained in popularity during the 
year. To meet the demand, RCA Victor introduced five 
new Orthophonic High Fidelity "Victrola" phonographs 
which provide highly realistic reproduction of speech 
and music for the home. 

As for radio communications, RCA's world-wide 
network now links the United States, its territories and 
possessions with sixty-five countries, he said. During 
the year direct customer-to-customer service, known 
as TEX (teleprinter exchange), was extended and now 
reaches twenty-one countries, including new circuits to 
the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Hungary, French Morocco 
.ind Tunis. 

Major Developments 

General Sarnoff listed these five important areas in 
which new advances are being made: 

1. Transistors: They advanced technically and pro- 
duction-wise in 1955, and are being used in a number 
of instances in place of electron tubes to facilitate 
simplification of design and make electronic instruments 
lighter and more compact. RCA is now marketing 
pocket-size, all-transistor radios as well as a larger "per- 
sonal size" portable set designed for extremely long 
battery life. 

2. Business Machines: These machines, including 
electronic computers and other devices, represent a vast 
field for development and expansion. RCA has devel- 



An NBC camera views San Francisco's famed Seal Rocks for one segment of "Wide Wide World." 





This "personal size" portable transistor radio is now 
being produced and marketed by RCA. 

oped a system called BIZMAC for electronic data- 
processing. A BIZMAC computing system purchased by 
the U. S. Army is being delivered to the Ordnance Tank- 
Automotive Command, Detroit, Michigan, where it will 
complete in minutes inventory control procedures that 
now require months. 

3. Military Electronics: New developments in 
television, radar, radio communications and electronic 
controls are greatly increasing the effectiveness of vir- 
tually every type of military operation. 

4. Radar: A system, designed by RCA for all- 
weather purposes, is being installed by five commercial 
air lines in the United States and by four European 
air lines to increase the safety and comfort of passengers, 
and enable the pilot to see storm formations up to 150 
miles ahead. A high brightness radar display system 
projecting images on a four-foot screen for viewing 
under normal lighting conditions has been developed by 
RCA for use in air traffic control and other applications 
where large and bright displays may be required. 

5. Closed-Circuit Television: Use of this form of 
TV is rapidly expanding in the fields of education and 
industry. The first closed-circuit installation of RCA 
compatible color television is being made at the Walter 
Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D. C. 

Research And The Future 
"RCA has built upon the bedrock of scientific re- 
search, development and engineering," General Sarnoff 



said. "We regard research as the lifeblood of modern 
industry and the basis for steady growth. 

"Progress is born of change as illustrated by the fact 
that during 1955, eighty per cent of RCA's total sales 
will be in products and services which did not exist, or 
were not commercially developed, only ten years ago. 
The majority of these new products and services were 
created through pioneering efforts that involved sub- 
stantial expenditures for research, development and 
engineering." 

He said proceeds from the Corporation's recent 
$100,000,000 debenture issue, along with other funds, 
will be used in furthering the expansion and develop- 
ment of RCA's research, manufacturing and service 
facilities in the electronic and related fields. During the 
last five years, he pointed out, RCA has spent approxi- 
mately $160,000,000 for additions and improvements 
to its properties and facilities. 



Sarnoff is Named Chairman 
of Security Trairiing Panel 

Brig. General David Sarnoff, Chairman of the Board 
of RCA, was named Chairman of the National Security 
Training Commission by President Eisenhower on No- 
vember 17. He succeeds the late Maj. Gen. Julius Ochs 
Adler, who was first vice-president and general manager 
of The New York Times. The appointment was an- 
nounced as a recess appointment, subject to confirma- 
tion by the Senate. 

The National Security Training Commission was 
established to study, inspect and examine all matters 
concerning the welfare of young men enlisted in the 
Reserve during their six months' period of military 
training, and to advise the President, the Secretary of 
Defense and the Congress regarding the welfare of such 
trainees. 

Presiding at his first meeting as Chairman of the 
group in November 29, General Sarnoff said: 

"An effective Citizen Reserve is essential to our 
national defense and security. The public has expressed 
its will on this subject through its representatives in 
Congress who have translated this will into the law of 
the land which sets forth a specific program. The job 
now is to put that program into action and to make it 
work effectively. This is a big job and it has barely got- 
ten started : for the Reserve Forces Act has been law only 
since August 9, 1955 . . . All Americans have the obli- 
gation, the privilege and the opportunity to help in this 
vital national effort." 



RADIO AGE 5 




A new peak in home listening pleasure — the RCA Victor Mark I high-fidelity system. 



Folsom Foresees Quality Market in 1956 



B 



Business trends and yardsticks across the nation 
indicate that 1956 will present to most segments of 
American industry — including radio-television and 
electronics — one of the greatest quality markets in 
history as the present excellent state of the national 
economy advances to new high levels, Frank M. Folsom, 
President of RCA, asserted in a year-end statement 
on Dec. 30. 

Mr. Folsom, calling attention to the all-time record 
of $11 billion in sales set by the electronics industry in 
1955, cited the following significant facts as pointing 
to an exceptionally bright outlook for this industry in 
the year ahead. 

— Customer preference for high quality products 
is bringing higher-priced items into the position of 
merchandise leaders, thus adding substantially to dollar 
volume. 

— This trend of public preference appears destined 
to boost color television into the status of a "billion 
dollar baby" well ahead of expectations: in fact, retail 
sales of color sets may account for as much as $175 
million in the coming year. 

— Retailers have experienced their biggest Christmas 
business in history, and this heavy buying appears des- 
rined to carry over into the first quarter of 1956 to give 
the year a fast start. 

— Large-scale orders, already in manufacturers' 
hands, may be expected to provide a powerful impetus 
to overall industrial progress. 

— New products and techniques, plus competitive 



stimulation, will expand old markets and create vast 
new ones. 

— Prospects for continued high-level employment 
and personal income mean increasing purchasing power 
of consumers to buy better goods and services. 

— The nation is experiencing an expanding economy 
stimulating higher standards of living at virtually all 
levels of the population. 

Predicts $2-Billion Business by 1965 
"For its part, the Radio Corporation of America 
welcomes the trend toward higher quality products in 
all phases of electronics, including radio and television, 
as the sign of an expanding and more vigorous industry 
in which RCA proposes to continue in a leading role, 
Mr. Folsom said. 

"RCA had a splendid business year in 1955, as did 
the thousands of RCA suppliers and the thousands of 
merchandisers who sell our products across the country 
and abroad. For the ninth successive year, RCA sales 
attained a record high, with the total passing the billion- 
dollar mark for the firsr time. 

"Ten years from now, RCA will be doing business 
at the rate of at least two billion dollars a year." 

Lists Leading Products 

Outstanding sales volume in 1956, declared Mr. 
Folsom, may be expected in such fields as black-and- 
white and color television receivers, industrial TV, TV 
transmitting equipment, electron tubes and components, 
microwave relay systems, military electronic appararus, 



6 RADIO AGE 



radio sets, "Victrola" phonographs and high fidelity in- 
struments, and records. The replacement market also 
should be particularly good, and service operations, 
including installation and maintenance of products, 
should attain record dollar volume, he said, and added: 
"A trend of major importance that first became dis- 
cernible only a few years ago continued in the increasing 
use of new electronic products and services for indus- 
trial purposes. The end of 1955 finds sales to industry 
and government rapidly closing the gap of dollar-volume 
differential as compared with revenues from communi- 
cations and home entertainment. 

Accelerated "Electronizing" is Foreseen 

"Further acceleration appears assured in 1956 in 
'electronizing' production techniques, inventory control, 
food inspection and protection, military equipment, 
scientific research, biological explorations and other 
widely separated areas of endeavor. 

"Closed-circuit television for non-entertainment pur- 
poses made impressive headway in 1955, and should 
expand to an even greater extent during the coming 
year. It is providing electronic 'eyes' to many sections 
of industry and is proving to be an effective tool in 
manufacturing, education and medicine. 

"On the entertainment side, black-and-white tele- 
vision receiver production in 1955 set an all-time record 
of 8,300,000 units, representing a retail dollar value of 
nearly S2 billion. Of this total, the RCA Victor Tele- 
vision Division manufactured and sold more than a 
million receivers. 

"Not only has RCA paced the field in black-and- 
white TV, but almost single-handedly we have continued 
to lead the way in color — which is the brightest hope 
the industry ever had, the phenomenal progress of black- 
and-white TV notwithstanding. 

Sees Big Sales of Color TV in 1956 

"Color television is with us as a potential billion 
dollar baby. As 1955 closed, it was fully apparent that 
1956 will be the first big year of color production and 
sales, pointing to mass output and lower prices. 

"During the coming year the RCA Victor Television 
Division will manufacture and our distributors will sell 
upwards of 200,000 color receivers. Color will be an 
important part of our sales and profit picture — while 
we will continue to produce whatever quantity of black- 
and-white receivers necessary to satisfy public demand. 

"To give a general idea of our proposed stepped-up 
rate of color TV production, we plan to produce about 
twice as many color receivers in the first half of 1956 
as were produced in the last half of 1955." 

Mr. Folsom reported that heavy sales of radios were 



experienced in 1955 as consumers purchased approxi- 
mately 13,000,000 receivers, bringing to more than 
125,000,000 the number of sets in use. 

He said there is a continuing boom in high fidelity 
music reproduction systems, with sales estimated at §50 
million in 1955, and forecast that sales of phonograph 
records would show a marked increase in the coming 
year because of the public's greater appreciation for 
better music, higher quality records and more attractive 
packaging of records. 

Government Activities 

Mr. Folsom said government work for the Armed 
Forces continued to have an important effect on RCA 
operations with the year-end backlog of government 
orders standing at approximately §275,000,000. A total 
of $220,000,000 in government contracts was completed 
during the year, he noted. 

"RCA's outlook in foreign markets continues bright 
after an excellent year of sales," he stated. "The coming 
twelve months should witness a further impressive in- 
crease in business, particularly in Latin America, Canada, 
the Middle East and the Far East. 

"Sales included virtually all phases of communica- 
tions, with an increasing accent on television and micro- 
wave systems. Radar sales also were stepped up, and 
radio sets. Victrola' phonographs and records moved 
ahead satisfactorily. Mounting activities were reported 
by RCA associated companies in thirteen countries." 



New self-contained 45-rpm RCA Victor record players 
come off the production line at Cambridge, Ohio. 




RADIO AGE 7 



RCA's BIZMAC Goes to Work 



A 



MASSIVE and critical task for the nation's security 
— controlling the supply of replacement parts for Army 
combat and transport vehicles at depots throughout 
the world — is about to be taken over by BIZMAC, 
RCA's great new electronic data-processing system. 

A $4,000,000 BIZMAC installation, capable of con- 
verting months of paperwork into minutes of "push- 
button" operation, is now being made at the United 
States Army's Ordnance Tank-Automotive Command 
in Detroit, Mich. Developed by RCA over a five-year 
period, the extensive system is specifically designed for 
standard business operations. At OTAC, it will enable 
military officials to keep an up-to-the-minute account 
of the supply of all vehicle replacement pans — an 
account which has, until now, involved voluminous 
paperwork and has of necessity run several weeks late in 
its reporting of vital inventories. 

The purchase was announced jointly by Frank M. 
Folsom, President of RCA, and Brig. General Nelson 
M. Lynde, Commanding General of OTAC, and the 
announcement was accompanied by the first published 
details of BIZMAC. Outlining the comprehensive task 
to be handled by the electronic system, General Lynde 
said: 

"The RCA BIZMAC system will effect major operat- 
ing economies at OTAC. The system can perform in 
minutes inventory control procedures that now take 
months for the Army's vast Tank-Automotive supply 
program. The program involves control of replacement 
inventory of more than 200,000 different categories of 
parts, ranging from nuts and bolts to fan belts and 
engines, needed to keep military vehicles operative. 

"The BIZMAC system will be used to provide speedy 
and accurate information on inventories, to determine in 
minutes the current supply of any item at any Ordnance 
depot in the nation, and to compute forecasts of future 
requirements." 

Versatility is Emphasized 

The versatility of the new system was emphasized 
by Mr. Folsom, who said: 

"BIZMAC is specifically designed for a wide range 
of business tasks which, in addition to computations, 
normally involve the handling and processing of tre- 
mendous volumes of paperwork. At electronic speeds, 
it will compute, sort, extract and file data, process 
inventory information, forecast materiel requirements, 
recommend procurement action and stock distribution, 




Brig. General Nelson M. Lynde, Commanding General, 
Ordnance Tank-Automotive Command, reviews with A. L. 
Malcarney, General Manager, Commercial Electronic 
Products, RCA, the operation of the main console of 
RCA's BIZMAC data-processing system. 

produce budget and fiscal summaries, and prepare manu- 
scripts for parts catalogs. 

"This RCA system is designed to make molehills out 
of the mountains of paperwork which OTAC must move 
daily. Its tremendous speed, flexibility and accuracy can 
be expected to introduce new efficiency and simplicity 
into OTAC's operations and produce important reduc- 
tions in time, cost and space requirements for the full 
run of standard clerical functions. 

"It will provide to an unprecedented degree, finger- 
tip control of information, analysis and projections 
essential for quick, sound decisions and long-range plan- 
ning. It will deliver on request a pin-pointed picture 
of any and all phases of the replacement parts operation. 
BIZMAC, in a large sense, will enable OTAC to view 
with startling accuracy the course of current and future 
operations." 

200 Units, 13 Types of Equipment 
BIZMAC incorporates approximately 200 units of 13 
different but fully integrated types of electronic equip- 
ment. With lightning speed and accounting accuracy, 



8 RADIO AGE 



it will perform electronically most of the voluminous 
clerical procedures involved in OTAC's world-wide 
stock control program. In particular, BIZMAC will: 

1. File on a single reel of magnetic tape, lOYz 
inches in diameter, more than 2,500,000 characters ■ — 
or all the information contained in approximately 
8,500 of OTAC's pans inventory records; 

2. Electronically "read'' and "write" at the rate of 
10,000 letters or digits per second, and operate at a tape 
speed of 80 inches per second; 

3. Add, subtract, multiply and divide with electronic 
speed, and "remember'' specified information indefinitely 
for recall in a few millionths of a second; 

4. At a speed of 600 lines a minute, print OTAC's 
inventory procurement recommendations, shipping or- 
ders, and other business paperwork involved in the 
operation of the parts control program. 

Details of the System 

To do all these things, BIZMAC is equipped with 
a variety of electronic talents embodied in its different 
parts. 

The heart of the system is an RCA-developed com- 
puter which adds, subtracts, multiplies, divides, and 
"remembers." The RCA computer has an exceptionally 
large program-storage capacity for business applications. 
It also is capable of processing data having both variable 
and fixed word and message length — a feature offering 
maximum flexibility, economy and speed in the prepara- 
tion, storage and processing of file data. Up to 4,000 
instructions, each with up to three parts, can be stored 
in the computer. 

The nerve center of the computer is a magnetic core 
memory matrix — a compact and reliable assembly of 
copper wires and ferromagnetic "washers" developed at 
the David Sarnoff Research Center of RCA. Operating 
as an electronic "scratchpad," the high-speed memory 
can hold its stored information indefinitely and, on 
signal, relinquish any or all of it in a few millionths 
of a second. 

The complete BIZMAC system includes input de- 
vices for preparing and feeding information and in- 
structions into the system; storage devices for filing data 
within the system so that it is readily accessible on 
demand; processing devices for sorting and filing in- 
formation, for computing, and for performing business 
arithmetic as dictated by the instructions; and output 
devices for providing finished copies of information 
as desired. 

BIZMAC offers numerous features and services: 

1. Dual recording. Information fed into the system 
is recorded twice, simultaneously, assuring maximum 
accuracy and reliability in recording and reading. 




BIZMAC's electromechanical printer, shown here, can 
turn out finished paperwork at 600 lines a minute. 

2. Variable word and message length. The BIZMAC 
system records words and messages in actual length to 
minimize both the number of tape files required for 
storage of given data and the time required for process- 
ing transactions. 

3. An Electronic Sorter, especially suited for an 
application requiring considerable file maintenance and 
sorting. The sorter handles such file maintenance activi- 
ties as extracting data for processing, deleting obsolete 
information, and filing current and new records. 

4. An Interrogation Unit, which can be switched 
immediately and directly to the appropriate tape file 
for extracting and printing required data. The inter- 
rogation unit facilitates handling of urgent, unantici- 
pated requests without interfering with the computer 
working on scheduled assignments. 

5. System Central. Work-dispatching center of the 
BIZMAC system is a unique central operations control 
and switching unit which operates like a telephone 
switchboard and enables the operator at a master console 
to direct, control, and integrate the simultaneous opera- 



RADIO AGE 9 




J. Wesley Leas, chief engineer of BIZMAC project, 

examines magnetic tape in one of many tape files used 

for filing information in the system. 



tion of all the various electronic units in the system. 
The System Central increases utility and minimizes idle 
time since units which have completed assigned tasks 
can be switched immediately to new assignments. The 
central control also minimizes manual handling of tape 
files and permits connection of any tape to any process- 
ing unit. 

System Units 

The BIZMAC system consists of 13 electronic and 
eight mechanical types of units which are designed for 
integrated operation. 

Major system units include: 

Input Devices: a Tapewriter, which simultaneously 
produces a punched version, in machine language on 
paper tape, of given information and a typed copy; a 
Tapewriter Verifier, which verifies the punched tape for 
maximum accuracy; a Tape Transcriber, which transfers 
the data from the punched tape to magnetic tape at 
the rate of up to 12,000 characters per minute; and a 
Card Transcriber, which transfers data from punched 
cards to magnetic tape at a rate of 400 cards per minute. 

File Storage: compact and economical Tape Files, 
complete with electronic reading and writing capabilities, 
where the "files" — data-enscribed reels of magnetic 
tape — are stored. Each tape file can be made accessible 
to other units in the system at the push of a button. 

Data Processing Devices: the RCA computer, in 
which can be stored up to 4,000 three-address instruc- 
tions; and the Electronic Sorter, for file maintenance 
tasks, which will keep OTAC's computer free for major 
assignments. 

Output Devices: Electromechanical Printer, for 
printing at the rate of 600 lines per minute an original 
and three carbon copies of the data on the magnetic 
tape; Magnetic Tape Transcriber, which transfers data 
from magnetic tape to a punched paper tape. 



T 



RCA Scholarships Awarded to 28 College Students 



-WENTY-eight students at colleges and universities 
throughout the country have been awarded RCA Scholar- 
ships for the current academic year, according to an 
announcement by Dr. C. B. Jolliffe, Vice-President and 
Technical Director of RCA. These scholarships, with 
grants of $800 each, enable undergraduates to continue 
studies in science, industrial relations, music and drama 
— fields which are related directly to the electronics 
and broadcasting industries. 

Announcing the awards, Dr. Jolliffe said: 
"Under an expansion of RCA's program of aid to 
education, three RCA-NBC Scholarships in the dramatic 



arts are being awarded for the first time at Carnegie 
Institute of Technology, Iowa State College and Yale 
University. These scholarships were established in April 
by RCA and the National Broadcasting Company. They 
are intended to help replenish the fund of talent which 
the NBC network constantly draws upon for its many 
dramatic productions. 

"This is the eleventh consecutive year that RCA has 
awarded scholarships under a program that originated 
in 1945. During that time, more than 230 students 
have been assisted in their college education by RCA 
Scholarships and Fellowships. 



?0 RADIO AGE 





Sylvester L. Weaver, Jr. 



Robert W. Sarnoff 



T 

JLh 



Weaver Named Chairman of NBC; 
Robert Sarnoff Becomes President 



. HE board of Directors of the National Broadcasting 
Company has elected Sylvester L. Weaver, Jr., Chairman 
of the Board and Robert W. Sarnoff President of NBC. 

The election of Mr. Weaver and Mr. Sarnoff was 
announced Dec. 7 by Brig. General David Sarnoff, Chair- 
man of the Board of the Radio Corporation of America, 
parent company of NBC. General Sarnoff who will con- 
tinue as a director of NBC, declared: 

"Two years ago this month, Pat Weaver was elected 
President and Bob Sarnoff was elected Executive Vice- 
President of the National Broadcasting Company. The 
brilliant record of achievement of NBC during these 
past two years, under the direction of Pat and Bob, is 
well known throughout this country and abroad. My 
associates and I are proud of the record made by these 
young men. 

"The beginning of the third year of their operations 
seemed to me a fitting time to recommend that Pat 
Weaver succeed me as Chairman of the Board of NBC. 
He, in turn, recommended that Bob Sarnoff succeed him 
as President of the Company. Accordingly, at a meeting 
of the Board of Directors of the National Broadcasting 
Company held today, these recommendations were acted 
upon and approved. 

"Through my duties as Chairman of the Board of 
RCA and as a Director of NBC, I will continue my 
active interest in the affairs of the National Broadcasting 
Company. I am confident that, under the continued 
leadership of Pat and Bob, NBC will achieve even 
greater heights of success in serving the American 
public and our industry." 



The record of achievement of NBC during the two- 
year Weaver-Sarnoff administration was outlined for the 
representatives of more than 120 of NBC's affiliated 
stations at their annual meeting in Chicago. Harry M. 
Bannister, NBC Vice-President in charge of Station 
Relations, who made the opening address at the meet- 
ing, listed among the major achievements of the 
Weaver-Sarnoff administration the creation of new na- 
tional television viewing habits through the NBC 
Spectaculars such as "Peter Pan" and other specially 
scheduled programs, the establishment of color televi- 
sion as a national commercial service, introduction of 
new television sales concepts which created a broader 
advertising base and increased the medium's over-all 
utility, and building of a solid base for the future of 
network radio through such programs as "Monitor" and 
"Weekday" which provided programming and sales in- 
novarions adopred in varying degrees by other networks. 

By a unanimous vote, resolutions congratulating both 
Mr. Weaver and Mr. Sarnoff were adopted by the affil- 
iates at the Chicago meeting. They cited Mr. Weaver 
for "his creative imagination (which) has vastly en- 
larged the scope of television as a service to the public 
and advertiser," and Mr. Sarnoff for "his personal con- 
tribution in advancing the NBC Television Network to 
new and higher plateaus of leadership." Scrolls inscribed 
with the resolution were presented to Messrs. Weaver 
and Sarnoff by Walter Damm, Vice-President and Gen- 
eral Manager of Station WTMJ-TV, Milwaukee, Wis., 
and Chairman of the NBC-TV Affiliates Committee. 



RADIO AGE 11 



Automation and Economic Growth 



(Following are excerpts from a talk given by Dr. 
E, W . Engstrom, Senior Executive Vice-President, RCA, 
at the Centennial Symposium on Modern Engineering, 
University of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia, on Novem- 
ber 11, 1955.) 

\_ he term automation has come into use in recent 
years to describe the introduction of sensing and feed- 
back controls which enable the machine to take over 
some of the control functions normally provided by 
human operators. 

This concept is more than just an evolutionary 
process in our industrial development. An essential 
ingredient of the Industrial Revolution was the removal 
of the limitations of power imposed by the capabilities 
of humans and animals. Now it is the limitations of 
humans in decision making and control which are being 
superseded. Electronic systems can handle information 
and can control mechanisms at enormously greater speeds 
and accuracies and, therefore, in vastly greater quantities 
than humans can. Thus, while the intelligence of the 
human being will never be superseded by a machine, 
there is no question but that electronic systems already 
have surpassed human information handling capabilities. 
Because of this, some of the new concepts of automation 
are revolutionary, and the coming of automation is some- 
times referred to as the Second Industrial Revolution. . . . 

Automation and Electronics 
In the electronics industry we find a two-sided in- 
terest in automation. In the first place, much automatic 
equipment is electronically controlled. Electronics pro- 
vides the means of replacing human judgment and 
control. It provides the sensing devices, the means of 
communication, and the computing devices. ... In the 
second place, mechanized processes are used for the 
production of electronic equipment. In some cases, a 
high degree of mechanization is already in use. In other 
cases, theories of modular design are being developed 
which may introduce true automation to short-run 
products. . . . 

In the production of television and radio receivers, 
where large production runs of complicated equipment 
are encountered, there has recently been a very rapid 
growth of mechanization. Production techniques have 
recently been modified by the development of the 
printed-circuit technique, which uses a laminate consist- 
ing of an insulating layer coated with a copper sheet 
which is etched through in such a way that the remaining 
copper provides the electrical connections to be made. 



Electronic components are then threaded through holes 
in such a printed-circuit board to make contact with 
the proper copper strips. All of these contacts can then 
be soldered by one operation. Because the board is 
regular in shape and puts all of the conductors into one 
plane, the electronics industry is thus provided for the 
first time with the means of handling its product in 
automatic machinery. . . . 

A Necessity for Economic Growth 

It is certain that we will see the introduction of more 
and more automation as our economy continues to 
expand. In fact, with our economy growing faster than 
our labor force, automation appears to be necessary if 
we wish to keep improving our standard of living. On 
the other hand, I think it is extremely important to 
realize that, while automation provides a means to an 
expanding economy, it will not be the only significant 
controlling factor in the expansion. We must recognize 
that the future outlook of the consumers and of the 
business population will continue to be important in 
determining the future health of our economy. . . . 

With automation, we shall no longer have large 
groups of people who are themselves part of a produc- 
tion machine. Instead, we will have many persons 
employed to design, to build, to service, to control, and 
to make decisions. This will call for greater skills and 
for more training and education. It will mean a general 
upgrading of personnel. . . . 

While automation is bringing about new and broader 
patterns in the use of labor, it will also create a large 
group of managers of a new type, men who will be 
the directors of the new automation traffic of materials, 
products and marketing. Here in the work of the admin- 
istrator of business, will be the real revolution of auto- 
mation. To be efficient and effective, systems of automa- 
tion must be directed toward an integrated business. . . . 

To make its task easier, the management of the future 
will work with much improved and more current data 
on the operations of its business. This will be the direct 
result of the use of constantly improving electronic 
business machines. It will also result from the character 
of automation as a system that feeds back data and 
information to control its operations and to permit 
effective management decisions. . . . 

Automation will necessitate many adjustments by 
both labor and management but will increase the assur- 
ance of full use of the contributions of each. Automation 
is a way to an expanding economy, to a higher standard 
of living, and to happier living for all. 



72 RADIO AGE 




Through a glass panel, Chicagoans will be able to watch action before the color cameras at WNBQ. 



The First All-Color TV Station 



Th 



.he world's first all-color television station will 
begin operations this spring, broadcasting some ten 
hours of color programs daily to viewers in the Chicago 
area. 

The pioneer station is WNBQ, the NBC-owned sta- 
tion in Chicago, with studios in the Merchandise Mart. 
Its conversion to color involves the remodelling of sta- 
tion facilities on the 19th and 20th floors of the huge 
building to accommodate three color studios with five 
live and two film cameras. When the work is done, 
WNBQ will begin telecasting all of its own locally 
originated programs in color, in addition to the frequent 
NBC network color transmissions. 

The WNBQ conversion is one phase of a $12,000,- 
000 program announced by NBC to expand color tele- 
vision facilities in New York, Chicago, and Hollywood. 
The other highlights of the program are: 

1. Construction of a second color studio at NBC's 
Color City in Burbank, Calif. 

2. Construction of a second color studio in Brook- 
lyn, in an area adjacent to NBC's present color 
facilities there. 

3. Conversion of the Ziegfeld Theatre in New York 
into a color studio. 

4. Construction of an office building at Color City. 

5. Tripling of technical work space at Color City 
to house the new master control, color-recording, 
film broadcasting and other technical facilities. 



6. 



7. 



Addition of four new color film chains to the 
network's facilities. 

Installation of equipment in Color City for re- 
cording color programs for rebroadcast. 
8. Construction of the latest-type master control 
center at Color City for all West Coast origina- 
tions, replacing the present master control at the 
Hollywood studios. 
Of the total of $12,000,000, approximately $4,750,- 

000 is to be spent in New York, $6,000,000 on the 

West Coast, and $1,250,000 in Chicago. 

Press Conference via Color TV 
The WNBQ conversion plan, erecting a new mile- 
stone in the advance of color television, was announced 
by Brig. General David Sarnoff during a special press 
conference which itself involved the first intercity use 
of closed-circuit color television for such a purpose. 
General Sarnoff spoke before the color TV cameras at 
NBC's Colonial Theatre in New York City: with him 
on the stage were New York press representatives. The 
Chicago press gathered at the WNBQ studios. During 
a question period following General Sarnoff's statement, 
a split screen arrangement permitted two-way vision 
and conversation over the 700-mile distance. 

Describing the plan for complete replacement of 
WNBQ's black-and-white equipment with color equip- 
ment, General Sarnoff said: 



RADIO AGE 13 



•■■ HI TnV Wf 





^ 



••h^ 




Artist's sketch of the RCA-NBC Exhibition Hall to be built 

at WNBQ shows color receivers and windows through 

which visitors may watch action in the studio. 

"We have chosen Chicago for this pioneering step 
because Chicago has always been a key city in the 
operations of the National Broadcasting Company and 
the radio and television industry generally. Chicago has 
had many 'firsts' in broadcasting, both in radio and tele- 
vision. And now we have another first for Chicago in 
color television. 

"All the know-how, all the lessons we learn in this 
Chicago pilot operation will be made available to other 
television stations interested in advancing color tele- 
vision as a regular service to the public." 

As to the motives for establishing a local color pro- 
gram service, General Sarnoff stated his conviction that 
the future of television lies in color and cited the steps 
taken by RCA and NBC "to break through the black- 
and-white curtain," adding: 

"Network color, which we pioneered, is now well 
established. Many outstanding television programs have 
been telecast in full color and even more are planned. . . 
But we know that network service must be supple- 
mented by good local color programs. That is the next 
step that must be taken to make color television a full 
and complete service. That is the step we are taking 
now." 

Work Already Started 

Participating in the press conference with General 
Sarnoff were Sylvester L. Weaver Jr., then President and 
now Chairman of the Board of NBC; Robert W. Sarnoff, 
then Executive Vice-President, now President of NBC, 
and Charles R. Denny, Vice-President of NBC Owned 
Stations and NBC Spot Sales. 

Mr. Denny reported that work already had started 
on the new all-color installation, for which NBC has 
leased 50,400 square feet of roof space at the Mer- 



The new RCA "color studio on wheels," which is being 

leased to TV stations for originating colorcasts of local 

events or to augment present equipment. 

chandise Mart. Planned construction includes a tele- 
vision production and service shop, with the remainder 
of the space available for expansion and outdoor studio 
use. 

Three studios on the 19th floor are to be used for 
broadcasting color, including one large studio which 
will house more than a dozen permanent sets for a 
variety of programs. All three color studios will be 
served by centralized color control equipment. 

"This new color studio will in every way be the 
very latest thing in studio design," said Mr. Denny. 
"It will incorporate all the techniques we have learned 
in our network operations but will be specifically planned 
to meet the somewhat specialized requirements of local 
station programming. We are seeking to make it a 
model station plant. 

The target date for WNBQ's conversion to color 
is April 15, and Mr. Denny announced that after com- 
pletion of the project the Chicago public will be 
invited to see color television in operation at an Ex- 
hibition Hall on the 20th floor surrounding the new 
color studio. Color receivers will be in constant opera- 
tion. When WNBQ happens to be transmitting a 
black-and-white network program, the receivers will 
carry a special demonstration color pickup from the 
new studio. 

The metamorphosis of WNBQ highlighted a gen- 
eral increase in color broadcast activity featured by 
these other developments: 

1. An announcement by Mr. Sarnoff that 31 NBC 
television affiliates, serving areas which include nearly 
half of all homes in the country, are now originating 
their own color programs, and that 102 NBC outlets 
are now equipped to rebroadcast color programs orig- 
inated by the network; 



14 RADIO AGE 



2. Purchase of a complete RCA 100-kilowatt VHF 
( very high frequency ) installation by a new color TV 
station in Portland, Ore. The purchase involved ap- 
proximately one million dollars, representing the largest 
single installation of RCA equipment for an independ- 
ently owned color television broadcast station, as well as 
the first installation of its kind in the country; 

5. Completion of an RCA color television "studio 
on wheels" as a new television service which will enable 
broadcasters in various areas to originate colorcasts of 
local events for local or network broadcasts. 

Can Originate Network Programs 

The new mobile unit, announced on December 15 
by A. R. Hopkins, Manager, RCA Broadcast Products 
Department, represents the first service of its kind 
offered to broadcasters. It will permit TV stations modi- 
fied for color transmission to lease an RCA color tele- 
vision unit completely equipped with video and audio 
facilities and two "live" studio cameras. It will be 
operated by the personnel of the lessee station for 
originating color programs in the field or in the studio. 

For stations which already are equipped to originate 



color programs, the mobile unit may be leased to aug- 
ment present equipment. In addition to local broadcast, 
its pickup can be transmitted nationally over network 
facilities whenever desired. 

The first mobile unit, assembled at the Camden, N. J., 
plant of RCA, has been made available to TV stations 
within a 150-mile radius of Philadelphia, and it is an- 
ticipated that additional units will be added in the 
future to extend the mobile service to other major tele- 
vision broadcasting centers. The pioneer user of the 
first unit was station WCAU-TV, Philadelphia, which 
employed the mobile equipment to originate a color 
broadcast of the annual Mummers' Parade in Philadel- 
phia on New Year's Day. 

Said Mr. Hopkins: 

"This studio-on-wheels concept has been developed 
to provide stations with a practical, economic means for 
originating colorcasts of important local events. Pend- 
ing installation of permanent origination equipment, the 
RCA color mobile unit will enable such stations to 
improve their service to viewers and sponsors and to 
acquaint engineering and programming personnel with 
equipment and techniques for local colorcasting." 



3-Point National Security Program Urged by Sarnoff 



A 



three-point program to meet the Communist 
challenge on the military, civilian defense, and propa- 
ganda Cold War fronts was outlined by Brig. General 
David Sarnoff at the Navy Day dinner of the Chicago 
Council of the Navy League of the United States on 
October 27. 

The national security structure, said General Sarnoff. 
"should consist of three major wings, all closely and 
harmoniously integrated. 

"First, we must maintain our military strength at the 
point where the fear of reprisal will deter any nation 
from attacking us. Second, we must develop a Civil 
Defense program to insure the maximum support of our 
armed forces if hostilities do come. Third, we must 
pursue victory in the so-called Cold War as resolutely 
as the Navy has always pursued victory in Hot Wars." 

As for the Cold War, he said we must recognize 
that it is "not simply a preliminary bout but the main 
event." 

At the dinner, General Sarnoff was presented with 
a plaque bearing this citation: 

"A pioneer in the field of communications who has 
demonstrated great courage, vision, inspiration, and 



leadership, Brigadier General David Sarnoff has made 
outstanding contributions to the United States Navy, 
our nation, and to better living for people everywhere. 
To mark his many brilliant achievements, this citation 
for distinguished service to the United States Navy, the 
nation, and the American people, is presented to General 
Sarnoff on the thirty-fifth anniversary of the introduc- 
tion of commercial radio." 

Earlier, General Sarnoff told a Fordham University 
audience in New York that the Cold War between East 
and West has entered "a new and more dangerous stage." 

Speaking at the Golden Jubilee Celebration of the 
Fordham University School of Law, which presented 
him with an honorary degree of Doctor of Laws, General 
Sarnoff warned against "wishful thinking" and urged 
the necessity of a coordinated national security program 
and said: 

"We cannot evade the responsibility inherent in the 
challenge of Godless Communism which destroys free- 
dom and disregards law. We must meet it courageously, 
with righteousness as our shield. The spirit of free men 
is our strongest ally." 



RADIO AGE 15 




S THE LATEST? 

eVtronic developments 
h^ve^recently 
news at RCA 



%h*h%h 




LENS SPEEDS COLOR TV TUBE PRODUCTION —This specially- 
designed optical lens, displayed here by Peter Kaus, of RCA 
Laboratories, is being used in a projection process to help achieve 
simply and rapidly the precise location of more than 1,000,000 
color phosphor dots on face of large-screen color TV tubes. 



^-fr-fc-fr 



REMOTE CONTROL FOR TV — The compact control unit 
at right has been developed by RCA to operate all impor- 
tant TV set adjustments from up to 30 feet away. It can be 
used to turn on the set, change stations, adjust volume and 
fine tuning, and turn the set off. 

16 RADIO AGE 






WW 



LARGE-SCREEN RADAR — Using a new viewing tube developed at 

RCA Laboratories and a projection system, RCA has achieved this 

four-foot radar display bright enough to be viewed in surroundings 

as brightly lighted as the average living room. 



iz^-k^ 



ELECTROFAX PRINTING PLATES — RCA's Electrofax 
process of electrostatic printing can be used as shown 
here to produce printing plates with unprecedented 
speed. Image projected directly onto plate is "devel- 
oped" with magnetic brush. In background is plate 
with developed image, ready for the engraver. 





ft ft ft ft 



^^^^ 



VIBRATION REDUCER — Object at left is an experimental vibra- 
tion reducer which can counter or absorb machine vibration by 
electronic means. Downward pressure on top of the reducer is 
detected, signal is amplified in amplifier at right, and returned 
to the reducer, which may either exert counter pressure in opposite 
direction, or absorb the original vibration. 



MINIATURE LOUDSPEAKER — At top in this picture is tiny 
loudspeaker designed at RCA Laboratories for pocket-size 
radios. Employing novel design principles, it is only 2Vb 
inches in diameter and less than Yi inch thick — far smaller 
and lighter than current type held in foreground. 

RADIO AGE 17 



A Cold War Weapon for 50 Cents 




A 



NEW weapon in the Cold War — an inexpensive, 
hand-operated phonograph designed to deliver recorded 
messages from the free world by air-dropping behind 
the Iron Curtain or direct distribution in critical areas — 
has been developed by RCA and is being field-tested 
in the Near and Far East and in Africa. 

The seven-ounce, unbreakable device was demon- 
strated publicly for the first time on November 10 by 
Brig. General David Sarnoff, who displayed it at the 
Overseas Press Club of America in New York and 
emphasized that it could reach millions of persons living 
in areas without electric power and, unlike radio com- 
munications, its messages could not be "jammed." 

According to General Sarnoff, the phonograph can 
be manufactured for 50 cents or less, so that "millions 











' 




HH 2* ^Ifc 





could be delivered gratis." He pointed out that it con- 
sists of four parts — a metal handle, and a base, turn- 
table and tone arm of unbreakable plastic — and is so 
simply designed that it can be assembled and operated 
by anyone. He said that both the phonograph and the 
seven-inch records designed for it could be "dropped 
from the sky like leaflets." 

Plans Offered Gratis to Government 

During a question and answer period, General Sarnoff 
revealed that RCA had offered the design and plans 
for the phonograph gratis to the government, and that 
a few hundred of the machines produced by RCA would 
be field-tested by the United States Information Agency. 

The phonograph was developed by Arthur Van Dyck, 
Staff Assistant to the Vice-President and Technical 
Director of RCA. At the demonstration, Mr. Van Dyck 
placed a special record on the turntable, held the in- 
strument by its base, inserted the small metal handle 
into the turntable spindle, and cranked slowly. The 
output was a message on the meaning of American 
freedom, clearly audible to everyone in the audience. 
The record was one of a type developed by the RCA 
Victor Record Division, using a low cost vinylite material 
and holding three minutes of sound on each side. Spe- 
cial foreign language discs of this type have been pre- 
pared for use in Burma, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam and 
elsewhere. 

The record is turned at 78 revolutions per minute — 
or as close to it as the operator can come. Mr. Van 
Dyck explained that this speed was selected as the most 
common throughout the world, and because it is easier 
to maintain manually than slower speeds. 

He pointed out to the correspondents that the ma- 
chine is an adaptation of early phonographs, which 
were cranked by hand and used direct connection be- 
tween the needle and the amplifier. Packed for distri- 
bution, the instrument fits into a cardboard carton 
approximately eight inches square and four inches deep. 

The new RCA hand-operated phonograph is demon- 
strated by General Sarnoff to Louis Lochner, head of the 
Overseas Press Club of America, as Arthur Van Dyck, 
its developer, looks on at the right. 



78 RADIO AGE 




The seven-ounce, unbreakable phonograph, made 
largely of plastic, is operated by turning the crank. 

At the demonstration, both General Sarnoff and Mr. 
Van Dyck emphasized that part of the phonograph's 
value lay in the fact that it is fun to operate. They 
reported that nearly everyone who had been shown the 
instrument, including President Eisenhower, had de- 
lighted in spinning the turntable to produce sound. 

Following the demonstration and accounts of the 
phonograph in the press so many inquiries were received 
by RCA that an information kit was prepared to answer 
the questions of manufacturers about the instrument's 
specifications and characteristics. The kit describes one 
design of such a phonograph, and the information is 
being made available to any company interested in study- 



ing the question of manufacturing the instrument, with- 
out restriction as to its use. According to Mr. Van Dyck, 
the queries have come not only from manufacturers, 
but also from government agencies, from religious and 
educational groups, from sales promotion organizations, 
and from the general public. Among them, he reported, 
have been one from a nationally-known medical school 
which is considering the phonograph as a device for 
teaching hygiene to Indian tribes; another from a 
museum which has an idea that such phonographs might 
be supplied to tourists as self-guides; and one from a 
sportsman who requested a phonograph and a record 
imitating duck calls, with the comment that "this is the 
answer to a hunter's prayer." 

Voice of America Adopts New Slogan 

The Voice of America is using the station identifica- 
tion "For Freedom and Peace" for its English and some 
foreign language broadcasts, it was announced on De- 
cember 23 by Theodore C. Streibert, Director of the 
United States Information Agency. 

Use of this identification was proposed by Brig. 
General David Sarnoff in his memorandum "Program 
for a Political Offensive Against World Communism," 
submitted last April to the White House. 

J. R. Poppele, the Agency's Assistant Director for 
Radio and Television, said that constant repetition of 
the words as part of the Voice of America's station 
identification would help to convey to listeners around 
the world the truth about United States policies and 
its goals of freedom and peace. 



Expansion of RCA Marine Operations 



J_ LANS OF RCA for expanded operations in the field of 
marine radio communications, manufacturing, marketing 
and servicing, to fill the needs of increasing numbers 
of customers were announced on December 28 by Frank 
M. Folsom, RCA President. 

According to Mr. Folsom's announcement, the fol- 
lowing rearrangement of basic functions of the Radio- 
marine Corporation of America, a service of RCA, is 
being made: 

1. If the Federal Communications Commission ap- 
proves, marine radio traffic operations of the Radio- 
marine Corporation will be transferred to RCA Com- 
munications, Inc., also a service of RCA. 

2. Radiomarine service activities will be handled 
by the RCA Service Company, Inc., wholly-owned sub- 
sidiary of RCA. 



3. Radiomarine's existing sales, engineering and 
manufacturing operations will form the nucleus of a 
strong Marine Equipment Organization within the RCA 
manufacturing divisions. 

'The communications and service activities of 
Radiomarine, as well as Radiomarine sales, engineering 
and manufacturing operations, will continue for the 
time being in their present locations," Mr. Folsom said. 
"These plans with respect to Radiomarine have two 
main purposes — to fill the needs of the growing num- 
bers of customers with respect to a broader range of 
products, marketing facilities and servicing; and to 
provide RCA customers with a coordinated world-wide 
communications service to overseas points and ships 
at sea." 



RADIO AGE 19 




Visiting "open house" in Zurich was C. M. Odorizzi, Executive Vice-President, RCA Sales and Services. 



Laboratories RCA, Ltd. 



By C. G. Mayer 

European Technical Representative, RCA 



R< 



_CA electronic research and development have be- 
come active in the European scene with the establish- 
ment in Zurich, Switzerland, of Laboratories RCA, Ltd. 
The new organization, incorporated as a Swiss company, 
went into operation approximately four months ago 
and is now engaged in research and in service to RCA's 
European licensees. 

The reasons for establishing the Zurich facilities are 
three-fold: the desire to provide a new environment in 
which some of RCA's American scientists may en- 
counter a refreshingly different approach to some of 
their current problems; the desire to encourage partici- 
pation by talented young European research specialists 
in RCA's research program; and the desire to make 
available to RCA licensees in Europe a service similar 
to that provided to RCA licensees in the United States 
through the Industry Service Laboratory, RCA Labora- 
tories. 

Considering both types of activity — research and 
industry service — Zurich was selected as an ideal 
European location. Among its advantages are an atmos- 
phere that is stimulating both culturally and technically, 
owing in part to the proximity of the famed University 
and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, one of 
the world's foremost technical institutes. In addition, 
Zurich is one of the most conveniently located cities on 
the continent, with excellent road, rail and air con- 

20 RADIO AGE 



nections to all parts of Europe, while Switzerland itself 
is free of restrictions upon travel or foreign exchange. 

Research in Solid-State Physics 
In this environment, a research program has been 
initiated under the direction of Dr. Albert Rose, an 
eminent scientist from the staff of RCA Laboratories 
at Princeton, N. J. The program centers upon experi- 
mental studies in the field of solid-state physics, and 
it is motivated by the same corporate philosophy that 
has inspired the extensive research supported by RCA 
in the United States. 

This philosophy recognizes that fundamental re- 
search — the quest for original knowledge — is basic 
to all technical progress, and that responsibility for its 



Among the facilities at the new Zurich laboratories of 
RCA is this library stocked with the latest technical 
reports on RCA research and engineering developments. 




support rests upon industry as well as upon the great 
academic centers. It recognizes also that fundamental 
research cannot be scheduled like the production of 
goods, and that it is best conducted away from the 
atmosphere of a development or manufacturing program. 

Considering the emphasis on basic research con- 
ducted by RCA and others to discover and develop new 
electronically-active solid materials such as semicon- 
ductors, magnetic and luminescent materials, it is 
natural that the new Zurich laboratory should undertake 
an extension of research in solid-state physics. European 
and American scientists on the Zurich staff will be giving 
special attention to the electronic and optical properties 
of insulators, with emphasis on the electronic properties 
of the insulator, which still require extensive investi- 
gation. 

This program is already under way. As an important 
phase of the activity, visits from other researchers in 
universities and industries are being encouraged, and 
members of RCA Laboratories in the United States are 
being brought to Zurich to work on a rotating basis. 

Service to RCA Licensees 

The second major function of the Zurich laboratory 
— service to RCA licensees in Europe — is handled by 
a staff of experienced engineers under the direction of 
Jack Avins, a senior member of RCA's Industry Service 
Laboratory. The task of the group, like that of the 
parent laboratory in the United States, is to disseminate 
to all licensees technical information on new develop- 
ments or new services originating with RCA, and to 
give consultative help at the request of any licensee to 
assist him in solving his particular engineering problem. 

The new Zurich facility, equipped with the most 
modern testing devices and an experienced staff, will 
provide European licensees with the personal contact 

Visitors at the first "open house" for RCA in Zurich 
examine samples of color television transmitting equip- 
ment on display at the laboratories. 




through which much of the detailed information on 
RCA developments is conveyed. And behind the Zurich 
facilities and staff stand the extensive resources of all 
of RCA, including engineering specialists who will be 
called to Zurich for short visits from time to time with 
the most up-to-date information to apply to particular 
problems. 

Like the Industry Service Laboratory in the United 
States, the Zurich group is prepared to cooperate in 
technical matters relating to industry and international 
standardization. A recent example has been the use of 
the Zurich facilities for measurement of receiver radia- 
tion. A committee of experts of the International 
Electrotechnical Commission, representing several Euro- 
pean governments, spent a week at the Zurich laboratory 
studying various proposals and making investigations 
toward its objective of producing an acceptable standard 
for measurement of high-frequency oscillator radiation. 




Two floors of this modern building in Zurich are occupied 

by Laboratories RCA, Ltd., for research and service to 

RCA's licensees in European countries. 

RADIO AGE 21 




At the RCA exhibit in Karachi, Pakistan, NBC Chairman Sylvester L. Weaver, Jr., on a world 
tour, looks over equipment with Hassi AM Bokhari, head of Radio Pakistan. 

The Far East Sees TV 



by Richard H. Hooper 

Manager, Shows and Exhibits 
Radio Corporation of America 

Xkom Jakarta, Karachi, and New Delhi, the reports 
were the same: 

"Television has demonstrated to millions of Asians 
— with more impact than possible through any other 
medium — the benefits of free enterprise and the Amer- 
ican way of life." 

Behind this statement of vast accomplishment is a 
story of months of careful planning and cooperation 
between the Radio Corporation of America, the U. S. 
Department of Commerce and the State Department. 
It began early last Spring when Roy Williams, Director 
of the Department of Commerce's Office of International 
Trade Fairs, called upon W. Walter Watts, RCA Execu- 
tive Vice-President, Electronic Components. 

Mr. Williams outlined his mission. For the first 
time, the United States planned to participate in a series 
of expositions in Asia and elsewhere in the world. The 
objective was to display the output of American industry 
and agriculture and, generally, to "sell" the American 
way of life by, as President Eisenhower has expressed it, 
"telling adequately the story of our free enterprise 
system and to provide effective international trade pro- 
motion cooperation." 

No Easy Assignment 
It was no easy assignment, Mr. Williams pointed out. 
For several years, Russia and other Soviet bloc countries 



had erected costly and imposing structures at the trade 
fairs where Uncle Sam now planned to exhibit. The 
Soviets had skillfully utilized their participation to ex- 
ploit propaganda dealing with their industries, agricul- 
ture, trade possibilities and working conditions. 

In short, it was a two-pronged undertaking. In 
addition to promotion of foreign trade, the U. S. pro- 
gram had been created to counteract efforts of "iron 
curtain" masterminds to expose millions of persons 
attending these trade fairs to a misleading, if not totally 
false story, of how America operates under a free political 
economy and how our productive capacity is dedicated 
to peaceful purposes and the progress of free nations. 

Mr. Watts recalled that, in the early days after 
World War II, the Government — working with RCA 
— had faced a similar problem in Western Europe. 
Why not use the marvels of television, as had been done 
in Europe, to put across Uncle Sam's story? 

Plans Take Shape 

And so the plans commenced to take shape. 

The Radio Corporation of America would provide 
the equipment and a team of globe-girdling engineers 
and technicians to install and operate it. In specially 
designed and constructed buildings financed by the 
Government, various American businesses and industries 
would display their wares — and everything would be 
televised by closed-circuit to RCA Victor large screen 
receivers throughout the fair grounds. 

John Vassos, internationally-known industrial de- 
signer and consultant to RCA, was retained by the 
Commerce Department to design the pavilion used at 



22 RADIO AGE 



New Delhi and to assist in mapping plans for parts of 
the exhibit structures at Karachi and Jakarta. 

Fifteen experts of the RCA Service Company, many 
of whom had earlier demonstrated television in Western 
Europe, were selected to carry out the assignment. 
Arrangements were made to ship 35 tons of equipment 
— including cameras, monitors, amplifiers, receivers and 
the myriad other pieces of apparatus — so that it would 
arrive on a precise schedule for installation at the re- 
quired time. In all, the equipment was valued at more 
than $500,000. 

Curtain Goes Up 

The curtain was rung up on the first fair at Jakarta 
on August 18. The American portion of the show, which 
starred RCA television, was an immediate hit. As one 
of the local newspapers put it: 

"At the American pavilion, Indonesians are con- 
stantly jamming the opening space outside the glass- 
walled television studio, where simultaneously they can 
see the same scene on the stage and on a number of 
screens outside the studio. RCA TV exhibits really 
'stole the show.' Live television programs, produced in 
a big circular theatre, and twenty-four TV sets on a 
closed-circuit, gave the people opportunity to watch 
mechanics of production, engineers, technicians, pro- 
fessional talent and themselves as the cameras picked up 
audience shots now and then." 

Everywhere the story was the same. Massed crowds 
daily witnessed the five hours of programs carried 
throughout the fair grounds. In all, an estimated 
12,000,000 Asians viewed television for the first time 
at the three expositions. 

The New York Times, in a dispatch from Karachi 
on the opening day of the fair there, summed up at 
least part of the benefits of the U. S. participation in 
these words: 

"The Soviet representatives were obviously annoyed 
when their outdoor display of trucks and automobiles 
was blocked off by the backs of several hundred tele- 
vision fans." 

And so television proved anew that it is much more 
than a medium of entertainment. It can be — and is — 
a potent instrument for factual international under- 
standing of the benefits of freedom. 



Praise for Demonstration Crews 

A bright footnote to the Far Eastern exhibitions was 
provided by the representative of another American 
company, who wrote to Frank M. Folsom, President of 
RCA, in praise of the RCA team which conducted the 
TV demonstrations. The letter said, in part: 




An interested visitor to the RCA television exhibit at the 
New Delhi fair was Indian Prime Minister Nehru. 




At the Jakarta trade fair, Indonesians jammed the area 
outside the RCA exhibit to see television in operation. 




Operation of television film pickup was explained to 
Indonesian visitors by Chester Davis, of the RCA unit. 



RAD/O AGE 23 



"Your people for 42 nights straight came on duty, 
quietly and efficiently produced the show and usually 
under far from ideal conditions of climate, etc. They 
were marvelous to observe, and I felt prouder of them, 
and the sort of American company that hires, trains and 
builds such people, than I did of even the best of our 
actual Trade Fair displays. . . . 

"Further, I was in on the setting up of the fair, and 
saw your men work at uncrating and setting up their 
entire studio. There was not one word spoken in anger 
among them, I never saw an evidence of friction or un- 
pleasantness of any kind. When their own show was 



set up they provided considerable help of every kind to 
the other people at the American Pavilion. . . . My 
letter should serve to gratify you considerably concerning 
the behavior and performance of Americans employed 
by RCA and sent abroad to such countries as Indonesia, 
where I can tell you our country and our people need 
good public relations. . . ." 

Commenting on the letter, Mr. Folsom said to the 
demonstration crews: 

"Your performance has made a real contribution 
toward the prestige of Americans and of RCA. I want 
you to know how very proud we are of you." 



Color TV Show in Dallas 

Approximately 2,500,000 persons saw color television 
— many of them for the first time — during a demon- 
stration staged by the RCA Color TV Caravan at the 
State Fair of Texas in Dallas, October 7-23. 

The project — largest of its kind ever held — was 
put on with the cooperation of the Dallas Power and 
Light Company and Dallas' two television stations, 
WFAA-TV and KRLD-TV. During the 16 days and 17 
nights of what is regarded as the largest State Fair in 
the nation, visitors had the opportunity to see between 
four and seven hours of color television a day, much of 
it originating locally in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. 

The RCA Color TV Caravan set up a fully equipped 
color television studio in one end of the Agriculture 
Building on the Fairgrounds. Twenty-four of RCA 
Victor's new big-screen color receivers were placed 



throughout the Fair and the Caravan's color TV projec- 
tor, one of three in existence, picked up network, local 
and closed circuit color programs and showed them on a 
theater-size screen. In addition, all programs also were 
fed to other manufacturers' receivers on display at vari- 
ous Fair exhibits. 

Six of the technicians operating the Caravan during 
its Dallas stay were flown in from Djakarta, Indonesia 
and Karachi, Pakistan, where similar demonstrations 
were held in black-and-white television at the Inter- 
national Trade Fairs under the auspices of the U. S. 
Department of Commerce. Several of the technicians 
left after the State Fair of Texas for another trade ex- 
position in New Delhi, India. 

The Caravan is under the general direction of R. H. 
Hooper, Manager, Shows and Exhibits. J. P. McCarvill 
headed the crew during the Dallas demonstration. 



RCA color television was a major attraction at the State Fair of Texas in Dallas. 



"ATE „„ „ mjs 

RCA EllDH T V STUDIO ' 



COOPERATION WITH 



DALLAS POWER HflD LIGHT CO. 




By Sylvester L. Weaver, Jr. 

Chairman of the Board 

National Broadcasting Company 

(Mr. Weaver recently completed a trip around the 
world to investigate television progress in other coun- 
tries and to explore the possibility of yet broader con- 
cepts in programming. In this article, prepared espe- 
cially for Radio Age, he outlines the philosophy behind 
''Wide Wide World," and its effect in helping to bring 
about truly worldwide television in the future.) 

T 

J-ELEVISION IS big and restless and vigorous, and it 
must have plenty of room to move around in. With 
"Wide Wide World," it has at last broken through the 
four walls of the studio and has moved out onto a 
stage as wide as the world itself. Here is a program 
which forever dispels the notion that television must be 
confined to the small, the intimate, the microcosmic. 

"Wide Wide World" takes people to the places they 
most want to see — from the White House to the 
Chateau Frontenac in Quebec, from the summit of 
Mount Washington to a hacienda in Mexico. It has 
jumped national boundaries and mountain ranges and 
the stretch of ocean that lies between Florida and Cuba. 
Through its cameras, viewers see the great spectacles of 
our continent — an Aztec ritual dance or the Radio City 
Rockettes, Morro Castle or New York Harbor, the 
Texas State Fair or Canada's Shakespearean festival at 
Stratford. 

What is more, viewers not only see these places and 
events; they are there and take part in them. They 
participate in "Wide Wide World" because this is live 
television, seen at the very instant the event is taking 
place and therefore viewed with an anything-can-happen 
expectancy. 

Telecasting "Wide Wide World" requires an im- 
mense amount of technical skill, ingenuity and sheer 
imagination. Executive Producer Barry Wood and his 
staff have successfully attempted telecasts which a year 
or two ago would have been considered next to im- 
possible. By linking the United States, Canada, and 



Mexico, they have given North America its first inter- 
national television. By sending live pictures from Havana 
to Miami, they have given this country its first overseas 
telecast from a foreign land. They have broadcast from 
the rim of the Grand Canyon, from the depths of the 
Carlsbad Caverns, from a plane in flight and from the 
deck of a Mississippi paddle-wheeler. 

Just as revolutionary as the programming concepts 
of "Wide Wide World" are the advertising concepts 
adopted by its sponsors — General Motors and its Pontiac 
Motor, United Motors, AC Spark Plug, Guide Lamp and 
Delco Battery divisions. These advertisers are leading 
the way in two directions. First they are showing the 
benefits of qualitative advertising, of being connected 
in the public mind with programs of great prestige. 
Second, they are showing that in our economy as it is 
today, the suppliers who do business with end-product 
manufacturers must take part in the advertising effort 
to sell the end-product. 

Its Meaning for the Future 

What will be the long-run effects of "Wide Wide 
World?" When you take millions of Americans to 
Gloucester to watch fishermen bringing in a catch, to 
Nebraska to watch farmers harvesting wheat, to Cleve- 
land to watch workers pouring steel, then you are bound 
to increase Americans' understanding of one another 
and to increase the cohesiveness of the nation as a whole. 
Likewise when you transport Americans to Canada or 
Cuba or Mexico by the millions you will bring these 
nations closer together in interest and understanding. 

With transoceanic television already established as 
technically feasible, it is only a matter of time, and not 
a very long time, before "Wide Wide World" becomes 
truly worldwide. Then we will see the steel mills of the 
Saar, the Biennale of Venice, fishing in the Aegean, farm- 
ing in Kenya and the ceremonies on the banks of the 
Ganges. Other nations will see America's art and opera, 
its industries and its political conventions, all expressed 
in the reality of television which cuts through prejudice 
and propaganda and shows things as they really are. 
When this day comes, television will serve its highest 
purpose. 



RADIO AGE 25 



T 

1e 



TVs First Touring Opera Company 



.elevision, which has become a medium of major 
cultural impact through its presentation of musical, 
dramatic and artistic works to a nationwide audience, is 
now establishing its first touring opera company to carry 
the great operatic classics to major American and Cana- 
dian cities in a series of English-language productions. 

Formation of the NBC Opera Company was an- 
nounced on December 4 by Brig. General David Sarnoff. 
Chairman of the Board of RCA, during the NBC telecast 
of Puccini's "Madam Butterfly." The new company, 
augmenting the highly successful NBC Television Opera 
Theatre, will go on tour next fall for a minimum of 
eight weeks under joint RCA-NBC sponsorship. Its 
itinerary is to be announced later, but General Sarnoff 
stated that performances are planned in major cities in 
the United States and Eastern Canada. 

Recalling formation of the NBC Television Opera 
Theatre seven years ago, General Sarnoff said that a 
principal objective had been to broaden the audience 
for opera from a small circle to all of the American 
public. Until that time, he added, a major factor limit- 
ing the popularity of opera was the barrier of language, 
since all operas customarily were presented in their orig- 
inal Italian, German or French. 

"The NBC Television Opera Theatre has pioneered 
opera in English, and has presented operas on television 
in black-and-white and in color, with realistic staging 
and casting," said General Sarnoff. "How well this new 
form has succeeded can be judged by one simple fact: 
several million people are tuned to NBC at this very 
moment. 

"The NBC Television Opera Theatre presentations 
have done more than just attract large television audi- 
ences. They have also stimulated a demand for opera 
performances in English in the theatres and concert 
halls of the nation. This has encouraged us to go 
forward with the project which I am announcing today 
to meet the steadily growing public demand." 

Salute from the Met 

Formation of the new touring company was hailed 
by Rudolf Bing, General Manager of the Metropolitan 
Opera Company, in this message to General Sarnoff: 

"The plan itself shows the usual vision that everyone 
has come to expect from you, and should be welcomed 
by anybody who has the development of opera in this 
country at heart. I hope and trust that the expansion 
of the NBC Opera Company into the field of touring 
will meet with the distinguished success that has marked 

26 RADIO AGE 



its trail-blazing performances in television. Any success 
in the field of opera is of benefit to all of us in this field. 

"My colleagues at the Metropolitan and I wish you 
the best of good fortune in this new, difficult, important 
and daring enterprise." 

Management of the new company's tour is in the 
hands of Judson, O'Neill and Judd, with whom a con- 
tract has been signed for NBC by Robert W. Sarnoff, 
President of NBC. The touring operas will be especially 
adapted for the theatre by Samuel Chotzinoff, producer, 
and Peter Herman Adler, music and artistic director. 
At the same time, TV presentations will be continued 
by the NBC Television Opera Theatre, and additional 
personnel will be added to NBC's opera department as 
a part of the expansion, according to Mr. Chotzinoff. 
He added that the first two operas to be prepared for 
the new company will be "Madam Butterfly," and Mo- 
zart's "The Marriage of Figaro." 

"The history of the National Broadcasting Company 
sparkles with a galaxy of musical firsts," said General 
Sarnoff. And now, growing out of this rich musical 
heritage, comes another firsr — the NBC Opera. Begin- 
ning next fall, this new organization will bring operas 
in English to your communities and help to broaden still 
further the musical horizons of our land." 



An outstanding feature on NBC's Television Opera this 

season was Puccini's "Madam Butterfly," with Elaine 

Malbin starring in the role of Cio-Cio San. 




Solving a Radio Traffic Problem 



By E. A. Laport 
Director, Communications Engineering, RCA 



c 



/ONTINU1NG expansion of high-frequency radio 
service making use of rhe limited frequency spectrum 
provided by nature has created a world-wide communica- 
tions traffic problem of major proportions. The result 
has been increasingly serious interference among sta- 
tions close to one another in the frequency band, re- 
ducing the efficiency of radio communications in fixed 
and mobile services operated by private, public and 
government agencies here and abroad. 

A long stride toward solution of the problem has 
now been made by RCA with the development of a 
new two-way radio system which cuts bandwidth re- 
quirements by half, yet is comparable in cost and sim- 
plicity to widely used conventional systems employing 
twice as much of the frequency spectrum. This new 
equipment is usable for telephony, manual telegraphy, 
and teleprinter operation over short and medium dis- 
tances in both fixed and mobile applications. Also, it 
is adapted to use by non-technical personnel for many 
of the simpler telecommunications requirements around 
the world, with utmost bandwidth conservation. 

We have designated the new system as the SSB-1 — 
the initials standing for the single-sideband technique 
which cuts the bandwidth requirements of the system. 
While single-sideband technology has been in use for 
three decades, it has been almost exclusively confined to 
wire-line carrier systems and long-haul radiotelephone 
circuits. In the form in use up to now, its cost and 
complexity have been beyond the means of most high- 
frequency users. 

Advantages of the New Equipment 

In the new RCA equipment, single-sideband tech- 
niques are provided at a cost that is of the same order as 
that of the conventional amplitude-modulated (AM) 
equipment of comparable power employed by most of 
these services today. At the same time, it can be in- 
stalled and used by people of little or no technical skill, 
and it is applicable to both one-way and simultaneous 
two-way forms of communication. With this develop- 
ment, it becomes possible to use single-sideband trans- 
mission for short-haul systems wherever conventional 
AM is now used. 

The SSB-1 was developed for the RCA International 
Division by an engineering team under the direction 
of K. L. Neumann, Supervisory Engineer, Radiomarine 




RCA's new single-sideband radio is demonstrated by K. 

L. Neumann, of Radiomarine Corporation of America, 

who directed its development. 

Corporation of America. During the summer, it was 
tested extensively in communication between fixed shore 
stations of Radiomarine and vessels on the Mississippi 
and Ohio Rivers. In these tests, the new equipment 
showed consistently satisfactory performance at all dis- 
tances up to the available maximum of 920 miles, and 
it proved its ability to communicate with conventional 
AM equipment aboard the vessels. 

More recently, units have been acquired by the 
United States Coast Guard for study and testing in both 
fixed and mobile applications. Using these units, the 
Coast Guard has conducted demonstrations for other 
interested government agencies, including the Federal 
Communications Commission and the Civil Aeronautics 
Authority. The interest of the FCC in single-sideband 
techniques already has been made known, and the 
Commission has urged study of these techniques by users 
and manufacturers to provide a sound technical back- 
ground for future consideration of proposals to increase 
use of single-sideband operation by a variety of services 
that now use radiotelephone on frequencies below 25,- 
000 kilocycles. 

RCA is now making the SSB-1 available com- 
mercially through the RCA International Division in 
foreign markets, and through rhe Radiomarine Corpora- 
tion of America in the United States. We expect that 
it will contribute substantially to reducing frequency 
congestion and interference among stations. 



RADIO AGE 27 



Overseas Message Volume Reaches New High 



A 



record volume of overseas message traffic was 
handled in 1955 by RCA Communications, Inc., through 
its world-wide network of 84 direct radiotelegraph cir- 
cuits, Thompson H. Mitchell, President, announced in 
a year-end statement. He said that the past year was 
the most successful in RCA's 36 years of radiotelegraph 
operations. 

"More than 7,300,000 overseas telegrams, totaling 
188,000,000 words, were carried by our radio circuits," 
said Mr. Mitchell. "A record number of 104,000 inter- 
national TEX (Teleprinter Exchange Service) calls also 
were handled. 

"During the year, an expenditure of more than 
$2,000,000 was made for plant additions, improving 
and broadening the scope of international communica- 
tions facilities. Unlike the early days of radio when the 
bulk of the company's investment was in transmitters 
and receivers, present-day plant expansion is greatest 
in the area of terminal operating equipment. This is a 
direcr result of RCA's continuing efforts to improve the 
speed of its overseas telegraph services by cutting mes- 
sage processing time in terminal offices to a minimum." 

TEX Service Is Expanded 

Mr. Mitchell said that throughout 1955 there was 
a continuation of the pioneering and development of 
RCA's overseas TEX service, which enables subscribers 
in the United States to engage in direct customer-to- 
customer teletypewriter communication with their asso- 
ciates abroad. 

"In the field of international communications," he 
stated, "the progress of RCA's TEX service during the 
past year easily stands as the most significant achieve- 
ment of the year. In only five years, TEX has grown 
from a concept to a practical, well-established service 
that is now available between the United States and 
twenty-one overseas countries. 

"New TEX circuits were opened to Ireland, Puerto 
Rico, Tunisia, French Morocco and the Philippines. 
Also connected were the previously separate Pacific and 
Atlantic TEX circuits by establishing a trans-continental 
TEX link between RCA's overseas operating terminals 
in New York and San Francisco. 

"The interconnection of the two networks made 
possible for the first time two-way teletypewriter calls 
between trans-Atlantic points and TEX terminals in the 
Pacific. The TEX service likewise was made available 
much more extensively in the United States. 

"The speed with which RCA's correspondents around 
the globe are improving and developing the facilities 



to provide TEX service reflects its universal acceptance 
By the end of next year, the number of TEX channels 
in operation is expected to be almost double the size 
of our present network. 

"Sales of Leased Channel service to volume-users of 
overseas communications in 1955 increased forty per 
cent over the previous year," continued Mr. Mitchell 
"International airlines in particular have found that 
Leased Channel Service meets their needs for fast and 
reliable volume communications. We are proud to say 
that nearly all large international airlines are now using 
RCA leased channels." 

Neiv Radiophoto Circuits Established 

Mr. Mitchell said that stock brokers, commodity 
merchants, and other industrial organizations with in 
terests abroad have also become substantial users of 
Leased Channel Service. "In fact," he said, "every 
organization requiring a large volume of fast and eco- 
nomical teletype service is an actual or potential user." 

Mr. Mitchell reported that direct RCA radiophoto 
circuits were established during the year, linking New 
York with Brussels, Manila, Leopoldville and Taiwan. 
More than 4,300 spot news pictures, commercial docu- 
ments, and other graphic material were carried by the 
company's network of 45 international radiophoto cir- 
cuits in 1955. 

Overseas broadcasts totaling 3,000 hours were also 
handled last year by RCA's Program Transmission 
Service. This service is used predominantly by United 
States broadcasting companies for gathering "live" news 
reports from their foreign correspondents. The United 
Nations and Voice of America used these RCA facilities 
for beaming reports of UN. developments and news 
of America to all parts of the world. 

"The significant advances made by RCA Communi- 
cations, in 1955, are a direct result of the program 
begun by the company ten years ago to modernize 
completely its world-wide communications systems," 
Mr. Mitchell stated. "This pioneering program has im- 
proved both the speed and scope of RCA's radiotele- 
graph service, and has produced the newer subscriber 
services — - TEX and Leased Channels. 

"For these reasons, RCA has been able to anticipate 
and be ready in advance to meet the ever increasing 
communications requirements of the international busi- 
ness community, and the vitally important needs of the 
Government. Today, RCA is providing a wider variety 
of overseas radio services to more customers than at 
any time in its history." 



28 RADIO AGE 



Scatter Propagation 



O 



By H. H. Beverage 

Director, Radio Research Laboratory, 
RCA Laboratories 



'N A FIFTY-ACRE plot of high ground just north of 
the United States-Canada border at the upper end of the 
Adirondack Mountain range, a massive antenna directed 
toward the south symbolizes yet another major advance 
in the science of radio communication. 

The great antenna, in the shape of a parabola and 
measuring 40 feet in diameter, stands at the northern 
end of a research project being conducted by RCA 
Laboratories, the RCA International Division, and RCA 
Victor Company, Ltd, associated company of RCA in 
Canada, to provide information on ultra-high frequency 
(UHF) long-distance transmission by the "scatter prop- 
agation" technique of radio communication. At the 
southern end 290 miles away, lies the Riverhead, L. I., 
station operated by the Radio Research Laboratory, RCA 
Laboratories. The project itself is expected to con- 
tribute substantially to the advancement of the new 
technique, which promises much for the improvement 
of radiotelephone and radiotelegraph operations — and 
eventually to the establishment of intercontinental tele- 
vision broadcasting. 

"Scatter propagation" is a most promising phenom- 
enon whose discovery in the relatively recent past has 
touched off a major research and development effort 
among the leading companies in the field of electronic 
communications. To understand its principles, we must 
look first at various types of radio wave employed in 
communications today. 

Long and Short Waves 

The longest, known as very-low frequency waves, 
range about 10 miles from crest to crest. When these 
are transmitted, they cling to the earth's surface, bending 
with it somewhat like a fly crawling around an orange. 

The short waves, called high-frequency, range from 
33 to 400 feet from crest to crest. After transmission, 
high-frequency waves dart away from the earth until 
their course is blocked by a layer of ionized air lying 
miles above the ground. Hitting this barrier at an angle, 
the high-frequency short waves ricochet downward to 
earth, where they are once more reflected upward. Thus, 
batted back and forth, they eventually reach their 
destination. 

The shortest of all are the UHF waves whose length 
from crest to crest is only measured in inches. These are 




From this 40-foot antenna at Covey Hill, Quebec, UHF 

signals are sent without relays to RCA's laboratory at 

Riverhead, L. I., by scatter propagation. 

the waves of radar, of air navigation systems, of long- 
distance telephone systems, and UHF television. And 
they have their own peculiar way of travelling: until 
fairly recently, it was believed that all UHF waves 
travelled in a straight line, continuing straight outward 
beyond the horizon somewhat like a flat stick held 
against the surface of a ball and piercing through the 
ionized layer to disappear, forever, into outer space. 

To overcome this handicap, UHF communication 
systems relied upon relay towers set up at approximately 
25-mile intervals to catch the signal at the horizon 
and pass it along to the next relay tower — and so on, 
to the destination. Such relay towers have become 
familiar sights on the continental landscape, along the 
paths of our inter-city telephone channels. 

But some four or five years ago, it was discovered 
that UHF waves did not disappear entirely after all 
past the 25-mile mark, even in the absence of relay 
towers. Some signals were being picked up hundreds 
of miles away — very faint, to be sure, but still percep- 
tible. Obviously, then, some of the waves were being 
deflected earthward by some medium — probably patches 



RADIO AGE 29 



of air whose temperature and humidity differed from the 
surrounding atmosphere, just as parts of a sunbeam 
entering a room may be deflected and scattered by dust 
particles. 

Many contributed to this discovery, and the effect 
was to open broad new fields of investigation — for if 
some of the waves were scattering over the horizon, 
they could be made considerably stronger if more power 
were put into the transmitted signal. This, in turn. 
could eliminate the need for intermediate relay stations, 
and direct UHF transmission over hundreds of miles — 
and even the transoceanic broadcasting of UHF tele- 
vision — became an exciting possibility. And so it is 
working out, in tests both in the United States and 
abroad, with new transmitters and massive antennas 
capable of sending super-strong UHF signals over dis- 
tances of 300 or more miles. In Europe, experiments 
made in the Alps have shown that scatter propagation 
is affected only slightly by mountainous obstructions 
along the transmission path — although neither the 
transmitter nor the receiver should have an obstruction 
of consequence within its optical horizon. 

Antenna is One of Largest 

In RCA's own research in this promising new field, 
the great antenna atop Covey Hill, Quebec, is probably 
the most spectacular feature. Transmitting at 468 kilo- 
cycles, it is one of the largest in Canada and manages 
to form a considerable landmark with its 50-foot tower 
on the 1100-foot elevation. With the help of a sharply 
stepped-up supply of power, it beams its strong signal 
across both the Adirondacks and the Green Mountains 
to Riverhead without the help of relay stations. At the 
receiving end in Riverhead is another outsize antenna — 
about 28 feet in diameter — of sufficient sensitivity to 
pick up the scattered signal with a dependability that 
surpasses that of conventional short-wave communica- 
tion. 

With further study and testing, this relatively new 
technique of scatter propagation is expected to develop 
into new and better communications systems for many 
applications. The advantages are numerous, and here 
are a few of them: 

Point-to-point microwave communications over dis- 
tances beyond the horizon today require relay stations, 
and hence each installation calls for preliminary path 
surveying to locate these intermediate installations. 
With scatter propagation, the only requirement is a 
clear horizon in the direction of the other terminal, and 
the physical profile of the path lying beyond the horizon 
is unimportant. 

This is, naturally, of great importance in areas and 



countries where chains of relay stations would be both 
difficult and expensive to locate and build. Scatter 
propagation, by permitting relay-free transmission, can 
span forests and jungles, mountain ranges and deserts, 
where problems involved in laying out relay points 
would be almost insuperable. On the other hand, this 
type of transmission involves extra cost because of the 
antenna and power requirements: therefore it would be 
unlikely to replace conventional relay systems in built- 
up areas or over terrain which presents no special diffi- 
culties for relay stations. 

An additional advantage to scatter propagation is 
that transmitting and receiving stations may usually be 
located more conveniently for access and power supply 
than are stations tied to a relay system. This is the case 
because great height is not needed with scatter propaga- 
tion, except when there is particular reason for seeking 
a low radio horizon. 

In general, communication at ultra-high frequencies, 
by either relay or scatter propagation, is more depend- 
able than short-wave, which transmits voices poorly, is 
subject to fading, and in the polar regions sometimes is 
out of commission for days because changes in the layer 
of ionized air from which the short-waves are deflected. 
Hence scatter propagation, introducing UHF transmis- 
sion without the need for a costly chain of relay towers, 
may be expected gradually to replace short-wave radio 
in areas where relays have been unable to penetrate. 



"Thumb-Size" Microphone 
for Radio and TV 

A "thumb size" dynamic microphone, the smallest 
of its type ever developed for radio and television broad- 
casting, has been placed on the market by RCA's Broad- 
cast and TV Equipment Department. The tiny micro- 
phone weighs less than three ounces and is so small 
that it can be carried completely concealed in the hand. 

Designed for walk-around operation, the microphone 
plugs directly into the studio console, requiring no tubes 
or special power supply. It can be worn conveniently 
around a performer's neck, or clipped to lapel or dress, 
promising performers greater flexibility and freedom of 
movement in interviews, audience participation, panel 
and similar types of shows. 

The little instrument is only 2 9/16 inches long and 
15/16 inch in diameter, and it comes complete with 
lanyard and a 30-foot flexible cable. 



30 RADIO AGE 



VIDEO INSET 



OUTPUT TO 
TRANSMITTER 



Sketch shows how NBC's new 
color video inset employs two 
cameras to control foreground 
of a TV picture independently 
of the background to achieve 
novel effects. 



4J_ 



VIDEO 
SEPARATOR 



RELAY 





BACKGROUND SCENE 



FOREGROUND 

CAMERA 

A 



MONITOR (COMPOSITE) 



BLACK BACKDROP 




New Visual Effects for Color TV 



A 



SERIES of visual effects new to live television pro- 
gramming added spice to a number of NBC major color 
programs during November and December, marking the 
debut of a versatile new tool in telecasting. 

The results appeared dramatically for the first time 
in "Alice in Wonderland," when Alice seemed to shrink 
in size before the camera while surrounding objects re- 
mained unchanged. In the Sadler's Wells Ballet produc- 
tion of "Sleeping Beauty," Margot Fonteyn, as the 
princess, appeared in one scene to float before the 
camera as a vision brought to Prince Charming and his 
retinue in the magic forest. 

Behind these and other novel effects in other major 
programs, lay an ingenious NBC system known as the 
"color video inset," employing two cameras in a way 
which permits the foreground of a picture to be con- 
trolled independently of the background. The system 
was developed by the NBC Engineering Department, 
and was one of the last projects carried out under super- 
vision of Robert E. Shelby, Vice-President and Chief 
Engineer of NBC, before his death on December S. 

In announcing the successful use of the new system, 
Mr. Shelby had declared: "This is one of the most im- 
portant developments to come out of the NBC Engi- 
neering Department. With the new system, producers 
can use camera techniques heretofore impossible in live 
color television. They can, for example, create giant 
'spectacles' in relatively small studios, and they can 
bring a live outdoor scene into the studio to be used as 
a background." 

How it Works 

The "color video inset" works this way: 

Two cameras are used simultaneously, one scanning 



a background scene, and the other scanning the inset 
object, which is placed against a black backdrop. An 
electronic mixing device automatically records a sil- 
houette of the inset object (Alice, for example, in the 
shrinking scene), then "cuts" a correspondingly shaped 
hole in the background and makes the insert. The 
process requires precise control in production work as 
well as in electronic timing, which must be accurate to 
one ten-millionth of a second. 

The effect of the inset, unlike that of a superim- 
posed television image, is to present a solid picture 
without overlapping or transparency. In this respect, 
the new system is similar to the matting process in film, 
which requires complex lighting and processing work. 
Thus the inset permits the instantaneous use of live 
camera effects which could be achieved formerly only 
with the use of processed film. 

NBC engineers have pointed out that the color video 
inset broadens the whole scope of color television pro- 
duction. With its use, an actor may be placed against 
the background of a mountainside, a city street, or a 
seashore, brought into the studio "live" from any 
location that can be reached with a television camera. 

Or, doing it the other way around, actors may be 
placed in spectacular settings which may be set up in 
miniature in the same studio, or even in another studio 
— the inset system reducing the apparent size of the 
actor to fit the background. 

The color video inset is an extension and refinement 
of the black-and-white video inset. Both techniques 
were pioneered by the Development Group of the NBC 
Engineering Department, which interprets and adapts 
the laboratory research of RCA to the broadcasting uses 
of NBC. 



RADIO AGE 31 



©KftJDSut 




Cloth-Saver 

A new type of electronic metal 
detectot, sensitive enough to teact to a 
metallic speck smallet than the period 
on a typewriter, has been developed 
by RCA for the continuous inspection 
af textile fabrics in production. The 
new machine can keep a careful watch 
on materials moving along as rapidly 
as 1,000 feet a minute and is expected 
to relieve a "tramp" metal problem 
that costs the textile industry hundreds 
of thousands of yards of fabrics and 
damage to machines each year. A 
product of RCA's Theatre and Indus- 
trial Equipment Department, the ma- 
chine is expected to have important 
applications also in the plastics field, 
where materials are processed in sheet 
form. 

Small Package 

A four-ounce battery less than 2 
inches long and one inch in diameter, 
and a larger brother weighing l 1 /^ 
pounds have been developed by RCA's 
Tube Division for transistor applica- 
tions — including use in the new 
transistorized portable radios now in 
production by RCA. The smaller 
model was described by D. Y. Smith, 
Vice-President, RCA Tube Division, 
as a 9-volt unit with snap fasteners 
for connections to the battery termi- 
nals, engineered for pocket-size radios. 
The larger type is equipped with a 
four-hole socket mounted flush with 



the battery case so that voltages of 
3, 6 and 9 volts may be obtained. 
Both batteries have a suggested list 
price of $1.35. 

Color and More Color 

Six more television stations have 
decided to go in for original color 
telecasts with the help of RCA broad- 
cast equipment, including the latest 
studio cameras for "live" color pickup, 
and the 3-Vidicon film system for 
telecasting color films and slides. Ac- 
cording to A. R. Hopkins, Manager, 
RCA Broadcast Equipment Marketing 
Department, the new studio cameras 
are going to KMTV, Omaha; WJBK, 
Detroit, and WTAR, Norfolk, V*., 
while the 3-Vidicon film cameras have 
been ordered by the Omaha and Nor- 
folk stations, as well as WTLP, Wash- 
ington; KPRC, Houston, Tex., and 
WSLS, Roanoke, Va. 





Stretching the Season 

Barring blizzards, your local drive-in 
theatre may be able to entertain you 
farther into the winter, thanks to a 
new in-car heater announced by RCA. 
The new unit, called the RCA Dyna- 
Heat, is a small and compact affair 
featuring calrod heating elements and 
heat-radiating aluminum fins. It can 
be installed and suspended by a hanger 
on the theatre's individual in-car 
speaker post — and it even has a two- 
tone finish to match the motif of 
othet RCA drive-in equipment. 



Musical "Oscar" 

The Boston Symphony's RCA Victor 
recording of Berlioz's "Romeo and 
Juliet" has drawn a special round of 
applause from France. The "Grand 
Prix du Disque," of the Academie du 
Disc Francais, was voted to the record- 
ing, and the award was presented to 
conductor Charles Munch by French 
Ambassador M. Couve de Murville in 
a ceremony at Carnegie Hall following 
the Boston Symphony's first New York 
concert of the season. The award was 
signed by French Premier Edgar Faure 
and composer Arthur Honegger, Presi- 
dent of the Academie. 

Sharing the Gains 

Technical details on RCA's circuit 
engineering developments in black- 
and-white and color television were 
given to engineers representing most 
of the nation's TV set manufacturers 
in a recent symposium at the David 
Sarnoff Research Center in Princeton. 
The symposium, sponsored by the In- 
dustry Service Laboratory, RCA Lab- 
oratories, was one of a number held 
by RCA in the past few years to shate 
on an industry-wide basis the innova- 
tions and improvements resulting from 
RCA research and engineering in 
television. 



32 RADIO AGE 



..U^ f-v^'2 




A lecture and demonstration in physics 



EXPERIENCED ENGINEERS give 
authoritative technical courses at RCA Institutes 



RCA Institutes started its first small classes 
in 1909 to train "wireless" operators for 
the only radio service then known— marine 
communication. As the art developed 
through the years into the "electronic age," 
RCA Institutes developed with it. The 
school now trains large numbers of develop- 
ment laboratory technicians, servicemen, 
and station engineers— as well as a few radio 
telegraph operators. 

SCHOLASTIC RECOGNITION 

RCA Institutes is . . . licensed by the 
University of the State of New York . . . 
an affiliate member of the American Society 
for Engineering Education ... an affiliate 
member of the Greater New York Council 
for Foreign Students . . . approved by the 
Veterans Administration. The Advanced 
Technology Course is approved by the Engi- 
neers' Council for Professional Development. 

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY COURSE 

The Advanced Technology Course consists 
of 2610 hours of classroom and laboratory 
work. It requires two and a quarter years 
(50 weeks per year) in the day school, or six 
and three quarter years in the evening school. 
Subject treatment is at professional level; 
the textbooks are standard college and en- 
gineering texts. This course covers such 
subjects as . . . college physics . . . advanced 
mathematics and its application to electrical 
and communication problems . . . English 
in industry . . . drafting and shop work . . . 



vacuum tubes and their associated circuits 
. . . circuit design for receivers and trans- 
mitters . . . audio frequency circuits and 
practice . . . circuit design for television re- 
ceivers, transmitters and studio equipment. 
The course omits purely academic and cul- 
tural subjects so that competent technologists 
may be trained in the shortest possible time. 
The Advanced Technology Course is spe- 
cially attractive to . . . high school graduates 
. . . engineering school graduates wishing a 
more specialized knowledge of the radio- 
television field . . . junior college graduates 
seeking a superior technical-school prepara- 
tion for entrance into the radio-television 
industry. 

VOCATIONAL COURSES 

RCA Institutes also offers shorter, special- 
ized courses in . . . Television and Radio 
Broadcasting (l'/i years, days; or 4'/i years, 
evenings) . . . Television and Radio Servicing 
(9 months, days ; or 27 months, evenings) . . . 
Radio Telegraph Operating (9 months, days; 
or 27 months, evenings). A correspondence 
course in Television Servicing is available. 



EMPLOYMENT OF GRADUATES 

Graduates of the Advanced Technology 
Course are readily placed in leading radio- 
television-electronic manufacturing com- 
panies, development laboratories, broadcast 
stations, and many U. S. and foreign govern- 
ment agencies. Graduates are employed in 
such positions as . . . engineering aide . . . 
instructor . . . laboratory technician . . . trans- 
mitter engineer . . . intelligence officer . . . 
electronic technician . . . field engineer . . . 
technical writer . . . announcer-engineer. 
Graduates of the vocational courses are in 
great demand in the fields indicated by the 
course titles. Many companies interview 
graduating students at the school by arrange- 
ment with the Placement Director. 

GENERAL INFORMATION 

New classes in all courses are started four 
times each year. Day classes meet Monday 
through Friday; evening classes meet on 
alternate evenings. Prospective students and 
employers are invited to visit classrooms 
and laboratories of the school, or to write 
for a descriptive catalog of courses. 




RCA INSTITUTES, INC. 

A SERVICE OF RADIO CORPORATION of AMERICA 
350 WEST FOURTH STREET, NEW YORK 14, N. Y. 

Tel: WAtkins 4-7845 








All over the world, technical "Minute Men" of the RCA Service Company assist the U. S. Army, Navy, Air Force. 



How RCA "Minute Men" give added strength 
to our Armed Forces everywhere 



At an Army camp in Northern Japan, RCA engineers 
check an outlying radar post. At an Air Force base in 
Florida, RCA specialists track a guided missile in flight. 
And at a Naval communication center in Guam, RCA 
technicians hurry to install a transmitter. All over the 
world, the technical "Minute Men" of the RCA Govern- 
ment Service Department are assisting our Armed 
Forces. 

These "Minute Men" — experts in electronic installa- 
tion, maintenance, and training — are backed by the 



RCA organization that provides the most complete 
electronic services and systems to the nation. Behind 
them stand RCA's 37 years of experience in communi- 
cations and electronics; more than 70,000 RCA em- 
ployees in manufacturing plants stretching from coast 
to coast; plus the fullest research facilities devoted to 
electronics that industry has ever known. 

In all these ways, the RCA Government Service 
Department has proved its ability to give added strength 
to our Armed Forces in every part of the world. 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 



ELECTRONICS FOR LIVING 




RESEARCH • MANUFACTURING • COMMUNICATIONS • BROADCASTING • TELEVISION 

APRIL 1956 




RCA PORTABLE TV 



RCA's First 
Billion-Dollar Year 

The Radio Corporation of America in 
1955 did the largest volume of business 
in its 36-year history, exceeding one 
billion dollars in sales for the first time. 
This achievement puts RCA among the 
top twenty-five industrial companies in 
the United States. 

Sales of products and services 
amounted to $1,055,266,000 in 1955, 
compared with $940,950,000 in 1954, 
an increase of 12 per cent. 

Net profit before Federal income 
taxes was $100,107,000, and after 
taxes, $47,525,000. Earnings per share 
of Common Stock were $3.16 in 1955, 
compared with $2.66 in 1954. 

The Corporation's Federal income 
taxes, social security, property tax, and 
other state and local taxes totaled 
$66,611,000 in 1955. In addition, the 
Corporation paid excise taxes of 
$31,387,000, making the total 1955 tax 
bill $97,998,000, an amount equiva- 
lent to $6.98 per Common Share. 

Dividends totaling $24,069,000 were 
declared by RCA for 1955. This in- 
cluded $3.50 per share on the Preferred 
Stock and $1.50 per share on the Com- 
mon Stock, against SI. 35 for 1954. 

Color television— the compatible sys- 
tem pioneered and developed by RCA 
—continued to gain momentum during 
1955. The National Broadcasting Com- 
pany expanded its color programing 
and RCA Victor introduced the first 
complete line of color TV receivers. 
The outlook is bright for color TV to 
move forward witli increased rapidity 
in 1956. 

Successful establishment of color 
television as a new service fully justi- 
fies the long years of experimentation 
and the millions of dollars which RCA 
has devoted to scientific research and 
engineering as a basis for leadership 
and steady growth. 

Electronics is a science in which 
progress is born of change. The Amer- 
ican public's spontaneous acceptance 
of new products ami services is highlj 
encouraging to scientific research. 
Eighty per cent of RCA's total sales in 
1955 were in products and services 
which did not exist, or were not com- 
mercially developed, ten years ago. Re- 
search, development and engineering 
have spearheaded RCA's economic 
advance to the status of a one-billion- 
dollar sales unit in American industry. 

Chairman of the Board 
President 



Results at a Glance 

from RCA 1955 Annual Report 



Products and Services Sold 

Per cent increase over previous year 

Profit before Federal Taxes on 

Income 
Per cent to products and services sold 
Per common share 

Federal Taxes on Income 
Per cent to profit before Federal 

taxes on income 
Per common share 

Net Profit 

Per cent to products and services sold 

Per common share 

Preferred Dividends Declared 

for Year 
Per share 

Common Dividends Declared 

for Year 
Per share 

Total Dividends Declared 
for Yeah 

Reinvested Earnings at 
Year End 

Stoi kholders' Equity at Year End 

Working Capital at Year End 

Ratio of current assets to current 
liabilities 

Additions to Plant and Equipment 



Net Plant and Equipment at 
Year End 

Number of Employees at Close 
of Year 



$1,055,266,000 


$940,950,000 


12.1% 


10,37o 


10(1.107,000 


83.501.000 


9.5% 


8.9% 


6.91 


5.72 


52,582.000 


42.976.000 


52.5% 


51.57o 


3.75 


3.06 


47.525.000 


40.525,000 


4.5% 


4.37o 


3.16 


2.66 


3,153.000 


3,153,000 


3.50 


3.50 


20,916,000 


18,899,000 


1.50 


1.35 


24,069.000 


22,052,000 


206.020.000 


182.549.000 


257.682,000 


234.199,000 


327.175.000 


234.S65.000 


3.1 to 1 


2.6 to 1 


31,039,000 


34,290,000 


nt 19,123,000 


16,260,000 


157.994,000 


151.459.000 


78,500 


70,500 



30 Rockefeller Plaza, N. V. 20. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS 



[ohn T. Cahill 
Elmer \V. Enc.strom 
Frank M. Folsom 
Harry C. Hagerty 



John Hays Hammond, J 
George L. Harrison 
Mrs. Douglas Horton 
Harry C. Ingles 
Charles B. Jolliffe 



Edward F. McGrady 
William E. Robinson 
David Sarnoff 
Walter Bedell Smith 




Radio Corporation of America 

Electronics for Living 




VOLUME 15 NUMBER 2 



CONTENTS 



BROADCASTING 'TELEVISION 



APRIL 1956 




COVER 

RCA Victor's new portable 
TV receiver. 



NOTICE 

When requesting a change in mailing 
address please include Ihe code letters 
and numbers which appear with the 
stencilled address on the envelope. 

Radio Age is published quarterly by 
the Department of Information, Radio 
Corporation of America, 30 Rocke- 
feller Plaza, New York 20, N. Y. 

Printed in U.S.A. 



Page 

Mass Production Plant for Color TV 3 

Color TV Opens New Era of Mass Sales 5 

Plan for a "National Education Reserve" 6 

Electrofax Enlarger for Microfilm 8 

The Early Days of Television 10 

Flight Laboratory Tests Military Equipment 12 

TV in a Small Package 13 

Graduate Fellowships for RCA Employees 14 

New TV Eye for the Battlefield 15 

How Printed Circuits are Made 16 

Encouraging UHF Television 18 

Expanding World Trade 19 

WNBQ Converts to Color 23 

NBC on "Operation Deepfreeze" 24 

New Portable Radios 26 

Medical Color TV on Wheels 27 

New Electronic Techniques for Medicine 28 

Success Story: NBC Television Films 30 

"Quotes from RCA" 31 

News In Brief 32 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

RCA Building, New York 20, N.Y. 



DAVID SARNOFF, Chairman of fhe 80 
JOHN Q. CANNON, Secretary 



FRANK M. FOLSOM, President 
ERNEST B. GORIN, Treasurer 




aff-^^n^r*«^^j- W i-- = 



A Mass Production Plant for Color TV 



JLhk world's first manufacturing plant geared com- 
pletely to the mass production of color television re- 
ceivers was unveiled by RCA at Bloomington, Indiana, 
in early February. The new facilities, converted to color 
production at a cost of more than $5,000,000, were 
shown to newsmen on February 6 by RCA executives 
including Robert A. Seidel, Executive Vice-President, 
RCA Consumer Products, and W. Walter Watts, Execu- 
tive Vice-President, RCA Electronic Components. 

"We are now geared to produce, on each of our 
lines here, a color television set — completely tested, 
packed and ready for shipment — every 60 seconds," 
Mr. Seidel told the press group. "We are producing color 
receivers at this rate on one of our lines here today, 
and we have another color set line now in operation 
at our Indianapolis plant. Where we were able, little 
more than a year ago, to turn out ten color sets an 
hour, we can now produce 60 sets — one a minute — 
on each line." 

These points were emphasized by Mr. Seidel in his 
talk to the press: 

— During 1956, RCA expects to manufacture and 
sell more than 200,000 color TV receivers. 

— The Bloomington plant conversion means that 
every production line at the plant can be switched to 
making big color receivers whenever it is desired, and 
the manufacturing process has been so simplified that 
"most of our present employees now engaged in the 
production of black-and-white sets can be transferred 
immediately to color work." 

— RCA will continue to step up color set produc- 
tion to meet demand which is already mounting steadily 
as color takes hold. 

— Ground has been broken at Bloomington and in 
Indianapolis for new plant facilities, creating additional 
space which will be available for color production. Pres- 
ent plans call for the additional expenditure of $3,000,- 
000 in all. 

Foresees Downward Trend in Prices 
Concerning color set prices, Mr. Seidel said: 
"Assuredly, the price of color sets will be adjusted 
downward as production increases and we are able to 
take advantage of the economies of mass production, 
the start of which you have witnessed today. Just when 
reductions will occur — and what prices will be — I am 
not in a position to state. I sincerely believe, however, 
that regardless of future price, today's color sets, rang- 



ing in price from $695 to $995, will remain excellent 
buys. And you can be sure that even when reductions 
are made, we will continue to sell sets in the $695 to 
$995 price bracket." 

The press tour at Bloomington was highlighted by 
disclosures of various aspects of RCA's and NBC's color 
television accomplishments and plans, including color 
picture tube production, color set merchandising, and 
color broadcasting. 

Color Tube Plans Discussed 
Mr. Watts' account of color picture tube production 
and plans highlighted these points: 

— Approximately 220,000 square feet of floor space 
has been added to the area set aside at the Lancaster, 
Pa., plant of the RCA Tube Division for the develop- 
ment and manufacture of color tubes. 

— Employment in this operation will be increased 
by at least 50 per cent during 1956. "This, added to 
the 50 per cent increase during 1955, indicates the 
extent of our activities ■ — accomplished and planned 
in blueprint form — over a two-year period." 

The "Cheltenham 21," shown here, is one of the products 

of the RCA Bloomington, Ind., plant, now geared to 

mass production of color TV. 




RADIO AGE 3 




These machines at RCA's Lancaster, Pa., plant auto- 
matically deposit thin layer of aluminum which increases 
the brilliancy of color picture tubes. 



Experts give final adjustment to RCA Victor big-screen 

color sets as they near end of an assembly line at 

Bloomington, Ind., plant. 



— A vast degree of mechanization has occurred in 
the manufacture of color tubes, and RCA has spent 
more than $8,500,000 on this facet of production. 

— ■ Under present schedules, RCA will surpass the 
previously announced production goal of 30,000 color 
tubes a month by the last quarter of 1956. 

In regard to the design of the tube itself, Mr. Watts 
had this to say: 

"As most of you know, RCA has never for one 
minute lost its faith in the round, metal aperture mask 
type of tube. Despite doubts expressed by a few others, 
we have gone ahead with our plans to concentrate 
efforts on this tube. The extensive array of new equip- 
ment which has been installed and of which there is 
more to come has been designed to handle this tube 
and this tube only. At this time, we see no reason to 
depart from this view. In our opinion, no other pro- 
posed color tube is near the mass production stage." 

Five Production Lines are Sboivn 

A first-hand picture of set production was given 
to the press group, including inspection of the five 
production lines at the Bloomington plant — each line 
nearly a half-mile long. They were shown production 
of large-screen color sets, beginning with neat piles 
of tubes, components, wires and solder, through every 
manufacturing step until the instruments were com- 
pleted, tested and packed for shipment to RCA dis- 
tributors and dealers. 

It was pointed out to the group by George Leinen- 
weber, plant manager, that some 3,800 persons are em- 
ployed at the plant, which is a modern structure of 



stone construction, occupying 427,000 square feet on 
an 81 -acre tract. 

Outline of Merchandising Plans 
Plans for merchandising color sets during the coming 
months were given to the group by Charles P. Baxter, 
Vice-President and General Manager, RCA Victor Tele- 
vision Division, who pointed out that RCA now has 
on the market the industry's first complete line of color 
receivers, including a table model set. He emphasized 
that RCA's color sales plans have placed emphasis on 
heavy advertising in all media on a national and local 
basis, that help has been given in training distributors 
and their dealers in the best marketing techniques for 
color, and that efforts have been made to educate the 
public to the fact that color TV is a new, exciting 
medium which provides something that never before 
has been available. 

"We are doing everything possible to speed the 
nationwide growth of color television," said Mr. Baxter. 
"An indication of these efforts is reflected in the recent 
action by the RCA Service Company in reducing costs 
of color TV service contracts. The present price, an- 
nounced a month ago, is $99.95 and includes installa- 
tion and unlimited service for a twelve-month period — 
all at a $40 reduction from the previous price. ... In 
reducing the service contract prices, RCA hopes to 
speed the nationwide coverage of color TV by making 
efficient, competent service available at the lowest pos- 
sible cost to consumers." 

From Richard A. R. Pinkham, NBC Vice-President, 
the group heard of color studio expansion now under 
way, and the prospects for greatly increased color pro- 



4 RADIO AGE 



gramming on the air. He stated that the $12,000,000 
NBC color studio expansion program started last Novem- 
ber will mean that by next autumn "we'll be in a 
position to double our live color programming on the 
network and do more film programs in color too." 

The major features of the expansion program listed 
by Mr. Pinkham included: 

— Equipment of the Ziegfeld Theatre in New York 
as a color studio; 

— Construction of an additional color studio in 
Brooklyn; 

— Construction of an additional color studio at 
Burbank, California, at NBC's Color City; 

— Installation of color recording equipment at Bur- 
bank, so that the increasing volume of network color 
programs can be recorded and broadcast in color at 
the same local time as in New York, whenever this 
is possible and practical; 

— Additional expansion at Burbank, including more 
color film facilities, a new master control for Color City, 



and construction of a technical building to house this 
additional color equipment. 

As for the programs themselves, Mr. Pinkham said: 
"By next fall, we expect that many of our principal 
evening attractions, in addition to the 90-minute Spec- 
taculars, will be presented in color. Depending on how 
the schedule works out, it's entirely possible that be- 
tween NBC and CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System), 
there will be important color programs on the air 
every night of the week, with several color shows on key 
evenings like Saturday and Sunday." 

Immediate evidence of expanded color programming 
by NBC was the special colorcasting of eight additional 
shows during March. These included the George Gobel 
Show on March 3, the Dinah Shore Show on March 
6, 8, 20, and 22; "This is Your Life," on March 7; the 
"Texaco Star Theater", starring Jimmy Durante, on 
March 24, and the "Lux Video Theatre" on March 29. 
These productions were in addition to the continuing 
NBC color schedule, which totals now about 40 hours 
a month. 



Color TV Opens New Era of Mass Sales, Says Folsom 



A, 



AMERICAN retailing is on the threshold of an entire 
new era in mass merchandising with the advent of color 
television, Frank M. Folsom, President of RCA, told 
the National Retail Dry Goods Association recently at 
its annual convention in New York. 

"Perhaps no other facet of our American merchan- 
dising system stands to gain as much from the intensive 
selling capacities of color television as does the retailer," 
he said. "No one has as much or as great a variety of 
merchandise and services to sell as the department, 
chain and specialty stores of America. No one meets 
the buying public in greater numbers or more intimately. 
No one should be more interested in the most advanced 
and best selling techniques available for reaching that 
public. So it is that, with color Television, we combine 
sight, motion and sound to create a fabulous selling tool." 

Mr. Folsom and Robert A. Seidel, Executive Vice- 
President, RCA Consumer Products, spoke to the con- 
vention before and after a special closed-circuit color 
TV demonstration designed to show NRDGA members 
how color can be used effectively as a new merchandis- 
ing technique. The demonstration, produced by NBC 
TeleSales, originated at NBC's Colonial Theatre, at 
Broadway and 62nd Street in New York. 

Called "Wide Wide Window," the special closed- 



circuit program represented a translation of a typical 
retail store window into television, which serves as a 
window to bring the store's merchandise into the 
average television home. Included in the program were 
demonstrations of varied and newsworthy merchandise, 
and actual television selling techniques. Arlene Francis, 
star of NBC's "Home" program, was mistress of cere- 
monies for the demonstration show, which included as 
participants, Jinx Falkenburg, Bill Cullen, Pegeen Fitz- 
gerald, and more than twenty-five fashion models. The 
retailers, meeting at the Statler Hotel, saw the program 
on 40 RCA Victor color television sets in and around 
the grand ballroom of the hotel. 

Said Mr. Seidel: "Right now, RCA's dealers are 
selling color receivers at only about a thousand a week — 
but the volume is mounting daily. During 1956, RCA 
will manufacture — and our distributors and dealers 
alone will sell at a profit — upwards of 200 Thousand 
receivers. ... Of course, color TV needs to be sold. 
But what new product doesn't? But color television 
is truly wonderful, and hundreds of thousands of your 
customers can afford sets now, at today's low prices of 
from $695 to $995. Hundreds of thousands of others 
will be able to buy color sets in coming months, as 
production increases and prices are adjusred downward." 



RADIO AGE 5 



Plan for a "National Education Reserve" 



A 




"National Education Reserve" of teachers 
drawn from the technological ranks of industry to serve 
in their local schools has been proposed by Brig. General 
David SarnofF, Chairman of the Board of RCA, as a 
means of alleviating the nation's critical shortage of 
scientists and engineers. 

The proposal was made by General Sarnoff at the 
annual dinner of the National Security Industrial Asso- 
ciation in Washington on January 26. Addressing some 
1,400 leaders in government, the military services and 
industry, General Sarnoff said: 

"Our safety and our industrial strength rest upon 
our success in expanding the nation's reservoir of phys- 
icists and scientists, trained engineers and technicians. 
Our economy and national security alike will suffer 
seriously unless we solve this problem promptly and 
vigorously." 

Just before his address, General Sarnoff received the 
NSIA's James Forrestal Memorial Award, presented 
annually to "a distinguished American whose leadership 
has promoted significant understanding and cooperation 

Charles E. Wilson, left, Secretary of Defense, looks on 
as Brig. General David SarnofF receives the Forrestal 
Award from C. C. Felton, Vice-President of Revere 
Copper & Brass, Inc., who served as chairman at the 
annual dinner of the National Security Industrial Asso- 
ciation in Washington. 




between industry and government in the interest of 
national security." President Eisenhower was the first 
recipient of the award last year. 

The citation referred to General Sarnoff as "a dis- 
tinguished citizen, industrialist and soldier whose devo- 
tion to his nation in peace and in war has served as an 
example to all Americans, has provided outstanding 
leadership in encouraging vital understanding between 
industry and government in the interests of national 
security." 

Warns of Critical Shortage 

In his address, broadcast over a coast-to-coast radio 
network of the National Broadcasting Company, General 
Sarnoff declared that unless the lack of qualified teachers 
at grade levels for such subjects as physics, chemistry 
and mathematics is met quickly, it will show up a few 
years hence in an even more critical shortage of trained 
personnel. Continuing, he said: 

"In the presence of so many leaders of industry, I 
wish to offer a suggestion. It may not solve the problem 
completely, but it could go a long way toward a solution. 

"I propose the establishment of a 'National Educa- 
tion Reserve' comprising qualified teachers in mathe- 
matics, physics, chemistry, engineering and related sub- 
jects, to be drawn from the technological ranks of 
industry. I have in mind the release — and with full pay 
for at least a year — of a reasonable number of men 
and women for teaching assignments in their local 
schools. This unique Reserve could also mobilize those 
who have reached the retirement age but whose knowl- 
edge and experience would make them inspiring teachers. 
In addition, it could include qualified people willing to 
volunteer their services to teach in night schools without 
giving up their industry jobs. 

Would Enlist Cooperation of School Authorities 

"The number of teachers recruited from any single 
organization would be too small to entail hardship for 
any one — but the total number comprising the corps 
could be drawn from such an extensive list of organiza- 



tions that it would be large enough to give new impetus 
to teaching of the sciences in our school system. This 
would be especially true at the high school level which 
is our present major bottleneck. This Educational Re- 
serve would, of course, have to be strictly an interim 
program, let's say for five years, to help meet an im- 
mediate situation. Moreover, whether the initiative is 
taken by industry or government, the plan itself would 
naturally be drawn with the consent and cooperation of 
school authorities who would prescribe the courses and 
regulate the instruction. 

"In some degree, such a plan would amount to the 
restitution by business of personnel it has siphoned off 
from the school system. Men and women who normally 
would have become teachers of the sciences have instead 
gone into industry, where the rewards are more enticing. 
I think it is fair to say, in fact, that in the current crisis 
industry has an obligation to help develop this kind of 
Educational Reserve. 

"Obligation aside, industry would be well advised as 
a matter of self-interest to help replenish the reservoir 
of trained men and women by stimulating relevant 
studies at the lower educational levels. Industry will 
need more and more technically trained people for its 
own expanding operations. 

"Because of their practical experience, teachers in 
the Educational Reserve Corps would bring the breath 
of living reality into the classroom. They would help 
restore the sense of adventure to technical careers and 
inspire many an able and imaginative student to follow 
the scientific and technological disciplines into the college 
years. Enthusiasm is contagious. 

Suggests Corps Be Set Up on National Basis 

"To make the project attractive, teachers in the Re- 
serve Corps should be given recognition and status, 
through membership in an organization somewhat sim- 
ilar to the various military Reserves. It should be set up 
on a national basis, perhaps created by an Act of Con- 
gress. 

"I have presented this concept in broad terms. There 
are many details to be discussed and formulated by edu- 
cators, representatives of industry and interested official 
agencies. But I trust that the basic idea has enough 
potential merit to justify closer examination." 

General Sarnoff said that science and technology are 
the "very hallmarks" of American civilization, and added: 
"It comes as a shock, therefore, to be told that Soviet 
Russia is turning out engineers at a higher rate than we 
are. . . . 

"According to one study, Soviet Russia, in the 26 
years between 1928 and 1954, graduated 682,000 en- 



gineers as against 480,000 in the United States. Last 
year Russia graduated twice as many engineers as we 
did. One reason for this, of course, is that a police-state 
can compel its youth to enter careers most useful to the 
state. It conscripts brains even as it conscripts bodies." 

General Sarnoff, who was recently appointed by Pres- 
ident Eisenhower as Chairman of the National Security 
Training Commission, said that military Reserves pose 
no less a vital problem than an Educational Reserve. 

"When we think and plan for robust defense, we 
cannot overlook the need for large and strong Reserve 
contingents," he continued. "These are essential elements 
in any long-range military planning. Indeed, the tradi- 
tional American scheme has always been a relatively 
small active force backed by trained civilians who can 
be mobilized on short notice to meet an emergency. 

"It is common knowledge that our Military Reserve 
strength is now far below requirements. The purpose 
of this Act is to recruit and train enough civilians to 
make our country safe and strong over the long pull. 
The job is to get the story more clearly and effectively to 
our young manhood and their parents. Efforts in this 
direction are now under way and we hope for a better 
response than there has been so far." 



New Hi-Fi Tape Recorder 




Illustrated here is RCA's new "Judicial' tape recorder 

featuring three loudspeakers and provision for recording 

from microphone or radio-phonogaph. 



RADIO AGE 7 



Electrofax Enlarger for Microfilm 



A 



high-speed machine which employs the RCA 
Electrofax process to turn out standard-size engineering 
drawings from microfilm originals at the rate of fifteen 
per minute has been developed by RCA and was demon- 
strated for the first time on February 14. 

The new enlarger-printer, which is expected to revo- 
lutionize today's techniques of storing and reproducing 
vital engineering drawings, is the first commercially- 
designed machine to utilize Electrofax, the swift and 
economical electrostatic dry-photographic process de- 
veloped at RCA Laboratories. Arthur L. Malcarney, 
General Manager, RCA Commercial Electronic Products, 
announced that RCA is now accepting orders on the 
machine, which is priced at $85,000. 

The device was developed under contract with the 
U. S. Navy, Bureau of Aeronautics, which has now taken 
delivery on the first machine at the Overhaul and Repair 
Department of the Naval Air Station at Alameda, 
California. The base is a typical repair center for naval 
aircraft, and the Electrofax enlarger will be used for 
jobs described this way by Mr. Malcarney: 

"This enlarger-printer will be combined with Film- 
sort equipment developed by the Dexter Folder Com- 
pany, under contract with the Bureau of Aeronautics, 
and other processing equipment, to provide for Navy 
evaluation of completely integrated system for low-cost 
storage and high-speed processing of engineering draw- 
ings essential for the maintenance and modification of 
naval aircraft. 

"The system will introduce at the Alameda repair 
center important savings in the cost of handling and 
reproducing engineering drawings and in the space re- 
quired for their storage. Equally important, the high- 
speed selection and reproduction system will make pos- 
sible rapid push-button availability of filed drawings 
for maintenance purposes and for reference by bidders 
and suppliers. The Bureau of Aeronautics estimates 
that the system's potential in direct savings to Naval 
aviation exceeds one million dollars annually in procure- 
ment, reproduction, and storage costs." 

Used with Filmsort Filing System 

The new machine is the first enlarger-printer de- 
signed for use with the Dexter-developed Filmsort sys- 
tem — a relatively new method for filing and selecting 
drawings for reproduction. Filmsort utilizes individual 
exposures of drawings on microfilm, and each exposure 
or microfilm frame is mounted on a separate electric 
accounting machine card to provide maximum freedom 



and speed of selection. Conventional methods involve 
the filing of full-scale drawings, or recording on con- 
tinuous rolls of microfilm. The Filmsort cards can be 
selected swiftly according to category by conventional 
electric punch-card machines. The RCA Electrofax ma- 
chine can also work with 35-mm roll microfilm if 
desired. 

The combination of Filmsort, which permits swift 
access to microfilm files, and the Electrofax machine, 
which provides short-order reproduction, offers new 
standards in speed, efficiency and economy to virtually 
all high-volume processors of engineering drawings, Mr. 
Malcarney said. Possible applications of the device ex- 
tend to government services and the aviation, building, 
engineering and other industries which employ large 
volumes of drawings. 

The particular features which distinguish the Elec- 
trofax machine include these: 

— It is the first equipment of its type which can 
be used with either Filmsort cards or microfilm rolls. 

— It is the only automatic enlarger-printer to use 
a direct dry-photographic process, printing direct from 
a microfilm original to paper. 



H. G. Reuter, Jr., supervising engineer on RCA Electrofax 

project, inserts Filmsort cards in the new enlarger-printer 

for engineering drawings. 




8 RADIO AGE 



— It requires neither darkroom nor special pro- 
tective lighting for location or processing, since the 
RCA Electrofax paper which is used does not become 
light sensitive until it is put into the printer. 

— It is believed to be the fastest automatic enlarger- 
printer ever developed, with an output rate of fifteen 
17 x 22-inch drawings per minute. 

— It is equipped with a sight glass which allows an 
operator to check on the photographic process at all 
times. 

Operation of the device is handled by push-buttons 
and it has an automatic focus. Standard A-, B-, and 
C-size drawings are produced by the machine in full 
scale, and larger drawings in half-size. It can be pre-set 
to reproduce up to 500 microfilm originals at one 
loading, with up to 24 multiple copies of each. 

How the Eiilargev Operates 

The machine operates in this way: 

Loading is accomplished by placing up to 500 Film- 
sort cards in a rack above the lens system, or by insert- 
ing a 100-foot roll of 35-mm positive microfilm in 
much the same manner that a typewriter ribbon is 
installed. The press of a button starts the microfilm 
originals ■ — either cards or roll — feeding automatically 
into the lens system at the rate of one frame every 
four seconds. 

The images are projected through the lens onto 



the special Electrofax printing paper, which feeds auto- 
matically into the machine from a roll approximately 
3500 feet long. At this point, the operation becomes 
a mechanized version of the Electrofax printing process 
developed at RCA's David Sarnoff Research Center in 
Princeton, N. J. 

In the Electrofax process, light images are projected 
onto a special electrosensitive coating which can be 
applied to any solid surface — in this case, paper. The 
coating is made photosensitive by application of a 
charge of static electricity. During exposure, the charge 
is reduced or driven away in proportion to the amounts 
of light striking the different parts of the surface, leav- 
ing a latent electrical image. The image is made visible 
by brushing the surface with a magnetic brush carry- 
ing charged particles of pigmented resin powder. The 
powder particles cling to negatively charged areas of 
the surface, creating a visible print of the original pro- 
jected image. The image is fixed in place by brief 
application of heat, which causes the resin particles 
to fuse on the surface. 

In the new machine, all of these steps are carried 
out in sequence and automatically. The Electrofax paper, 
with a sensitivity several thousand times greater than 
that of blueprint paper, moves through the machine 
at a rate of 23 feet per minute. As it emerges, bearing 
the permanently printed reproductions, the paper is 
wound on an output roll from which the reproductions 
can be cut as needed. 



Finished reproductions of engineering drawings flow 

from Electrofax enlarger-printer as shown at rate of 

15 per minute. 



Arthur L. Malcarney, right, General Manager, RCA 

Commercial Electronic Products, discusses new Electrofax 

machine with Dr. James Hillier, Chief Engineer. 




RADIO AGE 9 





jgfc WES? 


•ill 


A ■ #*wfa- ■ •■^5 



! H* N 



B^l 




In this group photo taken in a modern NBC studio in New York are 
nine of RCA's television pioneers. Left to right, they are Ray F. Guy, 
NBC; Don Castle, NBC; Julius Weinberger, RCA; Merrill H. Trainer, 
RCA; Dr. Alfred N. Goldsmith, RCA consultant; Barton Kreuzer, RCA; 
Dr. Arthur F. Van Dyck, RCA; Lester Looney, NBC, and Theodore 
A. Smith, RCA. 

The Early Days of Television 



T 

J- El 



By Arthur F. Van Dyck 

Staff Assistant to the Vice-President 
and Technical Director, RCA 



-ELEVISION was little more than a dim and distant 
goal when, in 1927, a few young engineers began work 
on it at the Laboratory of the Radio Corporation of 
America, in Van Cortlandt Park, New York City. 

The dream of some day being able to "look over the 
hills and far away" had been a vision of physicists and 
scientists for decades, but the problems in accomplish- 
ment, like those of interstellar travel today, seemed 
almost insurmountable. Preliminary explorations had 
been made by various workers before that time, but 
results were primitive at best. However, by 1927, the 
development of new tubes and circuits afforded new 
possibilities, and a special group was organized for 
intensive attack on the problem. 

The Laboratory was built in 1924, and was headed by 
Dr. Alfred N. Goldsmith, who had been director of 
research for the Marconi Wireless Company of America 
before the formation of RCA in 1919. Dr. Goldsmith 
possessed in large measure that rare combination of 



technical knowledge, imagination, and good judgment 
which is vitally important to rapid progress in research 
and development. As a result, the Laboratory made 
an outstanding record in several fields, of which tele- 
vision was one. Assisting Dr. Goldsmith were Julius 
Weinberger, in charge of research; Raymond Guy, in 
charge of broadcast station design, and the author, in 
charge of engineering and testing. 

The new television development group was headed 
by Theodore A. Smith, then a young engineering gradu- 
ate, now Vice-President and General Manager, Defense 
Electronic Products. He had a staff of eight assistants, 
and their work proceeded with such vigor and speed 
that notable results were obtained within a year. Prior 
to this time, television pictures had been like black-and- 
white cartoons, with jerky movements and images only 
two or three inches wide. 

Within the year, Smith and his group had developed 
and built a small transmitter which gave good perform- 
ance, and they proceeded immediately to develop a larger 
one, having 5000 watts power. The Federal Radio Com- 
mission issued call letters W2XBS for these experiments 
in 1928, and the transmitter was installed in the RCA 



JO RADIO AGE 



Photophone space at 411 Fifth Avenue, where con- 
venient studio facilities were available. In this location, 
television broadcasting was conducted daily from 7 to 
9 p.m. on the assigned frequency of 2000 to 2100 kilo- 
cycles. 

Rotating Disc Was Used 

All this was before the days of iconoscopes and all- 
electronic television. Subjects were scanned by a rotat- 
ing disc with minute holes punched in a spiral near 
the periphery of the disc. Twenty complete pictures 
of 48 scanning lines each were transmitted every second. 
This was extremely crude by present day standards, but 
it was quite an advance then! 

The beginning programs were crude, too. They 
consisted of still photographs, painted signs, and occa- 
sional views of staff personnel. Closeness to the RCA 
Photophone recording studios made it possible occa- 
sionally to entice actors from the sound movie sets to 
appear before the new-fangled television cameras. 

It was here at "411" that "Felix the Cat" made his 
television debut. Felix was attached to a slowed-down 
phonograph turntable and placed in front of the me- 
chanical scanning disc camera. His antics, and those 
of the other performers, animate and inanimate, were 
radiated by W2XBS and viewed on six receivers located 
in various parts of the city to observe reception (com- 
pared with the six million or so receivers now in New 
York City! ) . 

The Laboratory did not overlook the systems aspects 
of television while these experiments, aimed primarily 
at home reception, were going on. Theater size tele- 
vision was envisioned, too. This vision, and hard engi- 
neering work, resulted in a public demonstration at the 
RKO Theater, at 57th Street and 3rd Avenue, in Janu- 
ary, 1930. The demonstration used a screen six by eight 
feet in size, and the transmission was by radio over a 
distance of about one mile. In these tests, the scanning 
disc was six feet in diameter, with small lenses replacing 
the previous simple holes around the rim of the disc. 

"Provocative and Stimulating" Results 

Results at the theater were reported as "provocative 
and stimulating". The pictures were judged acceptable 
when only head and shoulders of subjects were televised, 
but quality at best was far inferior to that of motion 
pictures. However, large-screen television had been 
accomplished. 

In July 1930, the conduct of further testing was 
taken over by the National Broadcasting Company, and 
the equipment was installed in larger quarters in the 
New Amsterdam Theater Roof, where it remained until 
1933, when operations were transferred to the Empire 
State Building. 



In 1929 and 1930, fundamental changes in the 
organization of RCA occurred, beginning with the pur- 
chase of the Victor Talking Machine Company. The radio 
engineering activities of the Van Cortlandt Park Labora- 
tory, the General Electric Company, and the Westing- 
house Company were transferred to Camden, New 
Jersey, and the Van Cortlandt Park installation was 
closed. 

The General Electric and Westinghouse Companies 
had been active in television development during the 
period prior to the reorganization, and their television 
activities moved to Camden in January 1930. Particu- 
larly noteworthy among these was the work of V. K. 
Zworykin, which, with the kinescope for receiver repro- 
duction, and with the iconoscope for camera pick-up, 
completed the conversion of the previously limited 
mechanical system to an all-electronic system. 

Pioneering Stage Completed 
Thus was the pioneering stage completed. The sys- 
tems work of Goldsmith, Weinberger, Smith and Rod- 
win, the tube and circuit work of Zworykin, Vance, 
Bedford, Kell, Schade, Tolson, Holmes, Leverenz, and 
others, made a solid foundation for the new service of 
television, upon which it could grow soundly and se- 
curely into the future. 

The early whirling discs at Van Cortlandt Park, 
Pittsburgh, and Schenectady, had done their part in 

Perhaps the first star of TV was Felix the Cat, shown 

in this 1930 picture of tests at W2XBS, predecessor of 

today's WRCA-TV in New York. 




RADIO AGE 11 




Public TV service was inaugurated by Brig. General 

David Sarnoff in this historic telecast at New York 

World's Fair in 1939. 

making [he early history of television. But, in 1935, 
RCA-NBC installed the first all-electronic apparatus, 
with 343 lines and 30 pictures per second, and within 
a year, 441 lines. 

By 1939, the RCA system was ready for public 
service, which was inaugurated at the opening of the 
World's Fair in New York in April of that year. On 



July 1, 1941, five months before Pearl Harbor, NBC 
received from the FCC the first commercial television 
license for its transmitter on the Empire State Building. 
Thus was launched the final stage of television develop- 
ment which has continued, except for the short war- 
time interruption, to the present vast and important new 
public service. 

Perhaps we should not call this stage the final one, 
because there is one more — that of color television. 
That stage is now with us, but here too we find the 
imprint of the work of the pioneers. Goldsmith's con- 
ception of the shadow-mask color kinescope, and Bed- 
ford's compression of color information into narrow 
channels, have brought the final stage to practicality 
sooner than the early pioneers had dared to hope. 

Recently, nine men met in an NBC television studio 
for a group photograph. They were surrounded by the 
elaborate lights, cameras, boom microphones, and asso- 
ciated trappings of the modern TV studio. The scene 
was in striking contrast to the studio where they had 
worked 28 years ago. These were the men who had 
formed the nucleus of RCA's Van Cortlandt Park tele- 
vision staff. And, amazingly, all of them are still active 
today, in various branches of the broad television services 
of RCA-NBC. 



New RCA Flight Laboratory Tests Military Equipment 

A 



Flight Laboratory for testing airborne electronic 
equipment and systems in the air and on the ground 
has been established by RCA at the New Castle County 
Airport in New Castle, Delaware. 

The new facility, now in limited operation, is to 
be completely equipped by May for operations con- 
nected with RCA airborne equipment and fire control 
systems for military aircraft and with RCA ground radar 
systems. Charles R. Sharp, veteran test pilot and aero- 
nautical engineer, has been appointed manager. 

One feature of the new operation is a flying labora- 
tory — ■ an Air Force C-47 transport plane equipped 
with aeronautical test equipment, enabling engineers 
to observe in flight the performance of electronic equip- 
ment. 

Theodore A. Smirh, Vice-President and General Man- 
ager, RCA Defense Electronic Products, announced that 
the Flight Laboratory will serve "as a proving ground 
for airborne electronics developed for the military 
services." 

"It will be equipped with aircraft and equipment 
necessary for air and ground tests of all types of RCA 
airborne electronics, from basic radar devices to complex 



control systems," he said. "We have located our Flight 
Laboratory at New Castle because of its proximity to 
RCA defense production and design centers at Camden 
and Moorestown, N. J., and its facilities for accommo- 
dating jet aircraft." 

The new laboratory, occupying 27,000 square feet 
of a new hangar, includes administrative offices, elec- 
tronic test facilities, and maintenance and storage areas 
for aircraft and spare parts. In a nearby hangar is 
the East Coast Field Support Depot of the RCA Air- 
borne Systems Department. This unit can perform 
depot-level maintenance on military electronic equip- 
ment manufactured by the department, and it provides 
classroom facilities for instructing personnel of the armed 
forces and plane manufacturers in the installation, main- 
tenance and operation of RCA electronic equipment. 

In addition to flying aircraft based at New Castle, 
Flight Laboratory pilots operate planes based at other 
airports where RCA is conducting flight testing of 
airborne electronic systems. At present they are flying 
F-86D jets based at Bedford, Mass., for tests of advanced 
electronic systems under development at the RCA Air- 
borne Systems Laboratory in Waltham, Mass. 



12 RADIO AGE 




TV in a Small Package 



Little larger than a table model radio is RCA's new 
portable TV set. 



R ( 



XA Victor television has achieved new compactness 
and portability with the introduction of a high-quality, 
22-pound receiver only slightly larger than a table 
model radio. 

Known as the RCA Victor "Personal," the compact 
new set is now in production following more than a 
year of intensive development and design work. With 
an advertised price of $125, the "Personal" is expected 
to meet with wide appeal in the home, in the office, 
and as a second set in many households. 

Charles P. Baxter, Vice-President and General Man- 
ager, RCA Victor Television Division, emphasized in 
announcing the novel set that "the use of precision- 
designed components, developed expressly for this new 
chassis, enables the 'Personal' to give typically excellent 
RCA Victor performance and high-level reception com- 
parable to much larger receivers." 

Picture Tube Weighs Only Three Pounds 

The little set measures IOV4 inches high, 9\k inches 
wide, and 12" s inches deep. It is built around a compact 
picture tube developed by the RCA Tube Division. The 
tube itself has an outside diagonal measurement of 8V2 
inches, weighs only three pounds, and is less than 1 1 
inches long. According to Lee F. Holleran, the Tube 
Division's general marketing manager, the shortness 
of the new tube has been achieved by employing wide- 
angle, 90-degree deflection. 

The economical design of the "Personal" is empha- 
sized by the fact that it contains only 10 tubes in addi- 

RADIO AGE 13 



tion to the picture tube, four crystals, one tube rectifier 
and a double selenium rectifier, yet ir performs 24 tube 
functions comparable to many larger sets. Seven of the 
10 tubes bear the imposing description "double purpose 
duothermionic," meaning that each tube, with two elec- 
trically separated groups of elements, provides the equiv- 
alent of two single tubes. 

The "Personal" has a V-type disappearing rod an- 
tenna which is adjustable for best reception in normal 
signal areas. For areas where signals are weaker, and 
where outside antennas are required for larger sets, the 
new portable has a connection for an external antenna. 

The sets are being made available in four colors — 
red, gray, ivory, and black. For easy handling, a 
matching carrying handle which folds inconspicuously 
into the top of the cabinet has been provided. There is 
also a matching stand, which is detachable simply by 
manipulating two knobs. When the stand is attached, 
the cabinet can be tilted up or down for the best view- 
ing angle. 

The tuning controls of the "Personal" are located 
under a small panel on top of the cabinet, and they run 
the gamut of those usually found on console models. 
Included are fine tuning, contrast, brightness, vertical 
and horizontal hold, channel selector, and volume. 



The new RCA "Personal" TV is shown here in contrast 
with current console model RCA Victor "Haverton 24." 




RCA Announces Graduate Fellowships for Employees 




x, 



.en graduate fellowships in the fields of science, 
business administration and dramatic arts have been 
established for its employees by RCA in honor of Brig. 
General David Sarnoff, Chairman of the Board of RCA. 

The move was announced by Dr. C B. Jolliffe, Vice- 
President and Technical Director of RCA, who is Chair- 
man of the RCA Education Committee. He stated that 
each of the fellowships is valued at approximately $3,500, 
and includes a grant to the fellow, tuition fees, and an 
unrestricted gift to the college or university selected. 

Operation of the program was described this way 
by Dr. Jolliffe: 

"Recipients of the David Sarnoff Fellowships will 
be chosen from the various RCA divisions and sub- 
sidiaries. Guided by executives of their divisions, em- 
ployees will choose an appropriate graduate school. 
Employees will be given a leave of absence for the 
duration of the fellowship. 

"This is an expansion of a program which has been 
in effect for several years. It is a recognition by RCA 
that there are many men and women within the Cor- 
poration who wish to improve their educational quali- 
fications by graduate study. Such improvement is also 
advantageous to our program of personnel development. 

"The association of General Sarnoff's name with 
these fellowships is especially appropriate, since he ad- 
vanced through the ranks of the organization. General 
Sarnoff recommended adoption of the RCA Scholarship 
Plan in 1945 and fully realizes the need for helping 
young people within the Corporation. On September 
30, 1956, he will complete fifty years of service with 
RCA and its predecessor company, the Marconi Wire- 
less Telegraph Company of America, which he joined 
as a messenger boy." 

First Fellowship in Medical Electronics 
Besides the David Sarnoff Fellowships, Dr. Jolliffe 
said, RCA is awarding ten college and university gradu- 



ate fellowships in the fields of science, physics, elec- 
trical engineering and dramatic arts, including RCA's 
first fellowship in medical electronics, which has been 
established at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., 
with a grant of $3,500 to be made in the Fall of 1956. 

"The fellowship at Johns Hopkins University em- 
phasizes the growing importance of electronics in the 
medical profession," he noted. 

Nine other RCA graduate fellowships will be 
awarded to students at the following universities: 
California Institute of Technology (Science) 
Carnegie Institute of Technology (Dramatic Arts) 
Columbia University (Physics) 
Cornell University (Engineering Physics) 
University of Illinois (Electrical Engineering) 
New York University (Electrical Engineering) 
Princeton University (Electrical Engineering) 
Rutgers University (Physics) 
Yale University (Dramatic Arts) 

33 Undergraduate Scholarships Granted 
"In addition to the fellowships, RCA has granted 33 
undergraduate scholarships in the fields of science, 
dramatic arts, music and industrial relations at desig- 
nated colleges and universities throughout the country," 
Dr. Jolliffe said. "The recipients of these scholarships 
are selected by the respective colleges and universities. 
Each scholarship provides a grant of $800 to the student. 
"RCA has also made several contributions to educa- 
tional institutions to assist in meeting the growing need 
for financial aid from industrial corporations. 

"RCA has been a contributor to educational institu- 
tions for a number of years. For the year 1956, its con- 
tributions will amount to more than $250,000. This is 
in addition to aid to RCA employees under Tuition Loan 
and Refund Plans and other indirect aids to employees 
that can be used for self- improvement." 



14 RADIO AGE 



A New TV Eye for the Battlefield 



B 



• attlefield television, in the form of a hand-held 
camera and a back-carried transmitter with which a 
soldier-scout can send battle pictures to a receiver half 
a mile away, is the latest electronic addition to the 
U. S. Army's combat communications system. 

The new unit was built by RCA to specifications 
laid down by the U. S. Army Signal Corps Engineering 
Laboratory at Fort Monmouth, N. J., where it was 
demonstrated publicly for the first time on February 20. 
In tests of the equipment, two soldiers — one equipped 
with the compact camera and transmitter, and the other 
with the Signal Corps' hand-sized transceiver — effec- 
tively performed as a reconnaissance team to send verbal 
and visual information back to headquarters. 

The Signal Corps pointed out that the self-contained 
television unit provides unprecedented mobility by 
eliminating the cable connections that have been needed 
in earlier combat television models to supply the power 
for operation. With the battery-operated equipment, the 
announcement pointed out, the TV scout can reach 
previously inaccessible spots, moving unhampered 




During demonstration at Fort Monmouth, N. J., soldiers 

equipped with RCA-built portable TV transmitter and 

transceiver radio send data to headquarters. 



through woods and hedgerows, and over ditches and 
streams. When his mission is completed, he can move 
readily to a new location, taking his electronic eye with 
him. 

Camera Weighs 8 Pounds 

The hand-held camera, which resembles a cigar box 
in shape, weighs only 8 pounds. The transmitter, in 
back-pack form, weighs 47 pounds, complete with its 
built-in power supply. The voice which accompanies 
the picture can be handled, as done in the Fort 
Monmouth tests, by transceiver radio. 

According to the Signal Corps, the camera can pick 
up pictures at distances up to a mile away and can 
transmit them to a receiver half a mile distant. 

The camera can be used for a variety of functions. 
In scouting, it is held with the aid of a pistol grip 
which enables the scout to steady the camera and to 
"pan" or sweep across the scene of action. Mounted 
on a tripod, it can operate unattended as a silent sentry 
or as a front-line artillery observer. Placed in helicopters, 
it could be used in directing air-sea rescue operations. 
The Signal Corps pointed out that an unmanned camera 
might also be stationed in a suspected radioactive area, 
unaffected by gamma radiation that would endanger a 
soldier. 

The small camera has four interchangeable lenses, 
including a wide-angle lens for viewing a broad sector, 
and a telephoto lens for viewing distant subjects. The 
transmitter, resembling a small suitcase in appearance, 
is capable of transmitting continuously for two hours 
on its five-cell rechargeable silver zinc battery. The 
battery is about one-third the size and weight of an 
automobile battery, and can be replaced easily in two 
minutes. 

Receiver Is Mounted in Jeep 

At the receiving end, the Signal Corps has mounted 
the 10-inch aluminized picture tube and its accompany- 
ing circuits in a jeep for fast mobility. The electrical 
system of the jeep provides the necessary power for the 
receiver, and either commercial power or ordinary house- 
hold current can be used as well. From rhe jeep, the 
televised picture can be relayed to a headquarters or fed 
into a commercial TV system. In a pinch, according to 
the Signal Corps, the receiver can be used in a fox-hole. 

For a comprehensive view of combat action, a 
commander in the receiving jeep can push buttons on a 
console to bring in pictures taken by five cameramen at 
different locations in the field. 



RADIO AGE J 5 




How Printed Circuits 
are Made 



The printing of electronic circuits is being widely adopted 
throughout the electronics industry as a means of achieving 
greater efficiency and economy in the assembly of many 
devices, including radio and television sets. Printed circuits, 
in which wire connections are replaced by copper strips 
printed on a flat board, permit hitherto complicated assembly 
processes to be mechanized, result in economy of materials, 
and provide a new degree of simplicity in replacement of 
parts. RCA now employs printed circuits like those shown 
at left in its black-and-white and color TV receivers. The 
pictures on these pages, taken at RCA's Camden, N.J., plant, 
show the steps involved in making printed circuits. 




1. Process begins with preparation of a large produc- 
tion photo-master of the original circuit drawing. Here 
photo-master is copied from small drawing at top. 



2. Photo-master is used to produce a glass negative, 

seen here being inserted in photo contact printer. The 

negative contains a number of duplicate patterns. 




3. Image is printed on a plastic board with a veneer of 
photo-sensitized copper. Here the board is inserted in 
the printer, against the glass negative, for exposure. 



4. Exposed board is then developed photographically 
and put through an etch bath which dissolves unexposed 
copper, leaving replica in copper of the original circuits. 




5. Up to several hundred circuits are printed on master 
board, which is then cut into strips. Here RCA's self- 
setting shear automatically positions board for cutting. 



6. Each printed circuit board is punched to provide 

for insertion of components. RCA's Programmed Punch 

Press, (above) can punch virtually any pattern. 



Encouraging UHF Television 



U, 



LTRA-high-frequency television, devised to per- 
mit the growth of television beyond the twelve channels 
available in the very-high-frequency band, drew renewed 
public attention recently with two important develop- 
ments — the presentation by RCA to a Senate com- 
mittee of six suggestions for aiding the growth of 
UHF, and development by RCA of an experimental 
super-power tube which has set an all-time record in 
UHF transmission. 

In a statement on March 15 to the Senate Com- 
mittee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Dr. E. W. 
Engstrom, Senior Executive Vice-President of RCA, de- 
clared that the battle for UHF television is well worth 
fighting in the public interest, and he presented six 
suggestions to aid this important phase of TV develop- 
ment. 

Dr. Engstrom, with a background of experience 
relating to the technical performance of TV in the UHF 
channels, appeared at the invitation of the Committee 
to discuss the status of transmitting and receiving 
equipment for UHF television. His suggestions were: 

— Authorization by the Federal Communications 
Commission of higher power for UHF stations. 



RCA's new super-power UHF tube is shown in this picture 

by L. P. Garner, who directed development group at 

Lancaster, Pa., plant. 




— Authorization by the FCC of the use of directional 
antennas by UHF stations. 

— Authorization by the FCC of the use of booster 
and translator type stations. 

— Action by the FCC to de-intermix on a sufficiently 
broad basis to create a nucleus of predominantly UHF 
service areas from which UHF may grow and expand. 

— Encouragement of multiple owners and others 
with resources and know-how to undertake the opera- 
tion of UHF stations. 

— Repeal by Congress of the excise tax on all- 
channel color television receivers. 

As a preface to these suggestions, Dr. Engstrom 
said: 

"In making these suggestions, I do so in the belief 
that I do not have, nor do I believe that anyone has, 
a complete answer to all the questions which have 
been raised during the start-up period of UHF. It 
seems clear that there is no single plan or solution which 
will be fully effective. Rather, one must consider and 
act upon all of the valid proposals." 

Sees No Known Alternative to UHF 

Referring to the need for an understanding of tele- 
vision performance at ultra-high frequency and for 
making a correct application in each situation, Dr. 
Engstrom said, "There is no known alternative, for we 
need the UHF channels in addition to the VHF chan- 
nels for our still growing black-and-white service and 
for the color service which is the newest of the mass 
communications media." 

In reference to the excise tax, Dr. Engstrom told 
the Committee that if Congress were to exempt all- 
channel color sets from such a tax, "we would then 
take appropriate steps to provide for the production 
of only all-channel color receivers as soon as practicable 
thereafter." He continued: 

"We believe that removal of the excise tax would 
be sufficient reason for all manufacturers to make all 
color receivers tunable to both VHF and UHF; in other 
words, all-channel receivers. As color receivers replace 
black-and-white receivers, which they are bound to do, 
the UHF audience for both black-and-white and color 
transmissions would grow. That the UHF audience 
grow is basic to the success of UHF. 

"In conclusion, it is my opinion that the battle for 
UHF television is well worth fighting in the public 

(Continued on page 25) 



18 RADIO AGE 



Expanding World Trade 



By Albert F. Watters 

Vice President of RCA, Operations Manager 
RCA International Division 



Wo, 



ORLD business, always an active interest of RCA, 
today promises to be a major factor in its future growth. 
The year 1955 saw RCA International Division reach 
the highest level of sales and profit in RCA history. 
1956 is delivering further evidence of progress. The 
first quarter showed the highest sales volume on record 
for the Division. All the main categories of the Di- 
vision's activity are expanding: direct export of RCA 
products, both consumer and capital goods; manufacture 
and assembly of RCA products by RCA's associated 
companies; licensing of RCA patents and inventions. 

This upward drive is the result of several factors, 
among which RCA policy is paramount. The Radio 
Corporation of America believes in international trade 
as a corporate opportunity for service and profit, and 
has equipped RCA International Division with the 
instruments for gaining an appropriate share of world 
business. 

The past few weeks have seen striking examples of 
RCA's intensive new cultivation of world trade. In 
March of this year, the first of 100 links in a country- 
wide microwave system was opened in Cuba with Major 
General Fulgencio Batista, President of the Republic 
of Cuba, sending the first teletype message and making 
the first telephone call between two military bases, 
Campo Batista and Ciudad Militar. Other new RCA 
equipment demonstrated to President Batista included 
mobile microwave and mobile radar. 

Shortly thereafter RCA signed a contract with Hen- 
rique Ascanio, owner of radio station Ondas del Lago 
in Maracaibo, Venezuela, to equip his TV station, the 
first in that thriving city, thus extending TV to another 
important market in Venezuela. 

During the same period negotiations were concluded 
with London Decca and associated companies for manu- 
facture and distribution of RCA records in England, 
West Germany, and Switzerland. This is a basic step 
in achieving distribution of the RCA catalog throughout 
the world. At the same time the RCA International 
Division was participating in the first demonstration 
of TV in Uruguay and contracting for a broadcast 
studio installation in Mozambique which will be one 
of the world's largest. The Division also was making 
heavy shipments of consumer goods to Puerto Rico, 
Egypt, Peru and many other areas. 




Henrique Ascanio, left, General Manager of radio sta- 
tion Ondas del Lago, Maracaibo, Venezuela, and Albert 
F. Watters, RCA Vice-President and Operations Manager 
of the RCA International Division, discuss agreement 
establishing first TV station in western Venezuela. 



March saw finalization of a new line of radio receivers 
and record players made in Germany for our export 
markets. This line, originally made for soft currency 
areas, has gained world acceptance — 1956 unit sales 
will be three times those of 1954. 

Carrying on Expansion Plans 

RCA International Division, which handles the for- 
eign trade operations of Radio Corporation of America, 
is carrying on expansion plans with RCA's 12 asso- 
ciated companies. The companies, located in Argentina, 
Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, England, India, Japan, 
Italy, Mexico, Spain and Switzerland, are reinforcing 
progress on several fronts, enlarging sales opportunities 
and aiding the economic welfare of the countries in 
which they are rooted. 

The RCA associated company in England, RCA 
Photophone Limited, has moved into bigger and better 
plant facilities and has begun production and sale of 
custom High Fidelity equipment. Industria Electronica, 
S.A., the associated company in Spain, is now assembling 
communications equipment for the Spanish government, 
as well as manufacturing records and record players. 
The reorganized company in Australia, RCA of Aus- 
tralia Proprietary Limited, will commence the manu- 
facture of records in 1956. 



RADIO AGE 79 





On Spitsbergen, Norwegian island north of the Arctic Circle, this RCA 
transmitter operates regularly not far from the North Pole. 
RCA technicians work on a temporary antenna atop a 
12,000-foot peak in the Colombian Andes. 



RCA Victor Radio, S.A., associated company in 
Brazil, is building a new tube plant at Belo Horizonte 
in the state of Minas Gerais. Electron tubes will be 
manufactured there beginning in 1957 for radio and 
industrial applications. TV picture tubes are now being 
produced in a new wing of the RCA Victor factory in 
Sao Paulo. 

Corporacion de Radio de Chile, S.A., RCA's Chilean 
associate, has started to produce tubes for electronic 
equipment for home and industry. Plans are being 
developed by RCA Victor Mexicana, SA. de C.V., the 
associated company in Mexico, to build a tube manu- 
facturing plant, the first in Mexico. 

A new parts plant was recently opened at Renfrew, 
Ontario, to augment radio, television and electron tube 
production at the Montreal plant of RCA's associated 
company in Canada, RCA Victor Company, Ltd. In 
addition to the new Renfrew plant and the original 
plant headquarters at Montreal, there are two other 
plants now in production, one manufacturing records 
at Smith Falls, Ontario, and one making radio and TV 
sets at Prescott, Ontario. 

The Canadian program of distribution, as well as 
manufacturing expansion, is in line with the growth 
of the Canadian economy. Distribution centers located 
in Ottawa, Toronto, Vancouver, Calgary, Winnipeg, 
Quebec, Montreal and Halifax make possible more 
efficient service to dealers and to the public. 

This expansion of overseas companies and affiliates 
is spearheaded from RCA International Division head- 



quarters in New York. Specialized services are provided 
to these companies, as well as management counsel, all 
organized to assure the rapid flow of information on 
finance management, production, and merchandise 
techniques. 

New RCA developments such as high-speed record 
production, or the design and assembly of TV receivers, 
are quickly passed on to the overseas companies so that 
the technological pace of RCA's overseas manufacturing 
parallels that of RCA plants in the U. S. 

Late last year, Laboratories RCA, Ltd., was estab- 
lished by RCA International Division in Zurich, Switz- 
erland, to provide facilities for services to licensees in 
Europe similar to those provided to RCA licensees in 
the United States through the Industry Service Lab- 
oratory. This followed the establishment of a similar 
service laboratory in Tokyo, to provide service to 
licensees in Japan. 

Within the past year additional licensing agreements 
to press records and distribute the RCA record catalog 
have been made between RCA and companies in France, 
Belgium, Holland, Sweden, Norway, and South Africa. 
In each of these countries records are, or will be, manu- 
factured and distributed under the RCA monogram 
label, increasing volume and establishing the RCA 
trade-mark more firmly than ever as the symbol of the 
finest in recorded music in the world. 

The RCA International Distribution Center at Clark, 
New Jersey, is now being enlarged to handle the in- 
creasing flow of direct export business, which is doubling 



20 RADIO AGE 



the volume of a few years ago. Increased shipments of 
consumer products are going to all markets open to 
imports. Increases have been notable in radios. Ortho- 
phonic High Fidelity, tubes, records, sound products, 
and the RCA Whirlpool line. 

Communications Systems Speed Progress 

Communications systems, engineered and installed 
by RCA International Division in cooperation with its 
distributors and companies, are accelerating social and 
economic progress in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, 
Asia and the Americas. 

There are over 200,000 channel miles of RCA 
Microwave in service around the world, serving a wide 
range of industry as well as many governments. In 
countries like Colombia, Venezuela, the Dominican 
Republic, and Cuba, RCA radio systems prove an 
effective and swift means of communication. 

The RCA VHF system in Colombia employs huge 
parabolic reflectors, first of their kind in South America, 
beaming telephone calls over the towering Colombian 
Andes. Last year, at inauguration ceremonies of the 
RCA radiotelephone system linking with the chain built 
in 1949, General Gustavo Berrio Muiioz, Minister of 
Communications, spoke to the governors of Antioquia 
and Valle and to the mayors of Medellin and Cali. His 
voice was transmitted from peaks such as "La Teta" 
(11,800 feet) and "El Campanerio" (12,000 feet) into 
the cities in the new radiotelephone network. 

There are 20 VHF radiotelephone channels now 
operating between Bogota and Medellin, and 28 between 



Bogota and Cali. It is expected that this system will be 
expanded further still in the future, which means more 
voices will be calling and speeding business in Colombia. 

Less than a year ago, a VHF communications system 
which links all major cities of the country with modern 
microwave radio relay equipment was delivered by RCA 
International Division to the government of the Do- 
minican Republic. The completion of this system, which 
was begun in November 1953, appropriately enough 
coincided with the four-day holiday commemorating the 
25th anniversary of the Government of Generalisimo 
Doctor Rafael Leonidas Trujillo. More recently a special 
link was added in Ciudad Trujillo to this nationwide 
hookup connecting the World's Fair (Feria de la Paz 
y Confraternidad del Mundo Libre) with the nationwide 
network. 

RCA sound is performing useful functions on a 
world basis. In Panama, a complete RCA sound rein- 
forcing and voting tally system was recently installed 
in the new House of Representatives Building. Each 
representative's desk is provided with a microphone and 
stand and voting plate which operates electro-mechani- 
cally to facilitate recording and adding of votes. 

As peoples and governments in Latin America, the 
Middle East, Africa and Asia began working after 
World War II for progress through electronics, RCA 
International Division was ready to build for the future 
with them. 

The oldest bank in the Republic of Mexico now has 
its own RCA-equipped radio network to communicate 
with its branches. The Bank's 72 branches are linked 



In Saudi Arabia, RCA's new single-sideband two-way 
radio has found important application. 



In Thailand, the RCA monogram looms prominently in 
the launching of a new television service, as shown here. 




I E5S7 




RADIO AGE 21 



with five transmitter-receiver stations in Mexico City 
and ten similar units are in the Bank's main operating 
zones, speeding banking service, and lowering the costs 
of banking operations. 

In Colombia, two-way radio communication is 
speeding the construction of an important transportation 
artery connecting two of the country's major cities. The 
road, covering a distance of 1,000 miles, winds over 
rugged mountains. The contractors found radio essen- 
tial to efficient operation, handling the flow of informa- 
tion and instruction for working crews. 

The Indonesian Navy uses an RCA communications 
system between its land operations and its naval bases 
on the coast. In December, 1955, the Republic of Laos 
teported election results over RCA radiotelephone 
equipment at polling places in the first free election held 
in the country. The police departments of Kuwait and 
Formosa are similarly equipped. 

Major world airlines are now using or have ordered 
RCA weather radar. These airlines include BOAC, 
Iberia, Air France, Sabena, Swissair, Pan American, 
CMA of Mexico. The Royal Australian Air Force is 
now using this equipment. 

Television is growing in many countries. Rivaling 
expansion anywhere in the world, TV continues to make 
spectacular sttides in Cuba. Two networks are function- 
ing there, CMQ-TV and Television Nacional, along with 
independent station Channel 2. Two new stations re- 
cently added to the Television Nacional network bring 

In Cuba, an RCA Training School has trained Cubans 

to operate the giant microwave system being built for 

the Cuban government. 





" " i- 1 : t '•'■ 






' | Vsj 


IB" 




to ten the number of RCA TV transmitters in the 
countty. Venezuela added three transmitters last year 
and, in the same 12 months, RCA equipment helped 
launch TV in Thailand, and in Guatemala, first in 
Central America. A TV receiver market is opening in 
Panama, with the inauguration of television by the U. S. 
armed forces in the Canal Zone. 

Swiss Nitroglycerine Firm Uses TV Eye 

Demonstrations with closed circuit TV have stirred 
the imaginations of peoples in Southern Rhodesia, the 
Belgian Congo and Egypt. RCA closed circuit TV was 
the atttaction at the U. S. Govetnment-sponsoted Amer- 
ican Pavilion at International Trade Fairs held in 
Pakistan, Indonesia and India. TV Eye is being used 
by a Swiss manufacturer with a remote control system 
to insure maximum safety in the production of nitro- 
glycerine. 

In all probability, an RCA 1 KW transmitter is 
sending its radio beam from a location closer to the 
North Pole than any other radio station. It is situated 
on Spitsbergen, the Norwegian Island far inside the 
Arctic Circle. 

A new station began broadcasting early this year 
with an RCA 50 KW transmitter in the Philippines. 
The Manila Chronicle, a leading newspaper in the 
Islands, btanched out into broadcasting in an enterprise 
promising to be one of the largest commetcial stations 
in the Pacific. 

RCA radio has been adopted by an importing firm 
in Ecuador. The company opened up a radio station to 
advertise the products it imports. Mexico recently had 
special inauguration ceremonies for a new RCA 50 KW 
transmitter at a key station in a network of 107. In the 
Belgian Congo, radio is being used by religious missions 
for educational purposes. In Korea, RCA-equipped 
broadcast stations, ranging from 5 KW to 100 KW, 
are supporting the government's battle against Com- 
munism there and in the whole Far East area. 

As exportets, with a worldwide organization, the 
RCA Intetnational Division handles the worldwide 
disttibution of products such as Gilfillan GCA equip- 
ment, Schulmerich electronic carillons, and Duo-Therm 
heating appliances. The markets for all of these are 
growing. 

To the RCA International Division, 1956 is the 
Key Year. It is a year of decision, of moving up to 
new levels of achievement. RCA enjoys a fine reputa- 
tion abroad and is honored by the patronage and friend- 
ship of many people. Its management is determined to 
build upon this strong foundation. 



22 RADIO AGE 



WNBQ Converts to Color 



T 

JLh 



.HE world's first all-color television station — WNBQ, 
the NBC-owned TV station in Chicago — began opera- 
tions on Sunday, April 15, with a nationwide audience 
in attendance via the television screen. The formal 
inauguration was announced by Robert W. Sarnoff, NBC 
President, near the conclusion of a broadcast of "Wide 
Wide World" in a program devoted to the general 
theme of entertainment. 

Watching monitors at a reception in Chicago's 
Merchandise Mart, home of WNBQ, was a distinguished 
gathering of governmental, civic, and broadcasting in- 
dustry leaders. Invitations to the reception, held in the 
Merchants' and Merchandisers' Club, were extended 
to officials of the Federal Communications Commission, 
the National Association of Radio and Television Broad- 
casters, and the City of Chicago, as well as to the press, 
officials of RCA and NBC, station managers of NBC 
affiliated stations and other broadcasters visiting Chicago 
for the NARTB Convention meeting on April 16. 

Following the inauguration ceremony by Mr. Sar- 
noff, guests were conducted on tours of the new color 
studios and the RCA-NBC Exhibition Hall on the 20th 
floor of the Merchandise Mart. Throughour the week, 
broadcasters were invited on guided tours of the color- 
converted station. 

Wherever they turned during the week following the 
inauguration, broadcasters — as well as the Chicago 
public — were confronted by color television. The RCA 
Distributing Corporation and the RCA Service Com- 
pany installed color receivers in dozens of locations 
around Chicago — in the Merchandise Mart lobby, in 
department stores, in bank lobbies, in hotels, etc. 
WNBQ provided a continuous closed circuit color feed 
from 9 a.m. until 11 p.m., consisting of local or network 
programs which were in color. Color film was trans- 
mitted during the times that network black-and-white 
programs were being broadcast. 

The changeover to color television by WNBQ will 
be heavily promoted nationally and locally. In addition 
to the official ceremony of "Wide Wide World," there 
were two other network color originations from WNBQ. 
"Camel News Caravan" will originate from Chicago 
on Monday, April 16, and "Today" will offer a remote 
broadcast from WNBQ two days later. "Monitor" and 
"Weekday" will present radio features about the event. 
Radio network news programs will offer coverage. Net- 
work programs and stars will salute the station. 

"WNBQ's Spectrum Spectacular," as the station's 
promotion campaign is known, was placed in operation 




«SW , f 



Checking over blueprints for WNBQ's conversion to 
color are, left to right, Henry T. Sjogren, assistant gen- 
eral manager of WNBQ; Jules Herbuveaux, NBC Vice- 
President and General Manager of the station, and 
Howard C. Luttgens, the station engineer. 



on March 19. It increased in scope and momentum 
until the peak day of April 15. The campaign utilized 
newspaper and trade paper advertisements, radio and 
television announcements, program features, car cards, 
sky writing (in three colors) and other devices for 
attracting the attention of the public. Broadcast an- 
nouncements are being made to invite the public and 
special groups, such as schools, to tour the new color 
studios after operations have been started. 

The station has four color television studios, five 
live color TV camera chains and associated equipment, 
and two color film camera chains. In addition, WNBQ 
plans call for the construction on the roof of the Mer- 
chandise Mart of a building with 25,000 square feet 
devoted to various TV production and service shops. 
An additional 25,000 square feet has been leased for 
further expansion and possible use as an outdoor color 
TV production area. 

The RCA-NBC Exhibition Hall, on the 20th floor, 
will have RCA color receivers which will be operating 
continuously. The Exhibition Hall leads into a floor- 
to-ceiling windowed public viewing corridor, known as 
the RCA Hall of Color, overlooking rhe new color studio. 



RADIO AGE 23 



NBC on "Operation Deepfreeze" 



T„ 



.he National Broadcasting Company has scored one 
international "news beat" after another on the current 
American expedition to the Antarctic. The NBC News 
Department provided the first photographs of the ex- 
pedition, the first tape recordings and the first motion 
picture film, both in color and in black-and-white. 

These exclusive reports have been the work of 
William B. Hartigan, NBC correspondent-cameraman 
who accompanied Admiral Richard E. Byrd on his 
latest tour of exploration to the South Pole. The ex- 
pedition, which the United States Navy calls "Operation 
Deepfreeze," represents the first major phase of Amer- 
ican participation in the International Geophysical Year. 

Hartigan's reports have covered every aspect of the 
expedition from the jumping-off point in New Zealand 
through the ice-breaking work of the U.S.S. Glacier, 
the arrival at McMurdo Air Base, a rescue of a group 
whose plane had crashed, a dramatic flight over the 
geographical South Pole, and the landing of four large 
Navy planes on an ice runway in McMurdo Bay after 
an historic, non-stop 2,550-mile flight from New Zea- 
land. 

Hartigan's filmed reports have appeared on NBC- 
TV's "News Caravan," "Today," and other shows. His 
tape recordings have been broadcast on such programs 
as NBC Radio's "News of the World," and WRCA's 



"11th Hour News." Still photos made from his film 
clips were the first of the expedition to be provided to 
the newspapers and wire services. 

Films Used in NBC-TV Documentary 

Hartigan's exclusive film was also used in NBC-TV's 
full-hour, all-color documentary program entitled "Ant- 
arctica: Third World." The program pointed up the 
long-range significance of the fact that the Antarctic, 
unlike the "Old World" of Europe, or the "New World" 
of North and South America, is largely unexplored. 

The program showed the human story underlying 
the scientific effort to tame a continent. The camera 
recorded the struggle of men working, traveling, and 
living under severe Antarctic conditions. 

Some of the most memorable footage of "Antarctica: 
Third World" was shot by Hartigan when he joined 
two New Zealanders on a 112-mile hike along the 
McMurdo shoreline, dragging behind them two sleds 
with 700 pounds of gear. During the hike, Hartigan 
injured his knee so severely that he was forced to stay 
behind while the other two went ahead for help. 

Turning the camera on himself, he recorded his 
lonely vigil in the icy wastes. When his companions 
became overdue, he speculated aloud, sound-on-film, as 
to whether they might have met with an accident and 



Photos on these pages are taken from film record of 

NBC's William B. Hartigan. This shows U.S.S. Glacier 

off Antarctic coast. 



Rescue of crew of this reconnaissance plane which 

crashed in Antarctic waste was filmed by Hartigan. 

Two men were hurt in crash. 






24 RADIO AGE 




Aboard the U.S.S. Edisto, Hartigan films the Antarctic 

shoreline and himself, as he narrates commentary for 

NBC telecast. 

might never return. He recalled that earlier on the 
same hike, the other two had slipped into an ice crevasse 
and only his own solidly-placed pick-axe had saved them 
all. 

A Second Brush with Death 
Hartigan was rescued, but long afterward he had 
another brush with the hazards of the Antarctic. When 
nine Navy men were stranded on Ridley Beach, he 
boarded a helicopter sent out to pick them up. But the 
rescue plane itself became hopelessly bogged down when 



it landed, stranding Hartigan and the pilot with the 
others. All eleven were rescued only after a long and 
perilous struggle through the surf on a life raft. 

The objective of the present Antarctic expedition 
is to select sites for bases, air strips and supply depots 
which will be used for exploration in the International 
Geophysical Year, which begins officially in July, 1957. 

Davidson Taylor, NBC Vice-President in charge of 
Public Affairs, has declared that the network will keep 
abreast of future developments of the I.G.Y. and report 
on them as they occur. 

"The I.G.Y. is a cooperative effort of the private 
scientific societies of all the major nations of the world," 
Mr. Taylor said, "including the U.S.S.R. and Red China, 
as well as the U. S. and the other great nations of the 
free world." 

"There are some scientists who believe that the 
results of these investigations may constitute the most 
important contribution to human knowledge ever to 
result from a single scientific project. 

"Evaluations and other ramifications of the Inter- 
national Geophysical Year will continue for several 
years beyond 1958. 

"It is our determination here at NBC that we shall 
continue to report on the network all significant devel- 
opments, as they occur and for as long as they continue 
to occur." 



Encouraging UHF Television 

{Continued jro?n page 18) 

interest. The stature of television today has been built 
upon the twelve VHF channels and only a partial use 
of the 70 UHF channels. Television needs more than 
twelve VHF channels in order to fulfill its promise. 
The UHF channels were provided to meet this need. 
We must work, therefore, toward solutions of the UHF 
growth problems which have appeared in order that 
television may come to fulfillment." 

Earlier, a major technical achievement bearing on 
the improvement of UHF-TV broadcast equipment and 
techniques was announced at the Lancaster, Pa., plant 
of the RCA Tube Division. On February 16, an electron 
tube constructed of machined metal and ceramics, with 
the general size and shape of two flat-brimmed straw 
hats placed brim-to-brim, enabled RCA engineers to 
set an all-time record in UHF transmission. 

The developmental super-power tube was combined 
in an experiment with an RCA super-power antenna 
to radiate 4,500,000 watts of continuous wave energy 
at a frequency of 537 megacycles- — more than four 
times the output of the most powerful existing UHF-TV 



stations. Success of the test, according to W. W. Watts, 
Executive Vice-President, RCA Electronic Components, 
makes possible extended and improved TV broadcast 
service throughout the present so-called fringe or weak 
areas. 

The 4,500,000 watts of radiated power produced 
at Lancaster were obtained by feeding approximately 
100,000 watts, generated by the electron tube, into the 
antenna, which had a gain of nearly 50. 

Appearing before the same Committee on March 
28, Joseph V. Heffernan, Financial Vice-President of 
NBC, testified on allocation considerations as related to 
broadcasting: 

"If our generation fails to lay a broad foundation 
for UHF service in the 70 channels reserved for that 
purpose," said Mr. Heffernan, "then other communica- 
tion services will move in and make use of that part 
of the spectrum. If this happens, this spectrum space 
will forever be lost to broadcasting and no other band 
of frequencies anywhere near as well suited for tele- 
vision is available. The issue, simply stated, is shall 
the 70 UHF channels continue to be available to broad- 
casting or shall they be lost to other radio services?" 



RADIO AGE 25 



RCAs New Portable Radios 



\3ix new portable radios, operating on either batteries 
or AC-DC power and featuring non-breakable "Impac" 
cases and a rotating antenna which eliminates the need 
for shifting the set around for best reception, have been 
introduced by RCA for the 1956 market. 

The new line was announced by James M. Toney, 
Vice-President and General Manager, RCA Victor Radio 
and "Victrola" Division, who pointed out that 29 per 
cent of all radios purchased last year by the public were 
portables — an indication that "more and more persons 
are realizing that the portable is the ideal all-purpose 
radio." 

The price range of the new sets, as advertised na- 
tionally, runs from $29.95 to $139-95, said Mr. Toney, 
adding that the lowest-priced model this year will retail 
for $5 less than last year's similar three-way model pack- 
aged in the non-breakable "Impac" plastic case. The 
portable line also includes, in addition to the six new 
models, RCA Victor's two transistorized portable sets 
which were announced last fall. 

A new portable in the 1956 line is one incorporating 
a marine band as well as the standard broadcast band. 
Four of the new models feature the RCA Victor "Wave- 
finder" rotating directional rod ferrite antenna mounted 
on the top of the set, as well as extra-powerful circuits 
using 90-volt batteries. 

The Six Models 

The six models, and their main features, are de- 
scribed briefly below together with their nationally ad- 
vertised prices. Each is equipped with the "Impac" non- 
breakable case, and the tube total in each instance 
includes rectifier. 

— The Shipmate, a five-tube chassis with enclosed 
ferrite core antenna. ( $2995 ) . 

— The Midshipman, a five-tube chassis with the 
"Wavefinder" antenna and extra-powerful circuit. 
($34.95). 

— The Wanderlust, a five-tube chassis with "Wave- 
finder" antenna, and incorporating a polished aluminum 
front and vernier tuning for precise station selection, as 
well as extra-powerful circuit. ( $39-95 ) . 

— The New "Globe Trotter", a six-tube chassis, 
equipped with slide-rule vernier tuning with rubber- 
mounted 3-gang condenser, which provides tuned radio 
frequency amplification for stations in weak signal areas, 
and extra-powerful circuit. ($49-95). 

— The New Yachtsman, a six-tube chassis with slide- 
rule dial and vernier tuning, two-band equipment for 
long-distance reception on either the marine or the 



standard broadcast band, plus extra-powerful circuit. 
($69-95). 

— The Strato- World II, a six-tube chassis and 7-band 
operation, including International Short-Wave Bands, 
two domestic short-wave bands and one standard AM 
band. Other features include a pull-up 48-inch tele- 
scopic antenna for short-wave broadcast, and "Magic 
Loop" and "Signal Finder" antennas for difficult recep- 
tion as encountered in trains and buses. ($139-95). 

All of the portables include the "Golden Throat" 
Tone System, an exacting balance of amplifier, speaker 
and cabinet, supersensitive permanent-magnet speakers 
and automatic volume control to maintain uniform 
volume for weak and strong stations. 

In addition to the new line of portable radios, Mr. 
Toney announced introduction of a new twin-speaker 
"Victrola" portable phonograph — a single-play, 3-speed 
player nationally advertised at $39-95. 

One of the six new RCA portable radios for 1956 is 
the "Wanderlust," shown here — equipped with "Wave- 
finder" rotating antenna. 




26 RADIO AGE 



Medical Color TV on Wheels 



V.-/OLOR television for medical use has now been put 
on wheels by RCA to permit closed-circuit telecasting 
of surgical and clinical demonstrations from practically 
any hospital in the country. 

This latest development in television aids to medicine 
is a van carrying three color TV cameras and all neces- 
sary control room equipment. The first of its kind to 
be produced, the unit has been purchased by the Phila- 
delphia pharmaceutical firm of Smith, Kline and French, 
which has pioneered in closed-circuit color telecasts for 
medical and surgical meetings throughout the country. 

The mobile studio will be operated from parking 
areas adjacent to hospitals. Its color cameras, placed 
within a hospital, will send their signals by cable to 
the unit, from which the telecasts will be transmitted 
by closed circuit to projector and screen at a medical 
meeting. Included in the equipment is RCA's 3-Vidicon 
compatible color camera for medical use, developed by 
RCA Laboratories and scheduled for installation at the 
Army's Walter Reed Medical Center in Washington as 
part of a large-scale RCA color television installation 
there. With all of the new equipment, which operates 
on commercial color TV standards, Smith, Kline and 
French will be able for the first time to originate and 
transmit medical colorcasts to TV stations for local or 
network broadcast. 

Importance of Color TV is Cited 

The growing importance of color television as a 
new service to medicine was emphasized by G. F. Roll, 
Director of Public Relations for Smith, Kline and French, 
in an announcement of the purchase from RCA. He 
pointed out that Smith, Kline and French sponsors an 
average of 15 programs a year in closed-circuit color 
TV surgical and medical meetings. 

"These colorcasts, presented as a service to the medi- 
cal profession, highlight latest advances in surgical and 
clinical techniques and attract a total of 50,000 to 60,000 
visitations by surgeons and physicians," he said. 

"The availability of standard studio broadcast equip- 
ment for closed-circuit colorcasts will enable us to intro- 
duce clearer definition and greater color accuracy of 
picture, and to add appreciably to the value of these 
S. K. and F. medical demonstrations for medical 
audiences." 

The first of these demonstration broadcasts, accord- 
ing to Mr. Roll, was presented by S. K. and F. in June, 
1949, before the convention of the American Medical 
Association in Atlantic City, N.J. From the pioneer 




G. F. Roll, Public Relations Director for Smith, Kline 

& French, signs contract for RCA color TV "studio on 

wheels," as A. R. Hopkins, Manager, RCA Broadcast 

and TV Equipment Department, looks on. 

closed-circuit telecast through last December, the com- 
pany has produced such programs before 79 medical 
and surgical meetings, with a total of 1,135 clinical 
presentations and 706 surgical operations, involving 
nearly 900 hours of programming and attracting about 
400,000 visitations by surgeons and doctors, he added. 

Why color television for medical demonstrations? 
Mr. Roll explained it this way: 

"We have concentrated on color presentations be- 
cause the realism which color visualization provides is 
the essence of the value of the closed-circuit TV medium. 
In surgery, for example, form and contrast alone are 
not sufficient to provide a true picture of human tissue, 
areas of infection, location of vital arteries and veins, 
or the extent of circulation. The addition of color in 
such televised presentations, particularly those of broad- 
cast quality, provides the required realism and authen- 
ticity. Color TV also gives a sense of third dimension, 
not obtained in black-and-white pictures, which is in- 
valuable in revealing the extent and depth of lesions 
and incisions." 



RADIO AGE 27 



New Electronic Techniques for Medicine 




/LECTRONIC diagnostic techniques may help the 
doctor of the future by reporting on the physical con- 
dition of a patient and indicating steps that should be 
taken to treat ailments, according to Dr. V. K. Zwory- 
kin, television pioneer and Honorary Vice-President of 
RCA. 

With today's trend toward an era in which everyone 
may expect detailed medical checkups at frequent inter- 
vals, and with new diagnostic techniques bringing an 
increasing number of tests in each checkup, Dr. Zwory- 
kin foresees the likelihood of "an impossible load" on 
the doctor in interpreting and performing such check- 
ups without assistance that electronics may provide. 

These points were made by Dr. Zworykin at the 
national convention of the Institute of Radio Engineers 
in New York. His talk was one of 25 technical papers 
and talks presented by RCA scientists and engineers at 
the three-day meetings. Among these were five reports 
which for the first time gave full engineering details 
of RCA's magnetic tape recorder for television. 

Dr. Zworykin, as Chairman of the IRE Professional 
Group on Medical Electronics, talked of the present 
and expanding role of electronics in providing help to 
medical science. 

As a possible solution to the difficulty which may 
face the doctor of the future in handling an expanding 
and increasingly complicated series of medical checkups. 
Dr. Zworykin suggested a new electronic development, 
saying: 

"The information provided by the various tests 
which are made at different times with today's examining 
techniques might be considerably more meaningful if 
a whole series of measurements, such as electrocardio- 
gram, temperature, blood pressure, etc., could be recorded 
simultaneously by a single piece of electronic equipment 
operated by a technician. In large part the recorded data 
might be in the form of deviations from a prescribed 
norm for the age, height and weight of the patient, 
which could be set on the testing apparatus. 

"Thus, the trained physician would be provided 




A leading electronic contribution to medicine is RCA's 

electron microscope, shown here in operation at Armed 

Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington. 

simply with a record presenting physiological data in 
the form most significant for the health of the patient. 
This data could, furthermore, be placed on punch cards 
to provide a permanent record for the patient. At each 
successive examination, the data from the punched card 
for the preceding examination would be compared with 
the newly obtained data, immediately indicating to the 
examining physician the changes which had taken place 
in the physical condition of the patient." 

Suggests System Based on Computing Techniques 

On the basis of known electronic computing tech- 
niques, an even more elaborate system might be devel- 
oped, Dr. Zworykin suggested. He described it this 
way: 

"Looking farther into the future, we can imagine 
the testing apparatus to feed the information derived 
from the tests and converred into numerical quantities 
into an electronic computer, which would have stored 
in its memory the best medical knowledge of the day. 
The computer would apply this stored information to 



28 RADIO AGE 



the correlated data obtained from the patient to arrive 
at a verdict regarding the physical condition of the 
patient, and, eventually, indicating steps for the correc- 
tion of malfunctions. 

"While such a complete diagnostic device admittedly 
appears rather remote, it appears less fantastic to imagine 
an electronic system which would merely indicate 
whether the patient is or is not in need of further medi- 
cal attention. Such more modest equipment might 
prove extremely useful in reducing the case load of the 
physician." 

Dr. Zworykin talked of these future possibilities 
against a background of increasing reliance by physicians 
and biologists upon electronics experts to select the 
techniques and to build and operate the electronic appa- 
ratus needed by medical science. Referring to such 
apparatus used in medicine and biology today, he pointed 
to the use of black-and-white and color television for 
instruction and visual consultation over distances, x-ray 
systems, the electron microscope, the television micro- 
scope, infrared and ultrasonic equipment, and an array 
of measuring devices such as electronic particle counters, 
radiation meters and electrocardiographs. 




RCA Color TV is also being used, as shown here, to 
transmit views of tissue for pathological examination. 



Dr. Engstrom Awarded Medal 
by Society of Swedish Engineers 



D, 



E. W. Engstrom, Senior Executive Vice- 
President of RCA, was awarded the John Ericsson Medal 
by the American Society of Swedish Engineers on Feb- 
ruary 12 in recognition of "outstanding achievements" 
in the technical field. The award followed by a few days 
the announcement of Dr. Engstrom's election as a For- 
eign Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engi- 
neering Sciences. 

The John Ericsson Medal honors the Swedish-born 
American inventor and engineer among whose many 
achievements was design and construction of the "Mon- 
itor" of Civil War fame. The medal presentation was 
made by Dr. E. F. W. Alexanderson, Swedish-born 
pioneer in radio and electrical engineering, who praised 
Dr. Engstrom for "ability and creativeness" and for his 
leadership. 

In his remarks of acceptance, Dr. Engstrom spoke 
of the objectives of scientific and engineering develop- 
ment today, and called for an intensive effort by the 
United States "to be first and to build an impregnable 
strength" in intercontinental missiles in order to deter 
aggression. 



Transistor Development by RCA 
Is Subject of New Book 

JLmportant technical advances resulting from exten- 
sive research and development of transistors by RCA 
scientists and engineers have been made available pub- 
licly for the first time in a comprehensive book, "Tran- 
sistors I," covering transistor theory, design and use. 

Announcing publication of the book. Dr. Irving 
Wolff, Vice-President, Research, of RCA, called it "a 
major contribution to the technology of transistors and 
related semi-conductor devices, which are revolutionizing 
many aspects of electronics with amazing rapidity." 

He explained that RCA's research and development 
work on semiconductors, transistors, and their applica- 
tions have been so extensive that "scientific and engi- 
neering reports have accumulated in an unprecedented 
manner." As a result, the book includes many previously 
unpublished reports which RCA feels to be of major 
significance in this field. 

The 676-page book, published by the RCA Review, 
contains 41 technical papers by RCA scientists and 
engineers. Of this total, 31 are new papers never before 
published. "Transistors I" is priced at $4.50 and is avail- 
able from the RCA Review, David Sarnoff Research 
Center, Princeton, N. J. 



RADIO AGE 29 



?|^ Success Story: NBC Television Films 




'n March 3, 1953, the National Broadcasting 
Company established the NBC Film Division as a major 
operating division of the company to handle an in- 
creasingly important business in film syndication. At- 
testing to its lively growth in the ensuing three years, 
the Division during recent weeks has: 

— reported a record sales year for 1955; 

— moved to larger quarters on Fifth Avenue in 
New York; 

— appointed a new advertising agency; 

— ■ been transferred to the Kagran Corporation, 
NBC's wholly-owned subsidiary, and taken the 
new name "NBC Television Films." 

The transfer to Kagran, whose activities previously 
were limited to licensing and merchandising, is de- 
scribed by NBC President Robert W. Sarnoff as a move 
that "will permit more efficient operation and provide 
greater flexibility for NBC's syndicated film business." 

Having started virtually from scratch three years ago 
in the face of heavy competition, NBC Television 
Films now controls 17 successful TV film series, op- 
erates two streamlined and self-contained film exchanges, 
and administers the largest library of stock film footage 
in the television industry. Domestically, 12 NBC Tele- 
vision Films programs have been sold in more than 100 
markets, and 14 programs are sold in the New York 
market alone. 

Sales in 1955 were 20 percent higher than in 1954. 
The increase is attributed not only to new productions, 
which were quickly and profitably distributed through 
a series of major regional sales, but also to continued 
brisk activity in such perennial best sellers as Dangerous 
Assignment, Badge 714, Life of Riley. Victory at Sea, 
and Hopalong Cassidy. 

The new productions commissioned in 1955 included 
three TV film series of 39 half-hour episodes each: 
Steve Donovan, Western Marshal, starring Douglas 
Kennedy and Eddy Waller, filmed in Hollywood by 
Vi-Bar Productions; The Great Gildersleeve, starring 
Willard Waterman, produced by Matthew Rapf at the 
Hal Roach Studios in Hollywood; and Crunch and Des, 



based on Philip Wylie's popular series of Saturday 
Evening Post stories, starring Forrest Tucker and filmed 
in Bermuda by Bermuda Productions, Ltd., and RKO- 
Pathe, Inc. 

Sales abroad were significant both in the light of 
today's revenue and in the creation of a good atmos- 
phere for future sales to countries with rapidly grow- 
ing television audiences. Inner Sanctum and the half-hour 
Hopalong Cassidy series were sold to Associated Redif- 
fusion, Ltd., and Roy Rogers to Associated Television 
for showing on British commercial TV — and are re- 
ported immediately to have won favor with the British 
TV audience. The Visitor and Life of Riley were sold 
to the BBC. Through its Australian representatives, 
Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Ltd., NBC Tele- 
vision Films sold seven programs in Sydney and Mel- 
bourne for broadcast next fall. 

The NBC Film Library, which now includes about 
21 million feet of cross-indexed and catalogued film, 
plus 14 million feet of March of Time library stock, 
received and processed in 1955 nearly 1,000,000 feet of 
16-mm and more than 700,000 feet of 35-mm news 
film, amounting to some 800 hours of film. 

Miles of film — a typical storage aisle in the NBC 
Television Film Library. 




30 RADIO AGE 



Quotes from R CA 




Robert A. Seidel, Execu- 
tive Vice-President, RCA 
Consumer Products, to 
the National Retail Dry 
Goods Association, New 
York, January 11, 1956. 




Emanuel Sacks, Staff 
Vice-President, RCA and 
NBC, to the Philadelphia 
Club of Printing House 
Craftsmen, Philadelphia, 
March 10, 1956. 



scale. In the face of such competition, 
the ability of management to meet 
this challenge becomes a matter of our 
very survival as a free society." 



The Impact of Color TV: Responsibility in Entertainment: 



"Why all the excitement, you may 
ask, if only 50,000 color sets are pres- 
ently in American homes? Well, in 
all, nearly 40 million TV receivers are 
in use — and thanks to compatible 
color, which RCA pioneered and de- 
veloped, black-and-white receivers do 
not go blind when color is on the air. 
All sets receive color pictures in black- 
and-white. But experience, backed by 
cold figures, proves that when a show 
is colorcast the number of people who 
view it, whether in color or black-and- 
white, is greater than if the same pro- 
gram were carried in black-and-white. 
. . . Color is exciting — and there is 
a ready market for color sets: many 
millions are waiting for the opportu- 
nity to see color shows." 



Sylvester L. Weaver, Jr., 
Chairman of the Board, 
NBC, to National Appli- 
ance and Radio-Television 
Dealers' Association, Chi- 
cago, January 16, 1956. 



The TV Market: 

"If you have the confidence in the 
schedule and the programming that 
we have as broadcasters, you would 
not worry about black-and-white sales 
falling apart — because what we are 
offering the people is so good that 
those who will not be able to afford a 
color set in the next year or two will 
still buy the new large-screen, low- 
cost black-and-white sets that you have 
available to them." 




"The field of entertainment differs 
in one respect from all others. That 
is in its wide exposure. There is no 
need to explain the impact of televi- 
sion. It has provided entertainment, 
education and public affairs with wings 
and now, with the inception of color 
television, its message is conveyed in 
breath-taking beauty. We are aware 
of this influence — and we are also 
aware of the responsibility that goes 
with it. . . . By constantly striving to 
improve the quality of programs and 
by giving to the American people the 
best that our ingenuity can provide, 
we may feel that satisfaction of having 
performed our function well. . . ." 




Charles P. Baxte 



Pres 


dent 


and 


General 


Man 


ager. 


RCA 


Victor 


Television 


Divis 


on, to 


pres 


representatives at 


RCA 


plant 


Bloo 


mington, 


Ind., 


Febri 


ary 1 


1956. 




Research is Vital: 

"We are engaged today in tech- 
nological competition with a deter- 
mined and powerful opponent who 
would destroy the individual initiative 
which has been the source of our 
technology and our prosperity. Even 
without such competition, we would 
depend for our future welfare and 
prosperity upon the willingness of 
American management to become 
fully research-minded, to carry an 
increasing responsibility for research, 
and to apply its results to production 
methods and products on the broadest 



Promoting Color: 

"We are doing everything possible 
to speed the nationwide growth of 
color television. An indication of 
these efforts is reflected in the recent 
action by the RCA Service Company 
in reducing costs of color TV service 
contracts. These cost reductions mirror 
the fact that every day more and more 
people are buying big color TV sets 
and that the demand will increase by 
leaps and bounds during the weeks 
and months ahead." 



K. Zworykin, 
Vice-President, 

it opening of 1956 
and Job Show, 

York, March 23, 



Enjoyment with Opportunity: 

"The fields of science and engineer- 
ing possess the essential ingredients 
which account for happiness in work 
for a young person with an inquisitive 
mind. They teach him to ask questions 
and supply him with tools to obtain 
answers. They give him a feeling of 
mastery over the forces of nature 
beyond that enjoyed by his fellows. 
They provide the satisfaction of add- 
ing to the storehouse of human knowl- 
edge and contributing to human 
welfare." 



RADIO AGE 31 



®KfiUJSi 




Now It's History . . . 

The first year of "Wide Wide 
World," the adventurous NBC pro- 
gram, has been recorded on 38 reels of 
film and placed in the reference de- 
partment of the Library of Congress 
in Washington as an authentic history 
of contemporary life. According to 
the NBC announcement, this is the 
first such assemblage of an entire series 
of live shows to be admitted by the 
Library. The collection was presented 
on March 4 to L. Quincy Mumford, 
Librarian of Congress, by Davidson 
Taylor, NBC Vice-President in Charge 
of Public Affairs, and Sherrod E. Skin- 
ner, Vice-President with the sponsor- 
ing General Motors Corporation. 
Said a spokesman for the Library, the 
collection is "a valuable documentary 
— a two dimensional record of these 
times that will be of great value to 
scholars of the future." 

Get Your Copy Now . . . 

The RCA Tube Division is publish- 
ing again. This time it's a 24-page 
catalog, "RCA Photosensitive Devices 
and Cathode-Ray Tubes." The con- 
tents are technical data on 45 types of 
phototubes, six types of TV camera 
tubes, and 56 types of cathode-ray 
tubes, together with tabular data and 
a socket-connection diagram of each 
tube type. You can get your copy for 
20 cents from RCA Tube distributors 
or from Commercial Engineering, 
RCA Tube Division, Harrison, N. J. 



Record Economy . . . 

A novel coupon plan which enables 
customers to obtain free three $3-98 
records in the course of a year and to 
buy up to 24 additional $3.98 records 
at $2.98 each has been inaugurated by 
the RCA Victor Record Division. It 
works this way: the customer buys his 
coupon book from the record dealer 
for $3.98, then chooses free any classi- 
cal or popular $3.98 album in the 
dealer's stock, for which he turns in 
the first of the 27 coupons. Each 
month for the next year he is notified 
of the advance release of two albums, 
and he can buy one at the dealer's for 
a coupon and $2.98 each. In July and 
October, the customer can obtain free 
two more $3.98 albums by presenting 
the special coupons to the dealer. The 
total saving on record purchases 
through the year adds up to $31.96. 




Clinic for Brewers . . . 

Emissaries of ten of the major brew- 
ing companies spent three days at 
Camden recently for a briefing and 
demonstration of RCA's latest equip- 
ment and techniques for electronic 
inspection of beer, ale and other 
bottled beverages. The objective was 
to acquaint users and purchasers of 
the RCA inspection machines with 
advanced methods for obtaining maxi- 
mum speed and efficiency at the in- 
spection stage on the production line. 
The RCA-developed "inspector" looks 
over 150 bottles a minute with its 
electronic eye. 




Calling All Fork-Lifts . . . 

Now you can talk by radio with 
the operators of your fork lifts, strad- 
dle trucks, towing tractors, yard cranes 
and other materials-handling vehicles. 
RCA has introduced a new two-way 
radio system which can be used inter- 
changeably, without conversion de- 
vices, in electric materials-handling 
vehicles operating with 24-, 32-, or 
36-volt batteries. The new equipment 
features built-in voltage-conversion 
facilities which promise more eco- 
nomical radio operation and extended 
battery life. Conversion from 24- to 
32-volt operation involves only the 
interchange of two plugs, while a 
jump from 32 to 36 volts requires 
only rotation of the radio's vibrator. 

Westward Ho . . . 

It's out to Los Angeles for RCA's 
commercial aviation sales department. 
In a move to speed and facilitate cus- 
tomer service, all sales activities for 
the RCA line of custom aviation 
equipment for commercial and private 
aircraft have been transplanted from 
Camden, N. J., to 11819 Olympic 
Boulevard, Los Angeles, in RCA's 
manufacturing plant for electronic 
aviation equipment. David H. Robin- 
son, Manager, RCA Custom Aviation 
Equipment, explains that the reloca- 
tion is intended to provide proximity 
with engineering and manufacturing 
facilities and to enable customers to 
obtain design, manufacturing, and 
sales assistance at a single establish- 
ment. A prominent item handled by 
the department is RCA's "weather 
eye" radar which enables pilots to 
detect storms lying as much as 150 
miles ahead. 



32 RADIO AGE 



You always get more for your money with RCA VICTOR TV 





whether you spend $199 95 



"HIDDEN PANEL" TUNING. Dials are tube. Balanced Fidelitj Sound. \l„ 

'\'!.'!" ; \'ii i-i "".."""' 5tan <|ing upl nogan) „,..,,,„.,, finish Qr |ime(| 

New 11-CIear picture with RCA grained finish. The Tonne Special 

isilverama aluminized picture 21* (21S6055). Stand, opt., extra. 





or $269 95 



STAR PERFORMER. High-priced per- 
formance and high-style cabinetr) 
al moderate cost. •*-l-l > j„s" perform- 
ance brings you extra brightness, 



extra contrast, extra steadiness. 
Mahogany grained finish. As shown 
in limed oak grained finish, 
8279.95.Thet7Wstone2/*(21T635). 




or $329 95 



to 



At your service! KC \ Factor, Service, assu 
mg you ol expert installation and maintenanc 

is available in most TV areas— Inn onlv 

RCA Vic lor TV owners. 

MomjIoclureCs nolionally advertised VHF lis. prices 

l^l„VJ«r P T°' """■ - See Mi "°" B "'<-- Martha 
See NRr n- V °" ern °' el *- 2 <"" °< «ery 3 Tue.doy" 
See NBC-TV s spectacular "Producers' Showcase" in 
KCA Compatible Color or Black-and-white, March 5. 



LUXURY TV. \ console masterpiece! 
Twin speakers. Illuminated "Front- 
" hidow \ III-" channel indicator. 
"Magic Monitor" Deluxe chassis 



delivers best picture possible even 
in difficult reception areas. Luxu- 
rious mahoganj grained finish. The 
Allison _'/ Deluxe* (21D645). 



OR 




RADIO CORPORATK 

EVERY YEAR MORE PEOPLE BUY RCA VICTOR THAN ANY OTHER TELEVISION 




Now RCA color TV helps doctors of tomorrow 
give you better surgical care 

With the new, compact RCA color TV system 
developed specifically for medical use, students 
in other parts of the hospital can now see 
vivid close-ups of operations on standard color 
receivers. They can study enlargements of patho- 
logical slides that often determine the course of 
surgery. And what they learn today, of course, 
will help them to give you better care tomorrow. 
Here is another milestone in electronics from 
RCA. And continually, RCA scientists at the 
David Sarnoff Research Center, Princeton, N. J., 
search for new horizons of "Electronics for 
Living" — that make life easier, safer, happier. 






RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

Electronics for Living 



In other parts of hospital medi- 
cal students see close-ups of 
operation on Big Color RCA 
Victor TV. Shown above: 
"Director 21" model. 



Fight Cancer with a Checkup . . . and a Check. 










RESEARCH • MANUFACTURING • COMMUNICATIONS • BROADCASTING • TELEVISION 



JULY 1956 




RCA VICTOR COLOR TV 



ORE THAN A QUARTER -MILLION TEX® CALLS 

are but a part of 





OVERSEAS TELEPRINTER 
EXCHANGE SERVICE is now 

available between the U. S. and: 



Algeria 


Norway 


Belgian Congo 


Philippines 


Belgium 


Portugal 


Denmark 


Puerto Rico 


Finland 


Federation of 


France 


Rhodesia and 


French Morocco 


Nyasaland 


Great Britain 


Spain 


West Germany 


Sweden 


Hawaii 


Switzerland 


Hungary 


Tangier 


Ireland 


Tunisia 


Luxembourg 


Union of 


Netherlands 


South Africa 



RCA COMMUNICATIONS' 

unequalled experience 
in providing 

OVERSEAS TELEPRINTER 
EXCHANGE SERVICE 

This experience is also 
the result of RCA's . . . 

• establishing the first commercial Overseas 
Teleprinter Exchange Service (TEX service) 
in May 19S0 

• operating this service daily for 6 years 

• building the initial overseas teleprinter 
circuit to the Netherlands into a network of 
25 circuits terminating in Europe, Africa, 
the Caribbean, and the Pacific 

Today, Overseas Teleprinter Ex- 
change service "Via RCA" is no longer 
a new service. 

It is a well established service ivhose 
growth, in 6 years, from a concept to a 
widely used communication service is 
unparalleled in the history of the com- 
munications industry. This record 
growth attests to the advantages and 
the dependability of RCA's TEX 
service. 

TEX service provides you with two- 
way communication with your corre- 
spondent abroad by direct teleprinter- 
to-teleprinter connection and makes 
available to you, immediately, a tele- 
typewritten "confirmation copy" of 
everything communicated. Rates are 
reasonable; TEX calls to Europe cost 
only $3.00 per minute with a 3-minute 
minimum charge. 

Find out what TEX service can do 
for you. Ask your RCA Representative 
or write RCA Communications, Inc. at 
any one of the offices listed below. 



RCA COMMUNICATIONS, INC. A Service of 

New York 4 : 66 Broad St., Tel.: Hanover 2-1811, TWX: NY 1-1345 
Washington 6, D. C.i 1812 M St., N. W., Tel.: National 8-2600 
San Francisco 5: 135 Market St., Tel.: Garfield 1-4200 




VOLUME 15 NUMBER 3 



EARCH • MANUFACTURING • COMMUNICATIONS 
BROADCASTING 'TELEVISION 



CONTENTS 



JULY 1956 





COVER 

RCA is now mass producing 
color TV sets like this at 
nationally advertised prices 
reaching as low as $495. 



NOTICE 



When requesting a change in mailing 
address please include the code letters 
and numbers which appear with the 
stencilled address on the envelope. 

Radio Age is published quarterly by 
the Department of Information, Radio 
Corporation of America, 30 Rocke- 
feller Plaza. New York 20, N Y. 

Printed in U.S.A. 



Page 

RCA Color TV Moves Ahead 3 

RCA and the "Talos" Missile 6 

A Salute for "Distinguished Service" " 

The Role of the TV Network 10 

A New RCA First-Quarter Record 12 

Celebrating National Unity Day '^ 

NBC at the Political Conventions ^ 

More Jobs for Industrial TV 18 

A Hit Record in the Making 20 

Tour Plans for NBC Opera 21 

Meeting the Shortage of Engineers 22 

Training Technicians by Mail 

New Link for TEX 26 

The Public Appraises the Serviceman 27 

Stereophonic Sound for the Home " 

Aiding Schools through TV 29 

"Quotes for RCA" 31 

32 

News in Brief 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

RCA Building, New York 20, N.Y. 



DAVID SARNOFF, Chairman of 
JOHN Q. CANNON, Secretary 



FRANK M. FOISOM, President 
ERNEST B. GORIN, Treasurer 






«*. 



FOR MASS PRODUCTION — Two of the printed circuit boards used in the new RCA Victor color TV sets are displayed 
here by Robert A. Seidel, Executive Vice-President, RCA Consumer Products. 



RCA Color TV Moves Ahead 



R< 



_CA is now mass producing color television sets for 
introduction to the public this month at nationally 
advertised prices reaching for the first time as low as 
$495 — $200 below RCA Victor's previous levels. 

The color sets highlight a complete new line of 
RCA Victor TV merchandise for 1956-57, including ten 
newly-designed color receivers and 25 newly-styled and 
technically advanced black-and-white models. The new- 
line was announced on June 4 at a Miami meeting of 
RCA Victor television distributors and sales executives 
by Robert A. Seidel, Executive Vice-President, RCA 
Consumer Products, who said: 

"Development by RCA engineers of a totally new 
color television chassis, which utilizes an array of tech- 
nical advances adapted to the latest production tech- 
niques, makes possible the introduction of the $495 
color set. These receivers were conceived to create a 
volume business and to provide the public with budget- 
priced color sets featuring top-quality performance and 
stability. We are convinced that this new merchandise 
opens the door to the public's realization that color tele- 
vision, pioneered and developed by RCA, has arrived." 

Tentative nationally-advertised prices of the new 
color sets range from the $495 model up to $850 — 
slightly higher in the far west and south — while the 
black-and-white receivers range from $125 to $500. 
according to Mr. Seidel's announcement. 

Information Shared with Other /Manufacturers 

Announcement of the $495 color set followed an- 
other important move by RCA to promote the growth 
of color television by making complete blueprints and 
detailed mass production "know-how" available for im- 
mediate use by other television manufacturers. This was 
disclosed by Frank M. Folsom, President of RCA, in 
mid-April at a symposium in Chicago for representa- 
tives of most of the nation's television receiver manu- 
facturing companies. At the same time, a reduction in 
the manufacturer's price of the RCA large-screen color 
picture tube from $100 to $85 was announced. 

On that occasion, Mr. Folsom recalled that RCA in 
1947 had turned over to other manufacturers complete 
engineering and manufacturing information on the first 
table-model black-and-white television receiver, which 
"became the foundation upon which was built today's 
vast television market." 

"Now we shall do the same thing with our big-screen 
color television receivers," he said. "We shall turn over 



to you RCA's latest color receiver blueprints, our tech- 
nical 'know-how', production details, and bills of mate- 
rials. Our color TV manufacturing facilities are open 
to your inspection. In our opinion, this action will prove 
to be as important to color television as the first table- 
model was to black-and-white television." 

Expanded color broadcast plans also were announced 
at the Chicago meeting by Robert W. Sarnoff, President 
of the National Broadcasting Company, who disclosed 
that NBC's Fall plans call for at least one major color 
program in prime evening viewing hours, every night 
of the week, in addition to the famed "Spectaculars." 

"That means color every evening on a regular basis," 
said Mr. Sarnoff. "And it means that on the Saturday, 
Sunday, or Monday when a 'Spectacular' is scheduled, 
we can have as much as two and a half solid hours of 
attraction programming in color. With our new color 
recording equipment in operation, these programs will 
be available in color to West Coast markets as well as 
to the rest of the country." 

"Vast Strides" in Color 

The new $495 color set announced in Miami is 
called the "Aldrich." It has a viewable picture of 254 
square inches with a 21-inch color picture tube (over-all 
diameter). A table model set, it will be available in 
mahogany grained and limed oak grained finishes. It 
employs 23 tubes, including the picture tube, plus two 
crystals and four rectifiers. 

Mr. Seidel said that the entire color receiver line 
will consist of three series — "Special," "Super," and 
"Deluxe." A similar series classification marks the new 
black-and-white line. 

"Vast and far-reaching strides have bsen made dur- 
ing the past year by RCA in the design and production 
of color television chassis," Mr. Seidel said. "These 
chassis have undergone the most extensive of field tests 
and in-home checks and we are convinced that they will 
provide the industry with a 'backbone' receiver just as 
did the original RCA Victor 630-TS black-and-white 
chassis which became the industry's first mass-produced 
table model set in 1947." 

C. P. Baxter, Vice-President and General Manager, 
RCA Victor Television Division, explained that the new 
merchandise will be called the "Spectacular" line and 
will be advertised and promoted as "TV Originals by 
RCA Victor, America's First Choice in Television." 

All color and black-and-white receivers will make 



RADIO AGE .? 




Heralding the opening of the Chicago summer furniture market, Ned Corbett, Vice-President, RCA Victor Distributing 
Corporation, arrives by helicopter atop the Merchandise Mart with the first of the new color TV line. 



extensive use of printed-circuit boards for manufactur- 
ing efficiency and highest possible performance quality, 
Mr. Baxter continued. Black-and-white and color models 
will utilize up to six printed-circuit boards in each 
chassis. 

TV Features Listed 

Among the features of the new color merchandise, 
Mr. Baxter said, are the following: 

1. All ten color models are designed for improved 
ease of installation and service with necessary 
in-home adjustments accessible from the front of 
the cabinets. 

2. In all new color sets, from 80 to 90 per cent of 
the circuitry is on printed-circuit boards, as com- 
pared with about 20 per cent in previous models 
— thereby adding to superior performance char- 
acteristics of the new sets. 

3. Circuits have been added to all models to im- 
prove the reception of black-and-white pictures. 
When color programs are not being telecast, the 
color circuits are electronically "killed" for 
superior black-and-white reception. Dual "de- 
tectors" are used to accomplish the most effective 
handling of both sound and picture signals. 

4. The Deluxe series employs circuits to improve 
performance in weak signal areas, in addition to 
"automatic chroma control" which maintains 
color values automatically when tuning from 
station to station and simplifies fine tuning con- 
trol. 

5. The receivers feature "Full Fidelity Color Per- 



formance" which means to color television what 
high fidelity means to sound. 

6. All sets utilize either "Balanced Fidelity" or 
3-speaker "Panoramic Sound" systems. 

7. All sets utilize newly-developed RCA circuitry 
and production techniques designed to provide 
the most efficient color reception in history along 
with ease of tuning and installation and main- 
tenance. 

8. "Color Quick" Tuning gives "Living Color" Pic- 
ture — true-to-life tones on a big-as-life screen. 
Adjust two color knobs and the picture pops 
onto the screen — rich, accurate in color and 
detail. A child can tune it. Automatically 
switches from color to black-and-white and back. 

9. All ten RCA Victor color models are available 
with UHF-VHF tuning at nominal extra cost. 

The 25 black-and-white models will be available in 
five different screen sizes ranging from the small, com- 
pact RCA Victor "Personal" with 36 square inches of 
viewable picture to models with 329 square inches of 
viewable picture. 

Mr. Baxter said features of the black-and-white re- 
ceivers include: 

1. The industry's widest range of screen sizes, in- 
cluding receivers consumers can carry, roll or 
swivel, in addition to a wide selection of table 
models, lowboys, open-face and door consoles. 

2. "High, sharp and easy" tuning is quick and ac- 
curate. You can tune standing up. Provides 
handsome, practical channel indicators designed 
for instant identification of channel numbers. 



4 RADIO AGE 



3. "Living Image" picture with the clearest, sharpest 
pictures yet attained in TV along with one-, two- 
and three-speaker models capable of producing 
superior sound. 

4. Styling from sets smaller than some portable 
radios to long, luxurious lowboys and instruments 
ranging from provincial styling to ultra-modern, 
with new finishes and fine wood combinations. 

5. Improved circuitry designed to provide top- 
quality reception, ease of maintenance and long- 
life reliability. 

6. All 21-inch* and 24-inch* models feature a 
cascode tuner to bring in every station with 
finest clariry and detail ( *picture tube measure- 
ment, outside diagonal). 

7. New "Automatic Quality Guard," in many sets, 
boosts signal when weak, shades it down when 
too strong, kills interference jitters, gives correct 
brightness and contrast. 

The success of RCA Victor's "Personal" television 
introduced this spring, was noted by Mr. Baxter, who 
pointed out that the forthcoming line will include two 
new family-size portable receivers, both with 108 square 
inches of viewable picture. 

"During 1955, RCA Victor manufactured, and its 
distributors and dealers sold, more than a million black- 
and-white receivers. Our lasr line of television mer- 
chandise was the most successful ever marketed by any 



company. We firmly feel that the 1956-57 merchandise, 
both black-and-white and color, will enable us to achieve 
new records in sales in addition to providing customers 
with unsurpassed values," concluded Mr. Baxter. 



New RCA Color Service Contracts 

Three types of consumer service contracts for RCA 
Vicror compatible color television receivers were an- 
nounced on June 11 by E. C. Cahill, President of the 
RCA Service Company, Inc. 

— A $39.95 contract providing for complete installa- 
tion and unlimited maintenance and service for 90 days; 

— A 569-95 contract providing for installation and 
unlimited maintenance and service for 90 days, plus 
service thereafter at $7.50 per call regardless of whether 
the set can be serviced at its location or must be removed 
for repairs — and provision of all tubes and parts for a 
full year; 

— A §99.50 contract providing one-year coverage 
with unlimited service and parts. 

Besides the full range of service contracts, Mr. Cahill 
disclosed details of a newly developed remote control 
unit for color receivers. This will perform all control 
functions — channel change, adjustment of color hues, and 
sound — and will be available through local RCA Victor 
dealers. Nationally advertised list price of the unit, 
including installation, is $8995. 




For portability, RCA Victor has introduced the 

"Wayfarer," with 108 square inches of 

picture area. 



A star performer in black-and-white TV is the 
new RCA Victor "Enfield" swivel console re- 
ceiver shown here. 



RADIO AGE 5 



RCA and the "Talos" Missile 



J__MND-BASED launching and guidance systems for 
"Talos," the new anti-aircraft guided missile, are being 
developed and produced by RCA under contracts with 
the Department of Defense, it was disclosed at the 
dedication in early May of enlarged RCA military elec- 
tronics facilities at Moorestown, N. J. 

The dedication ceremonies, attended by military and 
government representatives, RCA executives, and more 
than 1,500 employees at the Moorestown plant, provided 
the first public glimpse of several RCA developments 
of importance in the field of military electronics. Shown 
in demonstrations and displays were a portable electronic 
detector for "nerve" gas, an extremely sensitive tele- 
vision camera tube capable of viewing objects in almost 
total darkness to produce clearly defined TV pictures, 
and noise-cancelling microphones and headsets for air- 
craft intercommunications systems. 

RCA's role in the "Talos" program was announced 
by Brig. General David Sarnoff, Chairman of the Board 
of RCA, who said that the corporation is building land- 
based systems for the U. S. Air Force and has responsi- 
bility for a portion of a shipboard system for the U. S. 
Navy. "Talos" is a surface-to-air guided missile devel- 
oped by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory 
for the U. S. Navy Bureau of Ordnance. The dedication 
ceremonies at which the announcement came marked a 
major enlargement of the RCA Missile and Surface 
Radar Engineering Plant to house the "Talos" project, 
as well as development of RCA's abilities to design and 
produce complex electronic systems for the military 
services. 

Plaque is Unveiled 

The occasion was commemorated by meetings at the 
Moorestown plant of the Boards of Directors of RCA, 
the National Broadcasting Company, and RCA Com- 
munications, Inc. General Sarnoff presided at the meet- 
ings and later joined with Frank M. Folsom, RCA 
President, and other executives to welcome the govern- 
ment and military guests. 

Highlighting the ceremonies was the unveiling of a 
plaque which officially dedicates the Moorestown RCA 
plant as a missile and radar systems center, with abilities 
for engineering and producing electronic systems for 
national defense. In the dedicatory remarks, General 
Sarnoff said: 

"During the past decade, developments in electronics 
have revolutionized the ancient art of warfare. Fore- 
most among these has been the development of the 
guided missile to a stage of perfection that makes it 
awesome in its capacity for destruction. 



"The German buzz-bombs that rained from the skies 
of Britain during World War II were as BB-gun pellets, 
compared with our modern guided missiles. The sober- 
ing fact is that our vast oceans and Arctic wastelands 
have been converted into highways for weapons that can 
destroy cities and their populations on a scale never 
before experienced by man. 

"The Soviet leaders Bulganin and Khrushchev have 
openly boasted of their 'mighty guided missiles.' We 
in the United States have no rational alternative but to 
meet the menacing competition whereby world com- 
munism has perverted science and technology to its evil 
purposes. For the sake of our own security and the 
survival of our civilization, we dare not permit the 
Kremlin to gain even a temporary monopoly of such 
appalling weapons. 

"The Radio Corporation of America has long been 
dedicated to the principle that our prime responsibility 
is to serve the nation by providing the armed forces 
with equipment vital to the success of their operations. 

"In line with this principle, we recently concentrated 
the engineering and production of military equipment 

Theodore A. Smith, Executive Vice-President, RCA De- 
fense Electronic Products, and Lt. Col. Oliver R. Hertel, 
of the Army Chemical Center in Maryland, discuss de- 
tails of the portable electronic nerve gas detector at 
the Moorestown demonstration. 

EH AITOMATir FIELD MH 




6 RADIO AGE 




Advancing in a simulated gas attack at Moorestown, a detachment of soldiers dons masks in response to a 
from the RCA-Chemical Corps nerve gas detector. The unit is shown on ground at right. 



in an operating unit devoted exclusively to this mission. 
This is our Defense Electronic Products unit, and the 
organization here at Moorestown is a part of this unit." 

In his announcement of the "Talos" project, General 
Sarnoff stated that "we have as a partner in this program 
the American Machine and Foundry Company." He 
declared that the project at the Moorestown plant 
"represents one of the most comprehensive electronic 
systems ever developed, and utilizes the latest techniques 
developed by RCA." He then added: 

"This plant, and the people who give it meaning 
and significance, symbolize RCA's effort in the fulfill- 
ment of our foremost responsibility — to serve the 
nation. And so it is with a deep sense of pride in RCA's 
work in behalf of our national defense that I unveil this 
plaque, dedicating the RCA Moorestown Engineering 
Plant as a missile and surface radar development center." 

Plant to be Enlarged 

Additional details on the "Talos" project wete pro- 
vided by Theodore A. Smith, Executive Vice-President, 
RCA Defense Electronic Products, who said that RCA 
has been established "as prime weapon-system contractor 
for all phases of the land-based electronic guidance and 
launching system," while the American Machine and 
Foundry Company, in association with RCA, is pro- 
ducing the mechanical portions of the land-based system. 

To provide the design, engineering, and manufactur- 
ing space for the project, RCA has completed "one phase 
of an enlargement program which more than doubles 
the engineering space and laboratory facilities" of the 
Moorestown plant, according to Mr. Smith. The original 
RCA Moorestown plant, dedicated in December, 1953, 



comprised 145,000 square feet of total building space 
and employed about 600 people. With the new expan- 
sion, building space has been increased to 264,000 
square feet, and employment to more than 1,500 persons. 

"Nerve" Gas Detector 

The demonstrations and displays accompanying the 
Moorestown dedication were highlighted by a dramatic 
test of the portable electronic detector for "nerve" gas, 
developed by the Army Chemical Corps and RCA. The 
first such detectot accepted for military use, the unit 
can serve either as a field alarm for military personnel 
and installations, or as a gas-detection device for popula- 
tion and industrial centets. The demonstration was 
carried out by a special detachment of the Army Chem- 
ical Corps under the command of Lt. Col. Oliver R. 
Hertel, Chemical Corps, Engineering Command, Army 
Chemical Center, Maryland. In a briefing at the demon- 
stration, Col. Hertel told the audience: 

"Nerve gas is the most deadly gas developed during 
or immediately after World War II, and is more than 
1,000 times more effective than gas previously in use. 
Odorless, tasteless, colorless, and invisible, nerve gas is 
so lethal and quick-acting that it will produce fatal 
spasms and convulsions within 45 seconds after contact 
or inhalation unless the proper antidote can be admin- 
istered immediately. 

"The gas attacks a chemical which operates between 
the nerves and the muscles, causing almost instantaneous 
destruction of the muscles and nerves. Early warning is 
vital to permit effective protective measures." 

The RCA-Chemical Corps detector is a completely 
self-contained equipment for detecting the presence of 



RADIO AGE 7 




In a noise-filled room, reporters equipped with RCA 
noise-cancelling microphones and headsets test effec- 
tiveness of the equipment. 

"nerve" gas, or G-agents, in the air. A highly classified 
development until several months ago, the unit has been 
accepted by the Chemical Corps as a field alarm. It 
weighs only 24 pounds, measuring 15 inches high, 17 
inches wide, and 7 inches deep. 

At the Moorestown demonstration, a soldier wearing 
protective clothing carried the detector into a cloud of 
harmless red smoke which had been discharged by 
grenades. As the smoke enveloped the detector, the unit 
immediately triggered a built-in audible alarm and a 
red warning light on its case. The soldier instantly 
signaled to a tactical team following to commence pro- 
tective procedures. To dramatize the remote and broad 
warning potential of the detector, it simultaneously 
activated an audible warning over the plant's public 
address system as well as a large warning light which 
had been erected near the building. 

The detector operates by sucking in air which is then 
filtered free from dust. Inside, a paper tape impregnated 
with a special colorless chemical solution is moved inter- 
mittently under the incoming air stream. Phototubes 
continuously scan the impregnated tape. G-agents in 
the air cause the tape to discolor, and the phototubes 
react instantly to this change, setting off the audible and 
visible alarms. 

Television Pickup in Darkness 

A second demonstration featured an RCA-developed 
wide-spaced image orthicon — described by Mr. Smith 
as basically a standard TV camera pickup tube with 
innovations increasing its sensitivity from five to ten 
times. Designed to provide television pictures with good 
resolution and clarity under low light conditions, the 
tube will televise objects in darkness equivalent to that 
of a cloudy, moonlit night. In the demonstration, a 
TV camera employing the tube was focused on a model 
seated in a lighted room. The camera was turned on and 




In semi-darkness, the RCA wide-spaced image orthicon 

TV camera tube picks up and displays clearly the 

image of a human model. 

the room lights switched off, rendering the model virtu- 
ally invisible to observers in the room. The tube, how- 
ever, permitted the camera to transmit a bright, clear 
image of the model to a television receiver in the room. 
An even more advanced system, described but not 
demonstrated at the Moorestown display, is the "Cat 
Eye," an electronic light intensifier capable of viewing 
objects in the dark to produce sharp and clear television 
pictures. This intensifier was developed under Air Force 
contract at RCA's David Sarnoff Research Center, 
Princeton, N. J., by Drs. George A. Morton and John 
E. Ruedy. Research on the project also was conducted 
at the Air Force's Wright Air Development Center, 
Dayton, Ohio, by R. K. H. Gebel. Operating on prin- 
ciples similar to those of television, the "Cat Eye" senses 
and amplifies the ever-present photons unseen by the 
human eye. Photons are bundles of electromagnetic 
waves which, in sufficient numbers, appear to the eye 
as light. 

Noise-Cancelling Microphones and Headsets 

A third major demonstration provided a test of 
noise-cancelling microphones and headsets developed by 
RCA and now in production for the Air Force. 

The demonstration was conducted in a room in 
which in-plane noise of 115 to 120 decibels was simu- 
lated, making conversation impossible. As soon as the 
observers had donned the RCA noise-cancelling micro- 
phones and headsets, they were able to carry on clear 
conversation without any interference from the racket 
in the room. The equipment used included hand-free 
microphones — a combination headset with an adjust- 
able boom microphone which can be fixed directly in 
front of the lips. The noise-cancelling principles also 
have been adapted for hand-held and oxygen mask 
microphones. 



8 RADIO AGE 



A Salute for "Distinguished Service" 



T 

JLhe 



Army's highest civilian med.il — the Decoration 
For Exceptional Civilian Service — was awarded to Brig. 
General David Sarnoff, Chairman of the Board of RCA, 
at a ceremony May 23 in the office of Secretary of De- 
fense Charles E. Wilson in Washington. 

The Secretary praised General Sarnoff's service to 
the Army and to the country in the field of communica- 
tions, and his efforts in spurring enlistments in the 
Military Reserve during his term as Chairman of the 
National Security Training Commission. The only pre- 
vious recipient of the medal was K. T. Keller, former 
head of the Chrysler Corporation, who was honored for 
his work in the field of guided missiles. 

Secretary of the Army Wilber M. Brucker read the 
following citation in honor of General Sarnoff: 

"Throughout his eminent career as one of our na- 
tion's outstanding industrialists and leading citizens, he 
has been noteworthy for his personal contributions of 
time and effort to the military service in undertaking 
numerous responsibilities and assignments to assist the 
cause of national defense. He has been an esteemed 
advisor to the Army in the field of communications. 
Since his appointment by the President as Chairman of 
the National Security Training Commission, he has 
played a key role in marshalling public opinion and 
bringing about a better understanding of the Reserve 
Component program of the Army. His efforts in this 
vital field have been untiring and have inspired wide 
support for the Army effort. The Department of the 
Army commends him for his assistance and his long and 
distinguished service to national defense." 

As Chairman of the National Security Training Com- 
mission, which supervises the welfare of Reservists, 
General Sarnoff has concentrated on stepping up re- 
cruiting for the new Six-Month Reserve Training Pro- 
gram. When this program was undertaken last fall, 
Defense Department officials hoped to recruit 100,000 
volunteers in the first year. However, enlistments fell 
far below expectations for the program, which permits 
six months' training camp duty and IVi years' home town 
Reserve service as an alternative to the two-year draft. 

Early in 1956 General Sarnoff suggested to Defense 
Department officials and to a House Appropriations 
Subcommittee that the basic difficulty seemed to be a 
lack of public awareness of the new program. He 
proposed these steps: 

1. Development of a "Message" — one that would 
describe to teenagers and their parents, briefly 
and clearly, the purposes and advantages of the 
Six-Month Training Program. 




Secretary of Defense Charles E. Wilson congratulates 
Brig. General David Sarnoff in the presence of Secre- 
tary of the Army Wilber M. Brucker. 

2. Distribution of this "Message" — particularly 
during a week-long nation-wide "saturation cam- 
paign" by radio, TV, press and other media. 

President Eisenhower responded to the Sarnoff pro- 
posal by setting aside the week of April 22-28 as 
"Military Reserve Week." The "week" was sponsored 
by rhe National Security Committee, a non-partisan, non- 
profit organization made up of representatives of na- 
tional veterans, civic and fraternal groups. 

A "task force" was set up at NBC to prepare an 
extensive radio-TV promotion drive. The American 
Broadcasting Company and the Columbia Broadcasting 
System were requested to cooperate in the campaign and 
both did so cheerfully and effectively. NBC made its 
promotion material available to the other networks and 
to local stations. 

Four basic approaches were used in the campaign: 
Endorsement of the Reserves by radio-TV stars like 
Perry Como, Ed Sullivan, Phil Silvers, George Gobel, 
John Daly, Dinah Shore and others; special programs 
poinring up the importance of the Reserves; spot an- 
nouncements on the networks; and programs developed 
by local stations. More than 6,000 programs and an- 
nouncements were presented by the networks and their 
affiliated local stations during Military Reserve Week, 
involving air time worth close to $2,000,000. 

The Defense Department reported a sharp upswing 
in Reserve enlistments during the "week," and the higher 
level was mainrained after the campaign ended. 



RADIO AGE 9 




Robert W. Sarnoff, NBC President, tells members of the Senate Committee on Interstate 
and Foreign Commerce about NBC TV Network operations. 

The Role of the TV Network 



J_ HE Senate Committee on Interstate and Foreign 
Commerce was told on June 14 by Robert W. Sarnoff, 
President of the National Broadcasting Company, that 
the television industry's "vital objective" of developing 
the maximum number of stations should not be obscured 
or diverted by attacks on network operations. 

If such attacks should lead to restriction of network 
operations through additional government regulation, he 
warned, the "whole delicate balance of network adver- 
tising, affiliation relationships and service to the public 
could be upset." 

"Moreover," Mr. Sarnoff added, "various types of 
regulations which have been proposed could not be 
effected without regulating advertisers. Such a step 
would raise the most serious problems not only for tele- 
vision, but for the American enterprise system." 

The NBC President's 38-page statement included the 
first public report by any television network of its annual 
sales and income figures. These reveal that in its first 
eight years, from 1947 through 1954, the NBC Televi- 
sion Network incurred a cumulative loss of more than 
$4,000,000. Only in 1955 did the network achieve a 
cumulative net profit — which amounted to $2,315,000, 
or less than one-half of one per cent of cumulative net 
sales for the nine years of the network's operation. 

"These facts show that any claim of exorbitant profits 
from this high risk business is not in accordance with 
the economic realities," he declared. 

6,500 Programs Yearly 

In giving the Committee a broad picture of the 
organization and operation of the NBC Television Net- 



work, Mr. Sarnoff said it presents annually 6,500 differ- 
ent programs, serves 200 stations and does business with 
over 200 advertisers of all types and sizes. He also high- 
lighted these factual points: 

— NBC produces less than one-third of the programs 
in its schedule. "Rather than stifling independent pro- 
duction, networks have provided an important encour- 
agement and stimulus for program development by 
outside producers," he explained. 

— Between 80^7 and 90 c c of the total hours on the 
NBC network consists of live programs. "Only through 
a network system can live programs be broadcast on a 
national basis," he said. 

— NBC's share of all national advertising revenue in 
1955 was 2.7%; its share of all television advertising 
revenue was 21.7%. "No network comes near control- 
ling a share of the market large enough to approach a 
monopoly position," he said. 

— NBC has 37 UHF stations as network affiliates, 
accounting for over 40% of all UHF stations in com- 
mercial operation. "We feel that the best prospect for 
expanding television service is effective use of the 70 
UHF channels as well as the 12 VHF channels ... a 
multiplicity of stations . . . would permit maximum 
competition at both the station level and the network 
level." 

— The NBC Program Extension Plan, designed to 
increase network revenue to smaller market stations, has 
resulted in a 113% increase of sponsored network pro- 
gramming on smaller market stations since last Fall. 

— NBC's total projected capital costs for the next five 
years are $80,000,000, including $13,000,000 authorized 
in recent months for color television networking alone. 



10 RADIO AGE 



Mr. Sarnoff emphasized that the networks were the 
only organizations offering the public a comprehensive 
and carefully planned program service. Through their 
program innovations, he said, they have kept public- 
interest in the medium "refreshed and renewed." It was 
this network service, he added, that provided the base 
for the growth of the entire industry, including the 
operation of hundreds of stations. 

Sa\s Networks Must Produce Shows 

The NBC President stressed that in order to main- 
tain and furnish a comprehensive program service to the 
public in addition to utilizing programs from a variety 
of outside sources, it was essential for networks to pro- 
duce their own shows. 

He added: "The claim has been made that we give 
special preference to programs in which we have a 
financial interest in order to get a profit from the sale 
of the programs as well as from the sale of time. I want 
to deny that charge categorically. Our primary concern 
is whether or not a program best meets the needs of our 



planned program structure. This is the decisive element 
— not who owns the program, or whether or not we 
have a financial interest in it." 

Mr. Sarnoff pointed out that the NBC Television 
Network is part of an intensely competitive television 
industry, which itself is part of an intensely competitive 
advertising industry. 

"We welcome competition as a stimulus to enterprise 
in our business and in others," he said. "Although there 
is no restraint on competition in television, additional 
competition and additional service could be developed 
if there were more stations. 

"This is the root of the problem in television, and 
its solution will also solve the problems which are under 
study by this Committee. We therefore urge that the 
Congress and the FCC focus on this central problem and 
take affirmative steps to bring about its solution." 

Mr. Sarnoff concluded that a television system con- 
sisting of three actively competing networks, over 400 
stations, and scores of program suppliers "makes mean- 
ingless any claim of monopoly." 



Folsom Honored by Notre Dame 

An honorary degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred 
on Frank M. Folsom, President of RCA, by the University 
of Notre Dame at commencement exercises on June 3, 
with a citation for "his great contributions to the astound- 
ing advance of public communications in modern 
society." 

The degree was conferred by the Reverend Theodore 
M. Hesburgh, C.S.C., President of the University. Among 
those also honored with degrees were Admiral Arleigh 
A. Burke, Chief of Naval Operations, and Secretary of 
the Treasury George M. Humphrey. 

The citation accompanying Mr. Folsom's award said: 

"One of the first business executives to give his 
services to the American government prior to World 
War II, he has demonstrated at all times the very best 
kind of citizenship and social responsibility. Unselfishly 
helpful in the work of Catholic colleges and charities, 
he has received the high honor of the Church as well 
as those of the State. Adding to them, we now applaud 
him for his great contributions to the astounding advance 
of public communications in modern society, and, of 
natural importance to us, for his interest in the fullest 
development of science and engineering education at 
Notre Dame." 




The Reverend Theodore M. Hesburgh, C.S.C., President 
of the University of Notre Dame, congratulates RCA 
President Frank M. Folsom after awarding him the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Laws at the university's 
commencement exercises on June 3. 



RADIO AGE Jl 




A general view of the 37th Annual Meeting of RCA Stockholders. 



A New RCA First-Quarter Record 



R, 



.CA sales and earnings in the first quarter of 1956 
exceeded the all-time record for the period set last year 
by the Corporation, Brig. General David Sarnoff an- 
nounced on May 1 at the 37th Annual Meeting of 
Stockholders in NBC's studio 8H at Radio City, New 
York. 

General Sarnoff said that in the record-breaking 1956 
first quarter, sales of RCA products and services 
amounted to $274,848,000— an increase of $18,543,000, 
or 7 percent, over the first three months of 1955. 

Profits before taxes amounted to $25,395,000, an 
increase of $310,000 over the same quarter last year, 
while net profits after taxes amounted to $12,727,000, 
increasing $159,000 over the 1955 first quarter. 

Earnings per common share for the first quarter of 
1956 were 85 cents — as against 84 cents for the first 
quarter of last year. 

The 1956 first-quarter sales and revenues from for- 
eign business were higher than for any comparable 
period on record, and the RCA International Division. 
General Sarnoff said, continues to expand and diversify 
its distribution and manufacturing facilities around the 
world. 

General Sarnoff, declaring that for more than twenty- 
five years RCA has been a major supplier of equipment 
for national defense, stated that unfilled Government 
orders on April 1, 1956, amounted to 265 million dollars. 
He said that deliveries of Government orders by RCA 



this year are expected to be about the same as last year 
— 229 million dollars. 

RCA Surpasses Billion-Dollar Goal 

"At our meeting last year," General Sarnoff reminded 
stockholders, "I said that our target for 1955 was one 
billion dollars. At the same time I mentioned that this 
year would mark my 50th anniversary of service with 
the Radio Corporation of America and its predecessor — 
and that the achievement of this billion-dollar goal 
would be the happiest birthday present I could receive 
and share with you at this meeting. 

"The Annual Report mailed to you recently has given 
a detailed account of our 1955 operations, and therefore 
you already know that this birthday present was delivered 
on time and in the fullest measute. We not only 
reached that one billion goal — but exceeded it by 55 
million dollars. 

"There are only twenty-eight manufacturing com- 
panies in the United States whose annual business tops 
one billion dollars. Now, for the first time, RCA is in 
that category. 

"Our volume of business increased 12 per cent and 
amounted to $1,055,266,000. This was more than four 
million dollars \<>t each working Jay." 

The Future 

In discussing the prospects ahead, General Sarnoff 
declared: 



72 RADIO AGE 



"With so much of immediate importance crowding 
today — What about the future? 

"RCA is engaged in the fullest possible development 
of electronics as a science, art and industry. Presently, 
the science of electronics is in an extraordinary state of 
transition and expansion. Transistors are supplementing 
and, in some cases replacing, electron tubes. Color tele- 
vision is on its way to universal use. Tape recording is 
challenging film recording, and ultimately tape may 
become the preferred method of visual as well as sound 
recording. And this does not complete the area of 
transition. Within the next ten years we can expect to 
see electronics expand and become an even more impor- 
tant factor in the fields of business machines and other 
office devices, industrial equipment and home appliances. 

"When we consider the fact that 80 per cent of 
RCA's business in 1955 was in products and services 
that did not exist commercially ten years ago, there is 
good reason to expect that at least 80 per cent of our 
business ten years hence will be in new products and 
services that do not exist commercially today. 

"The present annual volume of the electronics indus- 
try is estimated to be 11 billion dollars. With the devel- 
opments under way and the prospects ahead it seems to 
me reasonable to expect that this figure will double by 
the end of the next decade. 

"By that time, RCA's annual volume of business will, 
I believe, also be double its present size. This would 
mean a gross business in excess of two billion dollars 
a year — with increased profits and increased dividends 
to stockholders. 

"In the natural course of events there may be ups 
and downs. But the prosperity of a soundly built organ- 
ization does not rest on the record made in any one year. 
It is the record and reputation established over the years 
that count. 

"The history and growth of the RCA attest to the 
basic soundness of its policies and justify us in looking 
to the future with confidence." 

Television 

The leadership which RCA achieved through the 
development and production of television sets, both 
black-and-white and color, is now history, General 
Sarnoff said, and he added: 

"We have borne the major scientific, manufacturing 
and financial burdens of pioneering and developing both 
black-and-white and compatible color television and of 
establishing them as a service to the public. 

"Having blazed the trail in color television, we are 
now entering a new era of great expansion and sales 
opportunity for RCA as well as our competitors. 



"In accordance- with RCA's long standing policy of 
keeping others in the industry informed of technical 
progress, RCA held a color TV symposium in Chicago 
two weeks ago for its licensees. We are turning over 
to competing manufacturers, RCA's latest color receiver 
blueprints, technical 'know-how,' production details and 
bills of materials. A reduction in the price of the RCA 
color picture tube to manufacturers — from S100 to $85 
— was also announced at that meeting. All this should 
stimulate other manufacturers to make and sell color 
sets. As production increases, prices to the public will 
decrease. This is the normal pattern of mass production." 

Color TV Programming 

NBC has launched a 12 million dollar plan to 
facilitate color programming, said General Sarnoff, con- 
tinuing: 

"Two weeks ago, our station WNBQ in Chicago. 
became the world's first all-color TV station. All live 
programs originating at WNBQ are now in color. This 
project is an integral part of the RCA-NBC move to 
break through the black-and-white curtain and speed 
the advance of color TV as a regular service to the 
public. 

"Plans are being developed for converting the other 
NBC-owned stations for broadcasting programs in color." 

A box lunch was served to the stockholders. 




RADIO AGE 73 



Celebrating National Unity Day 



Brig. General David Sarnoff has been named hon- 
orary chairman of The American Museum of Immigra- 
tion's Greater New York Committee. On June 28, the 
AMI sponsored National Unity Day ceremonies at the 
Statue of Liberty, at which General Sarnoff spoke. Fol- 
lowing is the text of his remarks. 



" 



N< 



O American can stand here at the feet of the 
Goddess of Liberty without feeling a surge of patriotic 
emotion. The Beautiful Lady, as she has often been 
called, sums up so much of our nation's history and 
destiny! 

More than any other physical object on earth, this 
Statue has become for all mankind a symbol of freedom 
and promise, justice and compassion. These are the 
American ideals. And today, when a fateful contest is 
under way between liberty and slavery, they are more 
important and more binding than ever before. 

The Statue's "lamp beside the golden door" makes 
bright the land we love and the values we cherish. But 
its rays are not for us alone. They reach into remote 
places the world over, to help disperse the darkness of 
despotism. 

Her voice speaks to the "huddled masses yearning to 
be free" — to "the homeless, the tempest-tossed" — 
as eloquently as on the day those deathless words were 
first inscribed by Emma Lazarus. 

Whether his ancestors came to these shores on the 
Mayflower or on a squalid steerage boat, an American 
cannot be immune to an upwelling of pride and grati- 
tude as he looks upon the Statue of Liberty. Quite 
naturally these sentiments are more poignant for those 
who, like myself, are themselves immigrants or the first 
offspring of immigrants. 

I was nine years old when my parents had the good 
sense to bring me to the United States. This meant 
that I was young enough to absorb America and to be 
absorbed by it. At the same time, I was old enough 
to retain memories of the primitive world from which 
I had come. I was old enough, also, to know the diffi- 
culties of the newcomer's adjustment to a completely 
new way of life and thought. 

Let me say a few words about that adjustment, which 
millions of new Americans — your forebears — have 
had to make. It is a bewildering experience to be trans- 
ported, by a mere ocean journey, from the Middle 
Ages to the Twentieth Century; from a fixed and frozen 
background to this infinitely dynamic America; from 
the past, one might say, straight into the future. 




Earth from 48 states and 34 other free nations is 
sprinkled by General Sarnoff during tree-planting cere- 
mony at foot of the Statue of Liberty on National Unity 
Day, June 28. In background are representatives of 
some of the 37 nationality groups participating. 

The great change, however much desired, is beset 
by problems and tensions and heartbreaks which few 
who have not been through it can feel. It is a remark- 
able fact, however, and one that redounds to the credit 
of our America, that this major adjustment, in time, 
creates in the overwhelming majority of immigrants 
and their offspring not only contentment but a deep 
love for the adopted land. 

It is also a significant fact that in the measure that 
immigrants — and especially their sons and daughters 
— ■ achieve a sense of "belonging" in America, they 
develop a sentimental interest in the regions from which 
their families migrated. They rediscover elements of 
beauty and strength in the cultures of their foreign 
ancestors. 

Most important, they realize at last that their immi- 
grant forebears not only took something from America, 
but gave something to America. They recognise the 
truth that the newcomers made a unique contribution 
{Continued on page 30) 



U RADIO AGE 



NBC at the Political Conventions 



J_he National Broadcasting Company is mobi- 
lizing its full resources to give the Republican and 
Democratic conventions the most complete, most mobile 
news coverage in the history of television and radio. 

NBC News will cover each of the conventions with 
a staff of nearly 400, with a communications system 
including three mobile units and more than 40 cameras, 
and with a number of new electronic devices developed 
by RCA for maximum portability and mobility. Among 
the new devices being introduced at the conventions are: 

— "Transceivers," pocket-size two-way radios no 
larger than a lady's formal handbag, which will be used 
by NBC newsmen for live reports of news as it breaks 
on the convention floor. 

— One-man portable television cameras, which can 
be held in the hand like a flare pistol and aimed at 
areas, whether inside or outside the convention hall, that 
are impossible to reach with standard studio equipment. 

— "Porto-Vision," which involves the use of an ultra- 
portable television receiver and will enable political 
figures to see one another as they converse before the 
TV cameras, even though they may be some distance 
apart. 

NBC coverage will be focused in "Convention Cen- 
trals," large, specially-designed control rooms which will 
coordinate the entire news operation. These communi- 
cation centers will be constructed in Chicago's Inter- 
national Amphitheatre, where the Democratic Conven- 
tion will open August 13, and the Cow Palace in San 
Francisco, site of the Republican convention beginning 
August 20. 

Nerve Centers 

The "Convention Centrals" will act as nerve centers, 
with television, radio, telephone and teletype lines reach- 
ing out to the sources of news — the caucus rooms, the 
convention floor, the platform, the candidate's head- 
quarters, hotel lobbies, committee rooms, airports, rail- 
road stations and to many points around the country as 
well. The special telephone system alone will be as 
extensive as those in most small cities. 

Inside the convention halls, roving teams of NBC 
reporters equipped with their tiny transceivers will report 
crucial decisions as they are made. Each of the top two 
dozen delegations will have an NBC reporter assigned 
to it on a constant basis, so that NBC editors will be 
instantly informed of any policy changes. Working with 
the reporters on the convention floor will be the camera- 
men equipped with portable cameras for close-ups of 
political personalities in action. 



Outside the convention hall, news breaks will be 
covered by other reporter teams operating with radio 
cars, helicopters, television mobile units and film units 
equipped with high-speed developing equipment. Using 
the "Porto-Vision" system, these teams will be able to 
visit a candidate's headquarters, for example, and show 
the candidate talking face to face with the head of a 
delegation who may be speaking before the television 
cameras in the convention hall several miles away. 

Nationwide Coverage 
The coverage will go even beyond the convention 
cities to get the opinions of political experts around the 
nation. In a new feature called "Cross-Country Caucus," 
NBC News will swing away from the convention hall 
to visit newspaper editors and editorial writers all over 
the United States to get their views on an issue or 
situation. If interest centers on the Pennsylvania delega- 
tion, for example, "Cross-Country Caucus" will take 
viewers to editorial offices in Pittsburgh, perhaps, or 
Philadelphia for an authoritive review. 




NBC commentator Chet Huntley demonstrates what the 
well-equipped TV reporter will wear at the conven- 
tions. He carries portable TV camera and back-pack 
transmitter, two-way transceiver for radio communication 
(in his pocket) and light portable TV set. 



RADIO AGE J 5 




NBC CONVENTION CENTRAL— This drawing by A. Leydenfrost shows how NBC will organ- 
ize the complex communications to cover both the Democratic and Republican national con- 
ventions next month. (1) — TV-One, the main television studio where news commentaries will 
be given; (2) Master control room; (3) Central news desk; (4) Newsprinter room; (5) Radio 
studios; (6) Side arena TV cameras; (7) Central TV camera platform; (8) Press gallery; (9) 
Radio booths. In the center of the drawing, bathed in spotlights, is the speakers' platform. 
Radio and television coverage of the conventions will form the most complete and most 
mobile news operation in the history of the NBC network. 

16 RADIO AGE 




Against a convention backdrop, Pauline Frederick dem- 
onstrates the two-way radio transceiver to be used by 
NBC reporters for on-the-spot news. 

The news, whether it's from the convention floor or 
from half way across the country, will be channeled into 
Convention Central. There it will be evaluated, edited 
and sent on to NBC commentators — including John 
Cameron Swayze, Bill Henry, Morgan Beatty, Chet 
Huntley, David Brinkley, Ray Scherer and Dave Garro- 
way. When on camera, the commentators will be within 
push-button visual and vocal contact with all key news 
points. 

In addition to its own commentators and reporters, 
NBC News will have the services of Dr. George Gallup, 
founder and director of the American Institute of Public 
Opinion. Dr. Gallup will interpret opinion surveys in 
the light of developments at the convention. His institute 
has covered the last ten national elections. Its average 
error on the division of the popular vote has been 3.8 
percentage points. 

NBC began planning the convention coverage four 
years ago at the close of the 1952 conventions. The 
preparations have been carried out under the direction 
of Davidson Taylor, NBC Vice President in charge of 
Public Affairs; William R. McAndrew, Director of NBC 
News; and Barry Wood, Director of NBC Special Events. 
The new, more mobile approach to the conventions — 
known at NBC as the "man-in-the-aisle" plan — was 
developed by Mr. McAndrew in conjunction with Joseph 
O. Meyers, Manager of NBC News, and Reuben Frank, 
staff producer assigned to coverage of the convention. 

Schedule Problems 

Planning the coverage was complicated by the fact 
that only a weekend intervenes between the close of the 
Democratic convention and the opening of the Republi- 



can meeting. This tight schedule poses a difficult logistics 
problem — the transfer of the entire NBC convention 
personnel and equipment from Chicago to San Francisco 
in a single day. The operation is further complicated by 
the possibility that the Democratic convention may ex- 
tend into the second week — after the Republican con- 
vention has opened. If this should happen, NBC will 
rush standby staffs into action in both cities to maintain 
complete and simultaneous coverage. 

The transport of personnel and equipment from 
Chicago to San Francisco will be carried out entirely by 
air. The massive transfer has been planned with all the 
precision of an Air Force operation. All members of 
the staff — commentators, reporters, technicians — have 
been briefed on the overall operation and each has been 
assigned a specific job and a place on one of the special 
planes. 

In addition to the special convention programming, 
NBC's full roster of news programs are geared to give a 
complete picture of the election-year activities. On these 
programs, including NBC-TV's "Today," "Home," and 
the "News Caravan," and NBC Radio's "News of the 
World," "Monitor," "World News Roundup," and 
"Weekday," audiences will become acquainted with all 
the personalities and issues. 



RCA Film: "The Story of Television" 

THE STORY OF TELEVISION, a half-hour docu- 
mentary film on the development of television from its 
earliest days down to the present, has just been pro- 
duced by RCA and is now ready for public distribution. 

Going back to the mid-20s, when the iconoscope 
and the kinescope were first developed, the film dramat- 
ically portrays the tremendous scientific and engineering 
effort involved in perfecting a workable television 
system. History is made when television is shown pub- 
licly for the first time by RCA at the New York World's 
Fair in 1939. Halted by war, television surges forward 
in peacetime to become a vast new entertainment, in- 
formation and art form. 

The film is climaxed by the advent of a new medium 
— compatible color television. In a series of brilliant 
scenes, the film demonstrates color's versatility and its 
potentialities as a new instrument for linking areas and 
peoples of the world in new bonds of understanding. 

THE STORY OF TELEVISION is available for 
16mm showing to groups and organizations. Requests 
to borrow a print should be addressed to RCA, Depart- 
ment of Information, Rockefeller Center, New York 
City. 



RADIO AGE 77 



OQf 



o 





RCA Industrial TV watches wind-tunnel model tests . . . 



peers into a steel mill reheating furnace 



More Jobs for Industrial TV 



Wn 




ITH each passing month, industrial closed-circuit 
television systems contrive to find new applications in 
which they save no end of time, trouble, or possible 
physical danger to human observers. In recent weeks, 
RCA industrial TV equipment has turned up in the 
following functions: 

— Observing the performance of aircraft models in 
a supersonic wind tunnel at the Lewis Flight Propulsion 
Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio. 

— Watching processing operations inside huge re- 
heating furnaces at the Weirton Steel Company, Weir- 
ton, W. Va. 

— Peering around corners for remote observation 
of processing operations in alloy plate steel production 
at the Lukens Steel Company, Coatesville, Pa. 

— Looking through a microscope to provide remote, 
close-up observation of thin scraper blades used in 
lithography coating presses at the Cincinnati Machine 
Shop of the American Can Company. 



The Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory is one of 
three research facilities operated by the National Ad- 
visory Committee for Aeronautics, the independent 
government agency which conducts advanced research 
on aviation equipment and flight techniques. Three 
RCA industrial TV systems and four 24-inch monitors 
have been installed at the Cleveland laboratory to pro- 
vide safe and more efficient observation of happenings 
in the wind tunnel and for engineers conducting research 
on aircraft engines and propulsion systems. 

TV in a Tunnel 

The three TV cameras are stationed at strategic 
points in the tunnel and connected by closed-circuit to 
the monitors in the wind-tunnel control room about 250 
feet away. The tunnel, test apparatus, and equipment 
under test are operated from the control room, and the 
TV system has been installed so that any monitor can 
be switched for connection to any of the three camera 
chains. 



18 RADIO AGE 




observes steel plates on a conveyer . . . 

Says Dr. Edward R. Sharp, Director of the laboratory: 
"The 10-by-10 foot tunnel at the Lewis Flight Propul- 
sion Laboratory is a new facility. It was designed with 
closed-circuit TV in mind as the medium for remote 
observation. Without television, we would be forced 
to observe the tests by other means, such as periscopes, 
motion picture film, or even direct vision — each of 
which lacks one or more of the advantages of scope, 
flexibility, immediacy, or safety represented by closed- 
circuit television." 

Watching the Furnace 

By providing observation of action inside reheating 
furnaces and along a roller table for steel slabs, RCA 
closed-circuit equipment at the Weirton Steel Company 
has provided human operators with a third "eye" in 
two separate steel-processing operations and has elimi- 
nated a problem of cold edges in slabs when they over- 
hang the hearth, according to Ralph A. Teare, Manager, 
RCA Industrial Products. 

Three cameras have been positioned at the side of 
reheating furnaces in Weirton's hot mill, and connected 
by closed-circuit to a monitor in the furnaces' remote- 
control booth 150 feet away and around a corner from 
the cameras. A fourth camera has been mounted to 
scan a 350-foot roller table approaching the finishing 
mills. This camera enables operators in the control 
booths of both the roughing train and the approach 
table to "see" and make certain that the steel slabs are 
properly positioned in transit between the two opera- 
tions. 

All of the cameras have been specially adapted to 
their hot surroundings. Each of the furnace cameras is 
encased in a special metal box with a conditioned air 
system which maintains the camera's temperature at 




gazes through a microscope at thin scraper blades. 

an efficient working level. A special casing also pro- 
tects the camera used to scan the roller table. 

The Lukens Steel Company installation, incorpo- 
rating nine separate RCA industrial TV cameras, makes 
possible one-man operation of a huge furnace line and 
enables a single operator to control a complete plate- 
finishing shearing operation. According to L. M. Cur- 
tiss, General Works Manager for Lukens, the furnace 
operation at the company's ultra-modern Navy alloy 
plate building is a push-button operation controlled by 
a single operator in a control booth. Continuous ob- 
servation of all areas of the furnace line is essential for 
maximum safety in loading the huge alloy plates on 
the conveyor and carrying them through heating, quench- 
ing, cooling and discharging operations. With the help 
of six TV cameras feeding directly into monitors in 
the control booth, the operator in the booth is able to 
see what transpires even at various "blind spots" on the 
line, some over 600 feet away and around corners. 

Reducing Fatigue and Error 
The effect of the RCA closed-circuit installation at 
the American Can Company in Cincinnati has been to 
increase quality and production by 100 percent and to 
reduce fatigue and possible error, according to F. J. 
Connelly, Manager of the Canco plant. Peering at thin 
scraper blades through a microscope, the system projects 
the images, magnified 288 times, on a 21 -inch TV 
receiver located a few feet away. Previously, according 
to Mr. Connelly, inspectors had to inspect the blades by 
squinting through a 30-power microscope — "a tedious 
operation which induces fatigue and error." 

"The remote TV inspection system enables our in- 
spectors to check twice as many blades in the same given 
time, with appreciably greater accuracy and with a 
negligible minimum of fatigue," he said. 



RADIO AGE 79 



akitv?) 




Above, singer Jaye P. Morgan begins a recording ses- 
sion for RCA Victor in New York's Webster Hall with 
Hugo Winterhalter conducting the orchestra. Below, 
she listens pensively in the control room as the first 
"take" is played back via tape recording. 



Back for a second try, Jaye P. decorates the microphone 
with her festive flower. Below is proof that the product 
is right on the second round. A few days later, Jaye's 
newest record, "Johnny Casanova," was on its way to 
RCA Victor record dealers across the nation. 




20 RADIO AGE 



Tour Plans for NBC Opera 



I reparations for the first tour of the newly-formed 
NBC Oper.i Company next fall were speeded during 
May and June with announcement of the forty-six city 
itinerary and a visit to a number of the cities by officials 
of RCA and NBC on a 12-day good-will and inspection 
tour. 

The NBC Opera Company is a direct outgrowth of 
the highly succesful NBC Television Opera Theatre, 
which for seven years has presented the finest operas in 
English to a nationwide television audience numbering 
in the millions for each performance. Announcing the 
formation of the new touring company last December, 
Brig. General David Sarnoff said: 

"The NBC Television Opera Theatre has also stimu- 
lated a demand for opera performances in English in 
the theatres and concert halls of the nation. This it 
is that has encouraged us to go forward with the . . . 
formation of the NBC Opera Company to meet the 
steadily growing public demand." 

The June tour by RCA and NBC officials in prepara- 
tion for the autumn schedule included twenty-four of 
the cities at which performances are to be given. At 
each, enthusiastic cooperation was extended by local 
concert committees, civic officials, the press, radio and 
television stations, and RCA distributors, who are giv- 
ing substantial help in promoting the local performances. 

The touring group included Alfred R. Stern, Vice- 
President of the NBC Theatrical Division of the Kagran 
Corporation; Chandler Cowles, general manager, NBC 
Opera Company; Tom Skelton, production stage man- 
ager, NBC Opera Company; Bill D. Ross, representing 
the RCA Department of Information; Leonard Meyers, 
director of press and promotion, NBC Opera Company; 
Robert Aaron, representing NBC Station Relations; 
and Schuyler Chapin, representing Judson, O'Neill and 
Judd, concert managers for the NBC Opera Company. 

Tivo Operas to be Performed 

The repertoire for the NBC Opera Company's first 
tour includes Puccini's "Madam Butterfly" and Mozart's 
"The Marriage of Figaro," both to be sung in English. 
Among the stars of the 96-member company are Frances 
Bible, mezzo-soprano; Adelaide Bishop, soprano; Walter 
Cassel, baritone; Phillys Curtin, soprano; Edith Evans, 
mezzo-soprano; Ralph Herbert, baritone; Elaine Malbin, 
soprano, and Emile Renan, bass-baritone. 

The tour itinerary includes these cities and dates: 
Philadelphia, Oct. 15; Norfolk, Va, Oct. 16; Rich- 
mond, Va., Oct. 17 and 18; Charlotte, Va., Oct. 19. 



Columbia, S.C., Oct. 20; Savannah, Ga., Oct. 21 (mat- 
inee); Macon, Ga., Oct. 22; Atlanta, Ga., Oct. 23; 
Chattanooga, Tenn., Oct. 24; Little Rock, Ark., Oct. 
26; Jackson, Miss., Oct. 27; New Orleans, La., Oct. 28 
(matinee and evening); Baton Rouge, La., Oct. 29; 
Lake Charles, La., Oct. 30; Beaumont, Tex., Oct. 31; 
Austin, Tex., Nov. 1; Fort Worth, Tex., Nov. 2 and 3; 
Oklahoma City, Okla., Nov. 4 (matinee); Pittsburgh, 
Kan., Nov. 5; Columbia, Mo., Nov. 6; Waterloo, Iowa, 
Nov. 7; Des Moines, Iowa, Nov. 8; Kansas City, Kan., 
Nov. 9; Omaha, Neb., Nov. 10; Sioux City, Iowa, Nov. 
1 1 ; Davenport, Iowa, Nov. 1 3 ; Rockford, 111., Nov. 
14; Springfield, 111., Nov. 15; St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 16; 
Evansville, Ind., Nov. 17; Milwaukee, Wis., Nov. 19; 
Ft. Wayne, Ind., Nov. 20; Charleston, WVa., Nov. 22; 
Cleveland, Ohio, Nov. 23 and 24; Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Nov. 25 (matinee); Bloomington, Ind., Nov. 26; 
Huntington, WVa., Nov. 27; Columbus, Ohio, Nov. 
28; Kalamazoo, Mich., Nov. 29; Grand Rapids, Mich., 
Nov. 30; South Bend, Ind., Dec. 1 (matinee and eve- 
ning); Rochester, N.Y., Dec. 3; Troy, N.Y., Dec. 4; 
Hartford, Conn., Dec. 5 (matinee and evening); Phila- 
delphia, Dec. 7; and Newark, N.J., Dec. 8. 



Ready to take off on the good-will tour for the NBC 
Opera Company are, left to right, Alfred R. Stern, 
Schuyler Chapin, Bill Ross, Chandler Cowles, Tom Skel- 
ton, Leonard Meyers, and Robert Aaron (on steps). 




RADIO AGE 2? 




Meeting the Shortage of Engineers 



H 



. ow is the United States to cope with the critical 
and growing shortage of new scientists and engineers 
needed to carry on the technological development vital 
to the nation's economy and security? In the widening 
discussion of this basic problem, leading RCA spokes- 
men have contributed a series of pertinent suggestions 
in talks before a variety of public groups during the past 
three months. 

In testimony before the Subcommittee on Research 
and Development of the Joint Congressional Committee 
on Atomic Energy on April 25, Brig. General David 
Sarnoff recommended a three-point program that would 
affect both colleges and high schools throughout the 
nation. He proposed: 

1. That atomic reactors be built on selected college 
campuses to "signalize the importance of the scientist, 
the physicist, the engineer, and the man of technology," 
and "stimulate the interest of students in matters 
scientific." 

2. That a nation-wide poll be conducted among high 
school seniors and college freshmen to determine why 
so few young Americans are taking up scientific careers. 

3. That industry and government cooperate in estab- 
lishing a "National Education Reserve" made up of 
qualified teachers drawn from industry and from the 
ranks of the retired, to ease the shortage of science and 
mathematics instructors. This proposal was made orig- 
inally by General Sarnoff last January before the Na- 
tional Security Industrial Association and has aroused 
widespread interest. 

General Sarnoff told the Congressional group that 
these proposals were "not presented as cure-alls, but 
simply as measures that could go a long way toward 
ameliorating the present critical situation." 

Regarding the first suggestion, he said: "The pres- 
ence of a reactor would provide a living laboratory to 
heighten the realism of instruction. It would enable the 
student to get a glimpse of his own role in the nuclear 



future. Under the guidance of competent teachers, it 
would stir him to visions of applying this force for 
constructive purposes. The impact on the student, in 
short, would be at once inspirational and practical." 

As to the poll of students, General Sarnoff pointed 
out that in spite of opportunities for employment in 
the technical fields, too few young Americans are enter- 
ing scientific careers. 

"Why?" he asked. "Many guesses have been made. 
But it is vitally necessary that concrete knowledge replace 
guesswork on this score. Why should not these young 
Americans themselves be questioned on this subject? It 
seems to me that a survey or poll of students in the 
senior year of high school and the freshman year of 
college — the critical years of career decisions— might 
well provide information helpful in drawing more quali- 
fied people into engineering and related fields." 

Jolliffe Suggests Recruiting of Women 

The quest for concrete information on the scope and 
causes of the technical manpower shortage is one of the 
first tasks of the National Committee on the Develop- 
ment of Scientists and Engineers, established recently 
by President Eisenhower with a membership of leading 
educators, scientists, public officials, industrialists, and 
labor leaders. At a dinner honoring the Committee on 
June 21 in Newark, N. J., Dr. C. B. Jolliffe, Vice Presi- 
dent and Technical Director of RCA, endorsed the 
Sarnoff proposals and proposed a further measure — the 
greater use of women in engineering and the physical 
sciences. 

Noting that in Russia about 20 percent of all engi- 
neers are women, compared with less than one percent 
in the United States, Dr. Jolliffe said: 

"I have long felt that not enough consideration has 
been given in this country to ways of getting more 
women into the electronics field. I think that it is impor- 
tant that we do this, particularly now when we are 
engaged in a life-or-death struggle for technological 



22 RADIO AGE 



supremacy. It seems to me th.it women would be espe- 
cially useful as laboratory technicians and could make 
a real contribution to electronic progress. 

"Not only could our women make a contribution 
as technicians, but also as engineers and scientists. . . . 
For years, engineering and the sciences have been a 
monopoly of masculinity. These fields were just not 
fashionable for girls. To change the pattern we have 
to go back to the high schools and stimulate the interest 
of girls in the basic subjects like mathematics and 
physics and the other sciences, and convince them that 
there are careers in science which are available to 



Wolff Urges Emphasis on High-Priority Research 

Dr. Irving Wolff. Vice-President, Research, of RCA, 
offered further considerations on the encouragement of 
scientists and engineers in a talk at the Conference on 
Industrial Research at the Harriman, N. Y., campus of 
Columbia University on June 14. 

Pointing to estimates that the nation's requirements 
for technical manpower are likely to be fulfilled to only 
70 percent of requirements during the next five years, 
Dr. Wolff said: 

"Under such circumstances, one can wonder whether 
the research program we have set for ourselves is real- 
istic, and also whether we are making the best use of 
our trained manpower. Are we actually impeding re- 
search by having more funds available than can be used? 
Are we emphasizing lower priority projects at the 
expense of those of paramount importance by spreading 
our engineering manpower too thin? 

"In general, in our type of economy the availability 
of funds would not be controllable except by indirect 
economic pressure. However, we have now a number 
of very important research areas in the application of 
electronics where the major share of the expenditure is 
under the control of some of the Defense agencies, and 
where the shortage of technical personnel is particularly 
acute. 

"To do the things necessary to determine the amount 
of funds which can be most effectively spent is not easy. 
Good statistics on present and future manpower avail- 
ability are needed. Priorities of projects on a long-term 
basis must be determined, and finally, since control can 
be exercised over only a part of our research expendi- 
tures, care must be exercised to be certain that the 
manpower is not siphoned off into other areas. In spite 
of the difficulties, I believe that the benefits obtainable 
justify a very earnest study in our Defense Department 
with the objective of making certain that the highest 
priority projects are adequately manned." 




Typifying the young men needed in ever greater num- 
bers in science and engineering are these scientists test- 
ing semiconductor materials at RCA's David Sarnoff 
Research Center in Princeton, N. J. 



Dr. Wolff emphasized also the need for relieving 
present trained personnel of non-technical responsibili- 
ties and routine chores through the greater use of trained 
Technical Assistants whose training can be accomplished 
in "two to three years maximum" as against four to eight 
years for an engineer or scientist. He underlined also 
the necessity of making careers in science and engineer- 
ing attractive "to those boys who have strong financial 
or social motivations." 

Describing research as a "chain reaction" in which 
discoveries generate new discoveries, Dr. Wolff warned 
that "unless we succeed in training the young people 
who may generate these ideas and practice these skills 
tomorrow, the chain reaction will be brought to a halt." 



RADIO AGE 23 




Training Technicians by Mail 

By George F. Maedel, President RCA Institutes, Inc. 



lT A TIME when technically trained manpower is at 
a premium, more than 27,000 men in the United States 
and abroad are becoming competent radio and television 
technicians in their spare time at home, thanks to a 
home study program launched just over five years ago 
by RCA Institutes. 

Drawing on years of teaching experience as one of 
the oldest radio-electronic training schools in America, 
RCA Institutes in 1951 entered the field of instruction 
by correspondence in a move to help meet the urgent 
need for technicians in the rapidly-expanding television 
industry. Such technicians, properly trained, were — and 
still are — urgently needed to free men with professional 
training for more advanced engineering and service 
functions not only in television, but in all areas of 
electronics. 

From the start, the Institutes' home study program 
was based on the same high caliber of training given 
in resident courses at the New York school. As the 
television art developed, new information was added to 
the initial course in television servicing. With the 
advent of color television, a new course was developed 
and initiated in early 1954 to provide home instruction 
in the operation and servicing of color equipment. 

Basic Course Developed 

As the television courses flourished, with enrollment 
increasing each month, the Home Study Department of 
RCA Institutes turned to a still more basic operation — 
the preparation of a comprehensive, elementary course 
for students with no previous knowledge of electricity 
and electronics. Spurred by the knowledge that indus- 
try's need for well-trained technicians far exceeded the 
supply and would continue to do so well into the future, 
members of the Department aimed at achieving a course 
with the broadest base, so that the greatest possible 
number of students might complete it successfully as 
preparation for more advanced and more specialized 
study. 

It was known that a major stumbling block for stu- 
dents enrolled in technical courses was the type of 
language used. Not only were technical terms a source 
of difficulty, but the general vocabulary normally asso- 
ciated with technical writing was found to be just as 
baffling to students without previous training. Therefore, 
a first requirement was a level of style and vocabulary 



which would be understandable even to students with 
no more than a grammar school education. 

Preparation of the course took about two years of 
work and experimentation. Throughout this period, each 
writer and editor, backed by experienced members of 
the Institutes' faculty, worked patiently to achieve lesson 
material that could be read and studied with profit by 
a student with a general vocabulary of no more than 
five or six thousand words. Each technical term was 
accompanied by a simple definition the first time it was 
used. The text was supplemented by an unusually large 
number of carefully prepared illustrations. Mathematics 
was kept to a minimum, being introduced only where it 
contributed to the student's better understanding of the 
principles under discussion. 

The result of the preparations was a uniquely effec- 
tive basic course in the fundamentals of radio, with an 
introduction to television, completion of which would 
qualify a previously untrained student as a radio techni- 
cian. Introduced in October of 1955, this basic course 
now is being taken at home by more than 4,000 students. 

From Basic Theory to Color TV 

With inauguration of the new course, RCA Institutes 
now offers thorough-going, step-by-step training at home 
in radio-television electronics theory and practice all the 
way from elementary electricity to color television, in 
three integrated courses. 

Course I. the basic radio-TV electronics course, con- 



24 RADIO AGE 



Working at home, this student technician is 
one of thousands enrolled in RCA Institutes' 
home study course in color television servicing. 




sists of forty lessons which discuss fundamental theory, 
provide for experiments that verify the theory or teach 
a necessary skill, and teach practices and techniques 
employed by successful radio and TV technicians. In 
addition to the written lessons, the student receives a 
total of fifteen kits of parts which he uses in the experi- 
ment lessons, and from which he builds a multimeter, 
a signal generator, and a radio receiver. The only re- 
quirement for enrollment in this first course is comple- 
tion of grade school. 

Course II covers television servicing, carrying for- 
ward from the basic knowledge of Course I into the 
special techniques of television. Enrollments in this 
course now total over 9,000, and the entrance require- 
ments are either a present position in the radio-TV field, 
or successful completion of Course I or its equivalent. An 
optional feature of this course is a television receiver kit 
for students who want to supplement their instruction 
by actually building a TV set. 

Course III deals with color television. Inaugurated 
in March, 1954, this course so far has had a total enroll- 
ment of nearly 14,000. Entrance requirements are present 
employment in the television industry, or completion of 
Course II. Comprising nine lessons in its original form, 
this course was recently expanded to eleven lessons and 
made available to TV technicians by the RCA Tube 
Division in cooperation with RCA Institutes. 

Personal Attention is a Feature 

Short of the face-to-face contact with the teacher in 
the classroom, the student of an Institutes home study 
course is given as much personal attention as possible — 
to the extent that he desires it. The large teaching staff 
not only grades the examinations and assignments in- 
cluded in each lesson, but encourages students to write 
and ask questions whenever they encounter points which 
may not be absolutely clear to them. 

For students completing the various courses, RCA 
Institutes provides a placement service which operates 
without charge to advise and assist the home study 
graduates in obtaining suitable jobs in their communities. 
While no school can guarantee any student a job, the 
Institutes placement service is able to provide the pro- 
fessional counsellors' knowledge of avenues and open- 
ings, and to furnish the student with transcripts of his 
academic records and letters of introduction. 

Like so many RCA activities, the Institutes provides 
through these home study programs as well as its resident 
instruction a service to the electronics industry at large, 
by providing the finest instruction for men who are in 
or will enter the electronics industry, and by producing 
technicians with a solid grounding in theory and practice. 




With the Institutes home study course in TV servicing, 
the student may acquire kit to build a set of his own. 



217 Graduated by RCA Institutes 

Two hundred seventeen graduates, including honor 
students from New York and California, were awarded 
diplomas from RCA Institutes on May 18 at commence- 
ment exercises held in New York. Among the graduates 
were 123 veterans of the Armed Forces and students 
from Bermuda, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Portugal, France, 
China, Thailand, Italy, Greece and Egypt. The diplomas 
marked completion of courses in radio and television 
broadcasting, radio and television servicing, advanced 
technology, and radiotelegraph operating. 

The graduates were addressed by Arthur F. Van 
Dyck, Staff Assistant to the Vice-President and Technical 
Director of RCA, and special awards were made by 
George F. Maedel, President of RCA Institutes, to five 
students who completed their courses with highest 
honors. 

On May 29, RCA Institutes awarded scholarships 
valued at S 1,958 each to three high school seniors from 
New York and New Jersey for an advanced course in 
radio and television technology at the Institutes. The 
awards were made on the basis of competitive examina- 
tions taken by contestants representing public and pri- 
vate high schools. The course, accredited by the Engi- 
neering Council for Professional Development, prepares 
students for entrance into several branches of radio- 
electronics, including television. 



RADIO AGE 25 



New Link for 





This 



new terminal equipment links RCA TEX with Bell 
System TWX network throughout the U. S. 



RCA Communications' international TEX service 
passed another milestone in April when its facilities 
were made available to the 38,000 customers of the Bell 
System TWX network throughout rhe United States. 
By giving intercontinental range to their office tele- 
typewriters, TEX service now enables these businessmen 
to talk-in-writing with their correspondents in Frank- 
furt, Germany, as easily as they might contact an asso- 
ciate in Frankfort, Kentucky. 

Since its inception in 1950 with a single radio- 
teletype circuit linking New York and the Netherlands, 
TEX service has mushroomed at a rate unparalleled in 
the history of the overseas communications industry. 
Today, TEX circuits reach 27 countries in Europe, 
Africa, and the Caribbean and Pacific areas. Six of these 



countries joined the growing network during the past 
six months alone. 

RCA is now handling TEX calls at a rate of 575 per 
day — many over distances of more than 19,000 miles. 

By combining the speed and conversational advan- 
tages of a telephone call with the best features of the 
telegram, TEX service permits subscribers to engage in 
two-way, written communication. American business- 
men, recognizing these advantages as being essential to 
the conduct of their activities in competitive foreign 
markets, have repeatedly pressed for the extension of 
TEX service to new areas. 

Long range plans are even now being implemented 
by RCA Communications, Inc. for the further extension 
of overseas teletypewriter exchange service. 



A new communications pattern — TEX links the U. S. and 27 countries. 



M 




«*' N EW TOR K"-^ 

— w 

WASHINGTON 





26 RADIO AGE 



n 




% Public Appraises the Service 




T 

J-E 



.elevision service technicians have a high rating 
with the nation's 36,000.000 TV set owners on the all- 
important counts of promptness, quality, prices, and 
courtesy, according to a nation-wide poll conducted re- 
cently by Elmo Roper, market research expert, for the 
RCA Service Company, Inc., and the Consumer Products 
divisions of RCA. 

Results of the poll were announced by E. C. Cahill, 
President of the RCA Service Company, who described 
it as the most extensive ever carried out to determine 
authentic public feeling toward TV service technicians. 
Undertaken and carried out on a scientific and impartial 
nationwide sampling basis, this survey is the eighth 
annual study of its kind conducted by the Roper organ- 
ization for RCA. Mr. Cahill reported this way on the 
results: 

"The survey revealed that 91 percent of the set 
owners interviewed were pleased with the quality of the 
serviceman's work, the same percentage reported that 
the serviceman was pleasant and courteous, 83 percent 
were satisfied with the price, and 89 percent thought 
their call for service was answered promptly. Eighty- 
three percent said they would call the same service firm 
again. 

"These findings are a fine vote of confidence on the 
part of the public in the skill and integrity of the more 
than 100,000 highly-trained technicians who install and 
maintain TV receivers in America's homes." 

Highlights of the Survey 
The survey highlighted the following points: 

1. Of the television-owning families interviewed, 
including different income brackets in widely separated 
parts of the country, "overwhelming majorities" were 
thoroughly satisfied with all aspects of service received. 
Few set owners had any complaints with the repair 
service they received. 

2. In replying to the question, "Do you plan to use 
the same service company in the future, or not?" 83 
percent said yes, only 9 percent said no, and 8 percent 
were undecided. 

3. Of all persons interviewed who had made calls 
for service during the past year, 53 percent reported 
"same day" service, 18 percent received service the next 
day, and 9 percent during the next two days. 




>erk Up Your ANTENNA! 

RCft FACTORY SERVICE 



*^T 




Typical of the service technicians given a high rating 

by the public is this representative of the RCA Service 

Company, Inc., on a home call. 

4. While the median cost of service calls increased 
in the past 15 months, reflecting the increased age of 
the average TV set, 83 percent of the persons inter- 
viewed reported satisfaction with the prices charged, 
while 13 percent said the prices were "not very good." 

5. In regard to the quality of service, 91 percent 
indicated their approval. Service was termed "very 
good" by 75 percent, "fairly good" by 16 percent, while 
only 5 percent indicated dissatisfaction. 

Further evidence of interest in keeping the customer 
satisfied came from another quarter in RCA a short 
time prior to the announcement of the Roper survey 
results, when Frank M. Folsom, President of RCA, an- 
nounced that a special "President's Cup" will be awarded 
to the RCA Victor Television distributor who compiles 
the best record during the four months to August 13 in 
maintaining customer satisfaction. 

The "President's Cup" has been awarded for the past 
five years to the four top Factory Service Branches of 
the RCA Service Company, Inc., compiling the best 
records of maximum efficiency and customer satisfac- 
tion. This is the first time a similar competition has 
been conducted for RCA Victor distributors. 



RADIO AGE 27 




Stereophoni 




RCA Victor's new consolette Stereophonic player 
includes two amplifiers and speaker systems. 




\3tereophonic high-fidelity sound, confined until re- 
cently to the motion picture theater and professional 
use, is now entering the American home to provide 
perhaps the most faithful reproduction of music yet 
achieved outside of the concert hall. 

Pioneered originally by RCA for the sound motion 
picture industry, Stereophonic sound is just what its 
name implies — a system of recording and reproducing 
sound with the added dimension of physical perspective 
which the human ear experiences in the concert hall 
itself. It is achieved through the use of two microphones 
placed some distance apart in the recording studio or hall, 
and recording simultaneously onto separate tracks of a 
single magnetic tape. The sound reproduction system em- 
ploys a dual-track tape player, and two separate amplifiers 
and speaker systems to accommodate the two sound 
tracks. When the speakers are placed at an appropriate 
distance from one another in the average room, the out- 
put of the system recreates for the listener the perspective 
of the live sound as it reached the two microphones in 
the recording process. 



for the H6me 




A major forward step in bringing Stereophonic high- 
fidelity sound to the average home listener is now being 
made by RCA with the planned introduction later this 
year of a unit priced under $300 — less than half the 
price of similar equipment now on the market. The 
announcement of the new equipment by James M. 
Toney, Vice-President and General Manager, RCA Victor 
Radio and "Victrola" Division, was accompanied by 
word from the RCA Victor Record Division that Stereo- 
phonic tape recordings of outstanding musical works are 
now being made available to the public at the rate of 
two each month. 

Two New Units Announced 

News of the new Stereophonic player came from Mr. 
Toney in his announcement of the 1956-57 line of RCA 
Victor New Orthophonic High Fidelity "Victrola" 
phonographs at a meeting of RCA Victor distributors 
and sales executives at Miami on June 5. Two models 
will be made available, he said — a portable unit na- 
tionally advertised at $295, and a consolette nationally 
advertised at §350. Both will be complete Stereophonic 
high fidelity sound systems with two amplifiers, two 
speaker systems, a Stereo-tape player, and 30 feet of 
cable. In addition to these units, the Stereo-tape trans- 
port system may also be attached to three of RCA 
Victor's New Orthophonic high fidelity instruments. A 
similar Stereo-tape unit that will permit its adaptation to 
other RCA Victor high fidelity players is nearing com- 
pletion, according to Mr. Toney. 

The new portable Stereo-tape player unit is to con- 
sist of two matching luggage-type cases in two-tone 
brown and tan simulated leather. One case contains a 
tape player, accommodating either dual or single-track 
tapes at 7.5 inches per second; a pair of 2.5 watt ampli- 
fiers, and a Panoramic Sound System of two 3 1 2-inch 
and one 6 1 /2-inch speakers. The second case contains 
an identical speaker system and storage space for tapes. 

The consolette unit is to include the same equip- 
ment in consolette cabinets similar to the Mark VI New 
Orthophonic High Fidelity "Victrola" phonograph. 



28 RADIO AGE 



Aiding Schools Through TV 



T 

JLh 



.HE National Broadcasting Company has expanded 
its program information service to reach the nation's 
school children and alert them to the network's cultural 
and informational programming. 

In this expanded service, NBC provides schools not 
only with its long-established Program Information 
Bulletin, but with scripts, study guides, commentaries 
and RCA Victor long-playing records — all designed to 
encourage students to tune in to fine programming and 
to benefit from it. 

NBC's full publicity and exploitation facilities are 
brought to bear on these activities, since the objective 
is not only larger audiences for the network's current 
programs, but the building of a more mature and appre- 
ciative audience for cultural programming of the future. 

Before the telecast of Sir Laurence Olivier's "Richard 
III,'' for example. NBC sent the following material to 
schools around the nation: a bulletin with background 
information on the play, the cast, costumes, settings and 
the lively debate about Richard Ill's place in history; 
a commentary by dramatic critic Walter Kerr discussing 
the difficulties in presenting the drama; and an RCA 
Victor long-playing record made from the film's original 

A scene from the NBC telecast of "Richard III," featured 
in NBC's extensive service to schools around the nation. 




soundtrack, with a specially-recorded introduction by 
Sir Cedric Hardwicke. 

NBC has distributed similar material for such pro- 
grams as "Peter Pan," starring Mary Martin; "Cyrano 
de Bergerac," starring Jose Ferrer; "The Taming of the 
Shrew," starring Maurice Evans; "Nightmare in Red," 
the documentary on Russian Communism; "Sleeping 
Beauty," performed by the Sadler's Wells Ballet Com- 
pany; and the "Festival of Music," featuring many of 
the world's foremost opera and concert artists. 

Plan Draws Praise from Educators 

Teachers and school officials have put the NBC 
information to effective use and they have been lavish 
in their praise of it. Study guides, commentaries and 
other written material serve as a basis for classroom 
discussion of the program. Long-playing records are 
played over school radio stations or other communica- 
tions systems. 

The "Richard III" recording was played three times 
over WBEZ, the Chicago radio station operated by the 
Board of Education. The RCA-Victor original-cast 
"Peter Pan" recording was played eight times on the 
school radio station in Miami, Fla. An official of the 
Detroit Public Schools thanked NBC for the study 
material on "Sleeping Beauty," including the RCA- 
Victor recording of the Sadler's Wells production, and 
added : 

"I also made a survey with our school audiences 
after the program. I was astonished to discover that 
third and fourth graders were thrilled with the perform- 
ance, and as they told me, they did not need words to 
explain the story. The dancers did it!" 

A continuing phase of the service to schools is the 
NBC Program Information Bulletin, which calls atten- 
tion to, and provides background for, upcoming pro- 
grams of special educational interesr. The bulletin, 
which has been published by NBC for nearly two 
decades, now has a distribution of about 27,000 copies. 
Its readership, however, is estimated in the hundreds 
of thousands, since it is circulated largely among schools, 
libraries and civic organizations. 

Recently an official of The Florida State University 
wrote NBC asking to receive the bulletin and added: 

"It is written with an integrity that compliments 
both writer and reader. . . . My congratulations on the 
very high, cultural and informational-type programs you 
so faithfully pioneer." 



RADIO AGE 29 



National Unity Day 

(Continued fro??i page 14) 
to American civilization precisely because of their par- 
ticular origins. 

Though they arrived here penniless, the generations 
of immigrants did not come empty-handed. They 
brought with them great gifts — the brains and the 
brawn that are cemented into America's highways and 
railways, skyscrapers and farmhouses, mines and fac- 
tories from shore to shore. They brought with them 
the hungers for human freedom, individual dignity 
and self-improvement that are at the heart of the 
American Dream. 

When Israel Zing will coined the phrase "the melting 
pot," it was quickly accepted as the image of American 
humanity. But it is not an altogether accurate, or 
indeed desirable, image. 

"Melting pot" implies that the human ingredients are 
pressure-cooked into a single and uniform compound, 
in which all trace of the original components is lost. 
Yet we know, as a matter of common experience, that 
this is not the case. And we know, too, that regard 
for the land and race from which an American has 
sprung, is not incompatible with complete love of and 
devotion to America. 

It is not inconsistent that good Americans like the 
DuPonts still have a soft spot for things French, or 
that good Americans like the Skouras brothers have a 
special concern for helping the people of Greece, or 
that a good American and great restaurateur in San 
Francisco named George Mardikian, helped to find 
homes for thousands of displaced Armenians after the 
last war. 

Americans of Irish descent could throw their hearts 
into the cause of Irish freedom yet remain good Ameri- 
cans. Today, Americans of Polish extraction do not 
impair their Americanism when they seek the libera- 
tion of Poland from the Communist yoke. American 
Jews are no less American because they work for the 
survival of the new state of Israel. 

For it is the unique glory of our country that it 
neither demands nor imposes an artificial uniformity. 
Our strength lies in unity, which is a quite different 
concept. On the whole we not only tolerate but take 
pride in differences. America is less an amalgam than 
an integrated mosaic. Yet again and again, in time 
of danger or crisis, we have demonstrated a unity that 
has amazed the world. Enemies who counted on divi- 
sive influences because of our history of mass immi- 
gration have always been disappointed. 

The temptation in proving that the immigrant has 
served America well is to cite celebrated names and 



spectacular careers. But I prefer to cite humble names 
by the million: 

Recently I paused before a war memorial in a 
small town in Westchester County. I glanced down the 
list of its sons who died in two world wars. The 
names in the roster were Anglo-Saxon and Latin, 
Slavic and Jewish, Scandinavian and Oriental. Yet all 
were true Americans! The same amazing unity and 
allegiance are revealed on the Rolls of Honor in every 
city, town and hamlet of our beloved America. Each 
of these memorials is a portrait in miniature of this 
nation of immigrants, welded by common loyalty to 
high ideals to make and preserve a mighty country. 



sta te of New fa 

1956 y 

GOVERNORS 

SAFETY AWARD 



RADIO CORP. OF AMERICA 
Camden Plant 



MuAtlyJ^yf, 



The Governors Safety Award of the State of New 
Jersey for 1956 was presented to RCA's Camden, N. J., 
plant by Governor Robert B. Meyner in ceremonies at 
Camden on June 18, marking the first time that the 
award has been conferred upon a plant with more than 
1,000 employees. 

The award, the highest honor conferred by New 
Jersey for industrial safety, was accepted by Theodore 
A. Smith, Executive Vice-President, RCA Defense Elec- 
tronic Products, on behalf of the more than 12,000 
RCA employees at Camden. The award cited the RCA 
Camden plant for "services to humanity in achieving an 
outstanding industrial safety record while accumulating 
6,783,921 man hours without a lost time injury." 



30 RADIO AGE 



Quotes from R CA 




E. C. Anderson, Execu- 
tive Vice-President, RCA 
Public Relations, to the 
Joint Electron Tube En- 
gineering Council, Atlan- 
tic City, N. J., May 11, 
1955. 



Aii hint ionic Foundation: 

"New designs for computers — 
smaller, faster, and more versatile — 
are appearing with greater frequency 
than new models of automobiles. 
When the armed forces raise the cur- 
tain on some of their experiments we 
shall learn of fantastic new develop- 
ments in military electronics. Millions 
of color television receivers will soon 
supplement our 40 million black-and- 
white sets. . . . Automation is moving 
into the production stage. In time, we 
may see it taking over entire industries, 
integrating the manufacturing and 
marketing process from raw material 
to consumer. . . . And much of this, 
let me remind you, will center on one 
single element — the tube." 



■ J Robert W. Sarnoff, Presi- 

^— ^ I dent, National Broadcast- 

ing Company, at 10th 






anniversary dinn 
"Meet the Press," Wash- 
ington, D. C, April 28, 
1956. 



Freedom oj Choice: 

"The greatest advantage of the 
American system of broadcasting is 
that the public can choose what it 
wishes to hear and see on the air. This 
privilege of selection — a priceless one 
— is being exercised with increasing 
frequency by the American public. It 
is resulting in better programming be- 
cause as the public becomes more dis- 



criminating in its selection of pro- 
grams, the broadcaster becomes pro- 
gressively more responsive in offering 
quality programs. Surely, it is reason- 
able to expect the public to devote to 
the selection of a 'free' program at 
least the same attention that it gives 
in selecting a theatre production, a 
movie, or a magazine or newspaper 
for which it pays. This is the path to 
better television, and the public seems 
to be following it in increasing meas- 
ure." 




A Problem of Conservation: 

"It is being made very clear to us 
that technological skills are resources 
which require the same careful treat- 
ment as our forests and our soil. We 
are discovering that we have been ex- 
ploiting these talents as a quick cash 
crop without worrying too much about 
next year. As our young scientists and 
engineers have emerged from college, 
we have hustled the vast majority of 
them into industrial and government 
laboratories to work on the technical 
problems of today. Too few have been 
induced to return to our schools as 
teachers who can inspire and instruct 
the young people who must provide 
similar talent on an even greater scale 
tomorrow. The schools themselves — 
and in particular the high schools — 
have suffered from our lack of atten- 
tion. It is high time we started a new 
conservation program." 




Vincent dePaul Goubeau, 
Vice-President, Materials, 
RCA, to the Camden 
Rotary Club, Camden, 
N. J., June 26, 1956. 



Growth in Electronics: 

"A measure of importance and 
growth is the number of people an 
industry employs. Right now, there 
are more than one and a half million 
workers directly employed, and over 
three million indirectly employed in 
companies that serve the electronics in- 
dustry. In ten years we believe that 
electronics will employ more than six 
million workers — directly and indi- 
rectly. ... By the end of 1964, the 
value of electronics will be about triple 
its 1950 value, while the gross national 
product will not have quite doubled." 



R. H. Coffin, Vice-Presi- 
dent, Advertising and 
Sales Promotion, RCA, at 
preview of RCA's 1956-57 
consumer product lines, 
Hotel New Yorker, June 
18, 1956. 



Extended Advertising: 

"We believe we have two winning 
slogans for the 1956-57 campaign in 
'First Choice in Television' for the TV 
line and 'New Sensations in Sound' for 
the High-Fidelity 'Victrola' merchan- 
dise. These themes will be driven 
home in all of our copy and com- 
mercials ... In July, August and 
September we expect to have 300,- 
000,000 impressions from newspapers 
and magazines alone." 




RADIO AGE 37 



flKftJUSut 




Earthbound . . . 

RCA's "weather eye" airborne 
weather radar system, which enables 
pilots to spot storms and cloud forma- 
tions up to 150 miles ahead, was 
anchored to the ground last month 
to serve a highly appropriate function 
— as an exhibit at the U. S. Weather 
Bureau Show in Washington. The 
show, featuring the latest weather de- 
tection equipment and techniques of 
the weather bureau and industry, at- 
tracted some 100,000 visitors at its 
location in the Chamber of Commerce 
Building. The RCA equipment was 
mounted for the purpose in the nose 
and cockpit of a simulated plane, 
showing how the antenna picks ud 
storm formations and displays them 
on the radarscope in the cockpit. The 
"weather eye" system has been pur- 
chased on a fleet basis by five Ameri- 
can and four foreign commercial air- 
lines, and has been installed in many 
types of private aircraft. 




be made outside the Soviet Union were 
released in May by RCA Victor rec- 
ords following the artist's American 
debut at Carnegie Hall in New York. 
Recorded on tape in London for RCA 
Victor by Gramaphone, the New Or- 
thophonic High Fidelity disk includes 
the Saint-Saens Concerto No. 1 in A 
Minor and the Miaskovsky Concerto 
in C, played by Rostropovich with the 
Philharmonia Orchestra conducted by 
Sir Malcolm Sargent. Unlike the case 
with his compatriots, violinist David 
Oistrakh and pianist Emil Gilels, the 
29-year-old cellist's appearance in this 
country was not preceded by a large 
importation of his recordings. 




Recording First . , . 

The first recordings of Russian 
cellist Mstislav Rostropovich ever to 



Shakespeare for Schools . . . 

NBC Television Films passes on 
the word that nearly 2,000,000 high 
school and college students have been 
able to see "Macbeth" and "King Rich- 
ard II" on kinescope recordings ( film 
made directly from TV pickup ) in 
their classrooms during the last two 
years, thanks to television. The two 
plays were presented "live" over NBC 
television during 1954 with actor-pro- 
ducer Maurice Evans in the title roles. 
Subsequently, the performances were 
made available free of charge to the 
nation's schools on 16-mm kinescope 
recordings by Hallmark Cards, sponsor 
of Mr. Evans' television series. "King 
Richard II" has been in circulation 



exactly two years, and "Macbeth" 
slightly less than one year, according 
to Hallmark, and during that time they 
have been shown a total of 6,535 times 
in 3,561 high schools and colleges. 




Keystone . . . 

An RCA color TV studio camera 
has been added by station WJAC-TV, 
Johnstown, Pa., which thereby be- 
comes the first station in Pennsylvania 
equipped to originate its own "live" 
color programs, according to a joint 
announcement by RCA and Alvin D. 
Schrotr, General Manager, WJAC, Inc. 
The independent Johnstown station, 
on channel 6, already has initiated 
local colorcasting with its new facili- 
ties, and Mr Schrott says that present 
plans will call for about three hours 
of original color programs each week, 
with an increase by next winter to 
about 100 hours per month of network 
and local colorcasting. 

How to Service Color TV . . . 

The RCA Service Company has 
come up with a new handy reference 
book for the serviceman working with 
color TV. The 92-page illustrated 
book, bearing the logical title "Servic- 
ing Color Television Receivers," is 
designed principally for reference use 
by dealer and independent servicemen 
who have attended the many color 
TV clinics and workshops sponsored 
throughout the country by the RCA 
Victor Television Division and its au- 
thorized distributors. Copies are given 
free to each serviceman attending a 
workshop or clinic, and additional 
copies may be purchased at $1 per 
copy from the Commercial Service Sec- 
tion, RCA Service Company, Inc., 
Camden, N. J. 



32 RADIO AGE 



YOU CAN 



SELECT at RCA! 



. ..NEW OPPORTUNITIES ...17 + LOCATIONS 
...ONE BEST FOR YOU AND YOUR FAMILY 



























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TYPE OF DEGREE AND YEARS OF EXPERIENCE PREFERRED 


FIELDS OF ENGINEERING ACTIVITY 


Electrical 
Engineers 


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Engineers 


Physical 
Science 


Chemistry 

Ceramics 

Glass Technology 

Metallurgy 


0-2 


2-3 


4-15 


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2-3 


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equipments and 
environment to create 
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AVIATION ELECTRONICS • CONTROLS 






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• DESIGN • DEVELOPMENT 

KINESCOPES (B & W and COLOR), OSCILLOSCOPES— Electron 

Optics — Instrumental Analysis — Solid States (Phosphors, High Tempera- 
ture Phenomena, Photosensitive Materials and Glass to Metal Sealing) 




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Chemical and Physical Development — Methods and Process Engineering 
— Advanced Development 




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Wave— Backward Wave— Magnetron) 


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GAS, POWER AND PHOTO TUBES— Photosensitive Devices— Glass 
to Metal Sealing — UHF and VHF— Power 




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Sub -Miniaturization — Automatic Flight— 


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■nation — Transistorization 


COMPUTERS — Systems — Advanced Development — Circuitry — Assembly 
Design — Mechanisms — Programming 




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1 COMPONENTS— Transformers— Coils— TV Deflection Yokes (Color or 
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Locations: C-Camden. N.J. F-Cocoa Beach, Fla. H-Harrison, N.J. I— International Div. L— Lancaster. Pa. M-Moorestown, N.J. S-RCA Service Co. (Cherry Hill, N.J.; 
Alexandria, Va. ; Tucson, Ariz. ; San Diego. Sacramento, San Francisco, Calif. ; Foreign Assignments i. W— Waltham. Mass. X— Los Angeles, Calit.Y— Marion, Ind. Z— Findlay, Ohio 




Modem benefits program . . . relocation eipenses paid 



Mr. John R. Weld, Employment Manager 
Dept. A-6G, Radio Corporation of Americc 
Please send resume of education and experience, with location preferred, to: j 30 Rockefeller Plaza New York 20 NY 



RADIO CORPORATION of AMERICA 



Copyright 1956 Radio Corporation of America 




Listen . . . RCA brings your ear every sound 
it can hear with new high fidelity 



Ever since Caruso's voice first 
thrilled Americans in their homes, 
RCA has pioneered the search 
for new worlds of sound. Thus 
RCA is now able to present the 
ultimate in high fidelity — New 
Orthophonic "Victrola" phono- 
graphs that reproduce more re- 
corded sound than your ear could 
ever hear before. 

These instruments have been 
made possible by RCA's experi- 
ence, skill— and the tremendous 
facilities of the David Sarnoff Re- 
search Center at Princeton, N. J. 
Constant improvement has been 



sought — and found — on every 
phase of musical reproduction, 
from the microphone over the 
conductor's head to the "Victrola" 
phonograph at your elbow. 

The same leadership that 
brings you New Orthophonic 
High Fidelity instruments is be- 
hind all RCA products — all con- 
ceived through "Electronics for 
Living" that make life easier, 
happier, safer. 



1 



TWIN CONSOLE "MARK I." In one cabinet: 
"Victrola" 3-speed phonograph, tape recorder, 
AM-FM radio. In the other: four matched high 
fidelity speakers. Model 6HF1. $1600. 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

ELECTRONICS FOR LIVING 



RADIO AGE 

RESEARCH • MANUFACTURING - COMMUNICATIONS • BROADCASTING • TELEVISION 



OCTOBER 1956 




RCA "HEAR-SEE" TV TAPE PLAYER 








Overseas 




Pioneered and Developed by 



RCA 







RCA COMMUNICATIONS, INC. • A SERVICE OFW 



VOLUME 15 NUMBER 4 



ARCH • MANUFACTURING • COMMUNICATIONS 
BROADCASTING 'TELEVISION 



OCTOBER 1956 



CONTENTS 





COVER 

Brig. General David Sarnoff 
and Dr. Harry F. Olson, of 
RCA Laboratories, with the 
new RCA "hear-see" tape 
player of television programs 
for the home. (See story on 
page 8.) 



NOTICE 








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Printed in U.S.A. 



Page 

Fifty Years in Radio 3 

Electronic "Gifts" from RCA Research 8 

Color TV Sales Go Upward 14 

Ziegfeld Theatre Becomes a Color Studio 15 

TV and Radio at the Conventions 17 

The Smallest TV "Station" 1° 

"Compatible Colors to See and Wear" 20 

A New Center for Nuclear Research 21 

Ten Years of TV in the Home 22 

"The President's Favorite Music" 23 

Worker Safety Wins Honor for RCA 24 

RCA-NBC Views on UHF Broadcasting 25 

New UHF Station in Buffalo 27 

Electronics in Latin America 28 

Radar for the Starfighter 31 

News in Brief 32 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

RCA Building, New York 20, N.Y. 



DAVID SARNOFF, Chairman of the Bo 
JOHN Q. CANNON, Secretory 



FRANK M. FOLSOM, President 
ERNEST B. GORIN, Treasurer 




Inside the world's first electronically air conditioned room, at RCA's David Sarnoff Research Center. Cooling or 
heating are provided noiselessly by wall panels behind decorative grills shown here. 



Fifty Years in Radio 

General Sarnoff is Honored at Anniversary Dinner; Lists Twenty Developments 
He Foresees in Next 20 Years; RCA Scientists Present Electronic Gifts 



C 



jollapse of Soviet Communism, outlawing of 
war, vastly increased use of nuclear and solar energy, 
the "farming" of oceans, control of weather, world-wide 
color television and person-to-person TV, guided mis- 
siles carrying mail and freight, were among twenty 
major developments in the next twenty years predicted 
on September 30 by Brig. General David Sarnoff, Chair- 
man of the Board of RCA. 

General Sarnoff's look into the future highlighted a 
Golden Anniversary Dinner in his honor at the Waldorf- 
Astoria Hotel in New York, where hundreds of his 
friends and associates gathered to pay tribute upon his 
completion of fifty years of service in radio, television 
and electronics. It was on September 30, 1906, that he 
began his career in radio as a messenger boy with the 
Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America, later 
acquired by RCA. 

President Eisenhower sent the following message of 
congratulation to General Sarnoff: 

"The Golden Anniversary, marking your fifty years 
in the field of radio, television and electronics, is 
made brilliant by your leadership and great contribu- 
tions in the science, art and industry of communica- 
tions. You have established an outstanding record 
of service to the American people and to the Nation. 
You have helped greatly to bulwark the pre-emi- 
nence of the United States in electronics and world- 
wide communications. 

With all who know you I join in congratulations 
on your splendid record of achievements made pos- 
sible by hard work and steady adherence to high 
ideals and American traditions. 
1 hope that the years to come will bring you the 
best of health and happiness — as well as some 
time for golf!" 

Governor Averell Harriman of New York wrote: 
"You are one of the great Americans of our day. Yours 
has been a fabulous career in which you can take 
great pride. Blessed with vision, a brilliant mind, and 
bold imagination you have blazed a path for others to 
follow in so many fields — in radio, in television, in 
electronics, and in the field of nuclear energy. . . ." 



From Adlai E. Stevenson, Democratic Presidential 
candidate, came a letter saluting General Sarnoff on his 
anniversary and stating in part: 

"In the last half century developments in radio, tele- 
vision and electronics have revolutionized the world of 
communication. Indeed, they have profoundly changed 
our civilization and we stand indebted to you for the 
significant contributions you have made to these great 
scientific advances." 

Sir Winston Churchill sent "warm good wishes and 
my congratulations on the 50th anniversary of your 
work in the field of wireless and television to which 
you have contributed so much." 

Dr. Lee DeForest said: "I join with your host of 
admiring friends in deep appreciation of the grand 
things you have achieved for radio communications and 
in the electronics industry during these fifty years. And 
further, as a profound civic philosopher the entire 
Nation is deeply indebted to your extraordinary think- 
ing and keen foresight. . . ." 

Tributes and awards were presented to General 
Sarnoff by the Radio Pioneers, citing his leadership in 
pioneering, and from the National Appliance & Radio- 
TV Dealers Association, in recognition of his contribu- 
tions to the radio-television business. 

"Presents" from RCA Scientists 

Dr. Elmer W. Engstrom, Senior Executive Vice- 
President of RCA, recalled that five years ago, on the 
occasion of General Sarnoff's forty-fifth anniversary of 
service in radio, he asked for three "presents" from 
RCA scientists for his fiftieth anniversary. 

Dr. Engstrom announced that the gifts, representing 
major advances in electronics, were ready for presenta- 
tion and would be "unwrapped" for demonstration pub- 
licly on October 1 at the David Sarnoff Research Center, 
Princeton, N. J. The "presents," which were shown on 
color slides at the dinner, included a magnetic tape 
recorder of both color and black-and-white television 
for broadcast use, a home magnetic tape player for tele- 
vision, an electronic amplifier of light and an applica- 
tion of it to industrial X-ray use, an electronic air 
conditioner and in addition an electronic refrigerator. 



RADIO AGE 3 



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The gold medallion and plaque presented to General 
SarnofT at the Golden Anniversary Dinner. 

Congratulating the scientists, research men and engi- 
neers for their pioneering courage, perseverance and 
competence, General Sarnoff expressed his grateful 
thanks and accepted "the amazing gifts on behalf of our 
company." He said that in time they would find their 
way to the market place, serve the public, benefit indus- 
try and open immense fields for further exploration and 
development. 

Predicts Twenty Major Developments 

"However impressive the events that have filled the 
last fifty years, or even the last century," continued 
General SarnofT, "I am convinced that they will be 
eclipsed by the events of the next twenty years. Let us 
consider twenty major developments likely to affect all 
of us within that time." 

With that preface General Sarnoff proceeded to 
make the following twenty predictions for the twenty 
years ahead, explaining that he had not attempted to 
list them in the order of their appearance or their rela- 
tive importance: 

Nuclear Energy: "We will have learned to extract 
atomic fuel from relatively inexpensive materials, thus 



making this power both plentiful and economical. 
Nuclear energy will be brought to a practical state of 
peace-time usfulness, not only for industry but for planes, 
ships, trains and automobiles. Direct conversion of 
atomic energy into electricity — a principle already dem- 
onstrated experimentally by RCA — will be a fact. 
Atomic batteries, based on low-cost waste products from 
nuclear reactors and operating for many years without 
recharging, will supply energy for industry and for the 
home." 

Solar Energy: "The energy of sun rays will be effec- 
tively harnessed and in worldwide use. It will prove of 
special value to tropical and semi-tropical parts of the 
globe where the sun's energy is immense but where 
underdeveloped nations cannot afford fully to utilize 
present-day fuels and power sources." 

Communications: "Television, in full colors, will 
be completely global, so that man will be able not only to 
speak and hear all around this planet but to see the entire 
world in natural colors. Individuals will be able to hold 
private two-way conversations, and see each other as they 
talk, regardless of the distances separating them. More- 
over, the beginnings will have been made in the auto- 
matic and instantaneous translation of languages, en- 
abling people to understand one another at once across 
the barriers of Babel." 

Transportation: "Jet-propulsion and rocket-type 
vehicles, using nuclear fuels, will travel at speeds as high 
as 5,000 miles an hour with greater safety and comfort 
than today's aircraft. The world's leading cities will be 
only hours apart, many of them virtually within com- 
muting distance. Inexpensive personal planes, flivvers of 
the skies, will fill the air. Automatically piloted aircraft 
for passenger service will be far advanced; guided mis- 
siles will transport mail and other freight over vast 
distances, including oceans." 

Automation: "Already well launched, automation 
will reach a crescendo under the impact of cheap and 
abundant power. It will increase production, decrease 
costs, and make more goods and services available to 
more people. The transition will create problems of 
adjustment but ultimately it will free millions of people 
from arduous and hazardous work. It will increase em- 
ployment, reduce hours of labor and increase leisure." 

Materials: "Chemistry will make spectacular strides 
in providing ever new materials tailored to meet almost 
any specifications man can imagine. A tremendous array 
of new plastics, ceramics, lubricants and categories of 
substances that as yet have no name will become avail- 
able for personal and industrial uses." 



4 RADIO AGE 



Electronic Light: "Electroluminescence or cold 
light,' now emerging from the research laboratories, will 
bring into being startling new types of illumination. It 
will change the appearance of our factories, streets, stores, 
highways and homes. Providing light without heat and 
almost without shadow, its flow will be subject to easy 
control for volume and color nuances to suit any taste or 
decor. Being light without glare, it will eliminate many 
of the perils of night driving and flying. It will also give 
us brighter and bigger TV pictures, and ultimately re- 
place the TV tube altogether with a thin, flat-surface 
screen that will be hung like a picture on the wall." 

Computers: "The era of electronic computers, al- 
ready begun, will reach fruition. Recording and account- 
ing will be taken over by robots, freeing for other work 
the great majority of the nine million Americans now 
engaged in clerical tasks. Business procedures, industrial 
operations and fiscal data will be gathered and analyzed 
automatically. New products will, for the most part, 
have their performance predicted by computers, re- 
moving the need for building actual working models. 
High-speed writing and reading will be as familiar as 
high-speed arithmetic is today." 

Food: "Striking developments in irrigation and flood 
control, more efficient use of solar energy, the electronic 



acceleration of germination and growth, as well as new 
chemical and biological discoveries will greatly expand 
mankind's food resources. At the same time, the oceans 
will be efficiently 'farmed' for nutritive products. Thus 
all the food needed by all the people of the world will 
become available, despite the fact that the population 
will continue to grow. These developments will enable 
famine to be eliminated in all parts of the world." 

Health: "The close ties now developing between 
biology, chemistry and physics, applying the new tools 
of electronics and atomics, will bring an avalanche of 
improvements in preventive medicine, diagnosis and 
treatment of human ills. Biochemistry will furnish dis- 
ease-controlling and health-sustaining drugs at an accel- 
erated rate, especially in meeting the physical problems 
of old age. Man's life span will be further extended, 
probably within hailing distance of the century mark." 

The Home: "The housewife's dream of an all-auto- 
matic home will be realized. The day's chores in the 
home will be pre-scheduled, with each of the tasks per- 
formed electronically. The temperature, humidity and 
velocity of the air in each part of the home will be auto- 
matically kept at the desired levels day and night, and the 
air will be purged of bacteria and other contaminating 
matter. Electronic appliances will do the cooking and 



Among prominent guests at the dinner was Bernard M. 

Baruch, shown here being greeted by Robert W. Sarnoff, 

President of NBC. 



Frank M. Folsom, right, President of RCA, and Dr. 

E. W. Engstrom, Senior Executive Vice-President, at the 

Golden Anniversary Dinner. 




RADIO AGE 5 




General Sarnoff is shown here with special RCA research 

report on his three "presents," a glass bowl presented 

on behalf of the RCA family, and the gold medallion — 

all presented at the dinner. 

the dishwashing, and will dispose of waste. Fortunately, 
we shall continue to do our own eating." 

Climate: "Not only will the prediction of weather 
for months and even years ahead be perfected, but major 
steps will have been taken to make and control weather 
as desired. Ports now icebound will be unfrozen and ice- 
bergs rapidly melted. Progress will have been made in 
dissipating storms even of hurricane intensity, or in 
diverting them from a destructive course." 

At this point, General Sarnoff pointed out that thus 
far he had dealt mainly with technological progress, "an 
area where we can tread with some assurance." 

"I wish I had the same degree of assurance with 
respect to developments in the social and political areas, 
where the most unpredictable force of all — human 
conduct — tells the story," he continued. "But social 



sciences are deeply affected by changes in physical 
environment which greatly influences human conduct." 

General Sarnoff's list of forecasts continues: 

Communism: "Within the next twenty years Soviet 
Communism will collapse under the weight of its eco- 
nomic fallacies, its political follies, and the pressures of 
a restive, discontented population. These pressures will 
increase with the rise and spread of education amongst 
their own people." 

"Practical ways and means will be found by the free 
world to pierce the Iron Curtain and bring home to the 
Russian people the facts and the truth. The Soviet 
empire will fall apart as one satellite after another attains 
its own liberation. The Communist hierarchy will de- 
stroy itself by internal struggles for power and will be 
displaced by a military dictatorship which in turn will 
give way to representative government." 

People's Capitalism: "The prestige of the Marxist 
solution of social problems will decline as its limitations 
and errors become increasingly apparent in a rapidly 
developing world of technology. It will be more gen- 
erally realized that centralized state economy is incom- 
patible with human freedom. As Socialism is stripped 
of its popular appeals, the dynamics of a people's cap- 
italism within a democratic framework will be intensi- 
fied." 

Living Standards: "The equation of the technical 
developments already listed will usher in an era of rela- 
tive economic abundance. Slowly but surely the waters 
of wretchedness now covering so much of the earth will 
recede, and levels of well-being without past parallel will 
be attained all over the world. The most pressing prob- 
lems will not be the use of labor but the intelligent and 
beneficient use of leisure." 

Education: "As a by-product of economic progress 
and expanding leisure, man will enter upon a period of 
universal education. Not only will general levels of 
knowledge rise, but the intellectual climate will be 
favorable to development of special talents and indi- 
vidual genius. Highly-geared technology will put a 
premium on brains: ever more skilled scientists, engi- 
neers, designers, technicians, and others. This mounting 
demand for mental competence will tend to enlarge edu- 
cational facilities and promote the arts and sciences." 

Entertainment: "Every form of art and every type 
of entertainment will be readily accessible in the home. 
Talent — both live and recorded — will be available by 
television, radio, the phonograph and electronic photog- 
raphy. The opportunities for creative and interpretative 



6 RADIO AGE 




Opera stars Jan Peerce and Rise Stevens performed 
selections at the Golden Anniversary dinner. 



and salvation, for age-old values beyond the material 
and temporal that gnaw at the heart of man." 

"Science begets humility. Its every discovery reveals 
more clearly the Divine Design in nature, the remark- 
able harmony in all things, from the infinitesimal to the 
infinite, that surpasses mortal understanding. The physi- 
cal processes and laws of the universe are logical, all- 
embracing and wholly dependable. They imply a 
Supreme Architect, and the beauty and symmetry of 
His handiwork inspire reverence." 

It may be that the imperfection of man, too, is a 
part of that creative symphony. The seed of moral 
perfection has been planted in man, but it has been 
left to him to nurture it to full flower in the harsh soil 
of mortal existence. Thus man is given a positive role 
in carrying out a phase of the blueprint of the Supreme 
Architect. 

In conclusion, General SarnofF said, "A man who 
has survived half a century of labor in any field will, 
I hope, be forgiven for an excursion to the heights 
where not only the past, but a bit of the future seem 
spread out before his eyes. The world, as I see it, that 
awaits us over the horizon of the next twenty years, is 
challenging — exciting — and promising." 



talents will be greater than ever before. The range and 
variety of programs will embrace everything created by 
the human mind." 

Government: "Because of unprecedented access to 
information, public opinion will be a more decisive ele- 
ment in the political life of nations. Prevailing sentiment 
on any issue will be quickly and accurately registered by 
electronic means. Government and people will thus be 
brought into closer correlation, so that popular govern- 
ment and democratic processes will tend to become 
more and more effective." 

War: "Universal communications and speedy trans- 
portation will shrink the world to a neighborhood. Tech- 
nological developments in weapons of mass destruction 
will leave no doubt that the alternative is between sur- 
vival or annihilation. All nations will find it imperative 
to develop and adopt practical means for disarmament 
based on effective inspection, control and enforcement. 
War as an instrument of international policy will be 
outlawed." 

Science and Religion: "As a reaction against cur- 
rent cynicism and materialism, there will be an upsurge 
of spiritual vitality. The gradual elimination of physical 
hungers will deepen the more elemental hunger for faith 



This special key to the world's first electronically air- 
conditioned room, was presented to General SarnofF 
on behalf of RCA Laboratories. 




RADIO AGE 7 



Electronic "Gifts" from RCA Research 

Electronic Air Conditioner, Home "Hear-See" Tape Player, and Electronic 
Light Amplifier are Displayed for First Time at RCA Laboratories 



T„ 



.hree MAJOR developments in electronics requested 
five years ago by Brig. General David Sarnoff, Chairman 
of the Board of the Radio Corporation of America — 
an electronic air conditioner with no moving parts, a 
magnetic tape recording system for television, and an 
electronic amplifier of light — were presented and dem- 
onstrated to him on October 1 at the David Sarnoff 
Research Center by RCA scientists as gifts to mark his 
50th anniversary of service in the fields of radio, televi- 
sion, and electronics. 

The new developments, and several unique applica- 
tions of them, include: 

A room cooled or heated by electronic panels. 
operating in complete silence and with no moving 
parts. Also a noiseless electronic refrigerator with 
no moving parts. 

A home "hear-see" magnetic tape player which 
reproduces television programs through standard 
television receivers. 

An electronic amplifier of light which amplifies 
by up to 1,000 times the brightness of projected 
light; and an application of it in the form of an 
amplifying fluoroscope for industrial X-ray use. 

General Sarnoff made his request in September, 
1951, and expressed his hope that the new devices 
would be invented by the time of his 50th anniversary. 

Three years later, the RCA scientists produced and 
publicly demonstrated the first of these devices — a 
magnetic tape recording system for color and black-and- 
white television. Designed for broadcast use, this sys- 
tem was later installed at the studios of the National 
Broadcasting Company, where it has since undergone 
extensive field tests preparatory to commercial use. It 
was used in May, 1955, in transmitting the first long- 
distance tape-recorded color television program, sent 
over a closed circuit from New York to St. Paul, Min- 
nesota. 

Progress Toward the Market and the Home 
Next, the RCA scientists produced and demon- 
strated publicly a small refrigerator operating by purely 
electronic means. A little later, they produced and 
demonstrated an electronic light amplifier panel capable 
of increasing the brightness of projected light. 

On October 1 , the RCA scientists showed that they 




The world's first electronically air-conditioned room, at 
the David Sarnoff Research Center, is opened by Brig. 
General David Sarnoff. Looking on are Dr. E. W. 
Engstrom, left, Senior Executive Vice-President of RCA, 
and Nils E. Lindenblad, of the RCA Laboratories 
research staff, who headed development work. 

have made further progress and are bringing these in- 
ventions nearer to the market and the home: 

The principles employed in the television tape re- 
cording system have been applied in development of a 
home television sight-and-sound tape player; 

An electronic room air conditioning system and a 
new, larger electronic refrigerator have been developed 
from the earlier small refrigerator; 

From the original light amplifier, the scientists have 
developed the new amplifier capable of increasing by 
1,000 times the brightness of projected light, and have 
also devised a practical application for such a system 
in industrial X-ray functions. 



8 RADIO AGE 



The presentation to General Sarnoff was made by 
Dr. E. W. Engstrom, Senior Executive Vice-President 
of RCA, who said: 

"The RCA Laboratories organization is especially 
proud to present you, General Sarnorl, with this ful- 
fillment of your request of five years ago. It is most 
fitting that these evidences of truly remarkable progress 
in electronics should be disclosed at this time — on the 
fiftieth anniversary of one whose faith in electronic sci- 
ence has been unlimited, and whose encouragement of 
research has been responsible for so many outstanding 
achievements in radio, television, and electronics." 

In his acceptance of the new developments, General 
Sarnoff paid tribute to the pioneering work of RCA 
scientists and engineers, saying: 

"My request of five years ago was not made lightly, 
but in full awareness of the ingenuity, vision and per- 
sistence which characterize the research people of RCA. 
These radical developments represent modern science 
at its best, concentrating its formidable talents upon the 
constructive task of providing a wealth of devices and 
techniques for man's well-being. It is most gratifying 
to me that all these new developments are related to 
peace-time use." 

Alain Features Are Summarized 
The new devices shown at the David Sarnoff Re- 
search Center were developed by teams of scientists, 
engineers and technicians of RCA Laboratories working 
under the supervision of Dr. Douglas H. Ewing, Vice- 
President, RCA Laboratories, and Dr. Irving Wolff. 
Vice-President, Research, of RCA. 

They were described in the following terms by Dr. 
Engstrom and the RCA scientists: 



The noiseless electronic air conditioning system 

comprises large wall panels which become cold under 
the influence of direct electric current. With a reversal 
of the electric current, the same panels produce a heating 
effect. Employing new materials developed at RCA 
Laboratories, the system uses no motors, fans, pumps 
or other moving parts, but achieves room cooling or 
heating by both radiation and convection — the gentle 
circulation of air caused by differences in the air tem- 
perature. In the small demonstration room used for 
the October 1 display, the system is capable of main- 
taining a room temperature as much as 25 degrees 
cooler than the temperature outside. Used in reverse 
for room heating, the system is capable of maintaining 
a room temperature considerably more than 25 degrees 
warmer than the temperature outside, according to the 
RCA scientists. 

The new electronic refrigerator, a larger and 
more efficient successor to the experimental RCA elec- 
tronic refrigerator announced by General Sarnoff in 
January, 1955, operates on principles identical to those 
of the electronic air conditioning system. The refrig- 
erator has a food compartment of 4 cubic feet, in which 
a temperature of 40 to 45 degrees is maintained, plus 
a 30-cubic-inch ice tray in which ice cubes can be 
produced. Like the air conditioner, the refrigerator is 
noiseless and has no moving parts. 

The "hear-see" home magnetic tape player for 
television, housed in a cabinet no larger than a high- 
quality magnetic tape sound reproducer, can play over 
a standard television set the pictures and sound of tele- 
vision selecrions pre-recorded on magnetic tape. Em- 
ploying reels of various sizes, the player reproduces on 
the TV set black-and-white TV selections equivalent in 



Checking temperature of fins at the rear of the elec- 
tronic air-conditioning panels are Nils E. Lindenblad, 
left, and Charles J. Busanovich, of the research team 
which developed the unique system. 



This is the world's first electronically air-conditioned 

room, at the David Sarnoff Research Center of RCA. 

Panels for cooling or heating are seen in room walls 

behind decorative grillwork. 





The new, improved electronic refrigerator is demon- 
strated by models at RCA's David Sarnoff Research 
Center. Food compartment has capacity of 4 cubic feet: 
ice tray, at bottom, measures 30 cubic inches. 

running time to phonograph records, from tape only 
Va -inch wide. The tape selections are recorded on the 
previously-developed RCA magnetic tape recording sys- 
tem for black-and-white and color television. Already 
under way is the next step — reproduction of pre- 
recorded "hear-see" tape selections in color. 

The electronic light amplifier, in the form of a 
thin, flat panel, can increase by 1,000 times the visual 
brightness of a projected light image. A further de- 
velopment of the light amplifier announced by RCA in 
December, 1954, the new device has potential applica- 
tion in large, high-brightness radar display and certain 
types of communication. The new amplifier, incorpo- 
rating improved materials and a new structure, is 
capable not only of increasing the brightness of visible 
images, but of converting invisible X-rays and infra-red 
images to bright visible form. 

The amplifying fluoroscope for industrial X-ray 
use, is an application of the light amplifier with poten- 
tial uses in a wide range of industrial inspection func- 
tions. It displays X-ray images 100 times brighter in 
greater contrast, and consequently with marked im- 
provement in perceptibility of detail in comparison with 



present-day fluoroscopic screens. Consisting of a thin 
panel which can be substituted readily for the conven- 
tional fluoroscopic screen, the new device permits view- 
ing of X-ray images in normally lighted surroundings 
rather than in the darkness needed for viewing by 
present techniques. Dr. Engstrom pointed out that use 
of the amplifying fluoroscope also makes it possible to 
reduce X-ray intensity by as much as ten times and still 
achieve images of satisfactory brightness and contrast 
for direct viewing in the darkened surroundings now 
customary for this type of industrial inspection. 

Details of the New Developments 
Following the presentation to General Sarnoff, the 
new developments were demonstrated to the press and 
described in detail by Dr. Engstrom and the RCA sci- 
entists and engineers concerned in their development. 

RCA ELECTRONIC 
AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 

Demonstrated in a specially constructed room, the 
RCA electronic air conditioner was described by Dr. 
Engstrom as "a truly revolutionary development — an 
air conditioning system which for the first time operates 
in complete silence, contains no moving parts, produces 
no heavy drafts, and can be used either to cool or to 
heat a room by the simple expedient of reversing the 
flow of direct electric current." 

The demonstration system comprises two large wall 
panels — one measuring 5x5 feet, and the other 5x6 
feet — with surfaces consisting of an array of 2-inch 
metal squares. To the back of each square is attached 
a small cylinder of thermoelectric material developed 
at RCA Laboratories. Dr. Engstrom explained that such 
materials produce either cold or heat under the influ- 
ence of direct electric current, depending upon the 
direction of flow of the current. 

The new thermoelectric materials and the panels 
themselves were developed by a research group under 
the direction of Nils E. Lindenblad, veteran RCA sci- 
entist and engineer who was responsible for the first 
electronic refrigerator shown by RCA early last year, 
and for the improved and larger refrigerator. 

Based on 120-Y 'ear-Old Principle 

Mr. Lindenblad explained that the air conditioning 
system and the refrigerators operate on a principle dis- 
covered more than 120 years ago by the French physi- 
cist Jean Charles Peltier. In the so-called "Peltier 
Effect," the passage of a direct current through a junc- 
tion of two dissimilar materials creates a cooling effect 
at the junction when the current moves in one direction, 
and a heating effect when the direction of current is 
reversed. 



70 RADIO AGE 



"Starting with this experiment, which has remained 
largely a scientific curiosity for more than a century, we 
have taken a new approach based on our recently- 
acquired knowledge or the behavior of electrons inside 
various solid materials," said Mr. Lindenblad. "As a 
resuit, we have been able to create for the first time new 
matt-rials which achieve cooling and heating by this 
means on a practical scale." 

As described by Mr. Lindenblad, the Peltier effect 
has been applied in the following fashion to achieve 
the RCA room air conditioning system: 

The passage of direct current through the thermo- 
electric junctions behind each of the small square plates 
on the wall panels causes heat to be carried away from 
the squares. At the other end of each junction is a set 
of small cooling fins which dissipate the heat. When 
the system is used for heating, the current is reversed, 
and the heat is "pumped" electronically into the plates 
from the air outside the room. 

Mr. Lindenblad pointed out that the panels replace 
a complete section of wall, so that the cooling or heating 
surface is in the room while the fins are exposed to out- 
door air. He explained that since the fins are only 4 
inches long, they might normally be adapted to any 
architectural design by shielding behind a decorative 
panel suiting the exterior appearance of a house. 

Associated with Mr. Lindenblad in development of 
the system were C. J. Busanovich, R. H. Fisher, and 
other members of the staff of RCA Laboratories. 



The new RCA "hear-see" tape player, shown here in a 

home setting at the David Sarnoff Research Center, 

plays pre-recorded TV programs from magnetic tape 

over a standard television receiver. 




NEW ELECTRONIC REFRIGERATOR 

The new RCA electronic refrigerator, according to 
Dr. Engstrom, represents "another major step toward 
practical refrigeration in a form which may supplement 
and diversify the art of refrigeration as we know it 
today." 

Pointing out that the new refrigerator operates on 
the principles employed in the electronic air condition- 
ing system and the earlier RCA developmental elec- 
tronic refrigerator, Dr. Engstrom said: 

"This type of cooling and freezing, accomplished 
electronically through panels which may be varied in 
size and arrangement, may be expected to lead to de- 
velopment of specialized refrigerators and coolers for 
the home, to portable refrigerators, and to novel cooling 
or freezing devices for many uses in science, medicine, 
industry, and defense." 

Discussing the new refrigerator, Mr. Lindenblad 
explained its various features this way: 

Cooling in the 4-cubic-foot food storage compart- 
ment is achieved with an array of the thermojunctions 
similar to those used in the air conditioning system. 
These are mounted directly on the outside wall of the 
aluminum cooling compartment, and they dissipate 
through air-cooled fins the heat drawn from inside the 
compartment. In the earlier RCA electronic refrigerator, 
the heat was removed by circulating water. 

The ice tray, of 30 cubic inches, rests on a slab of 
copper, to the underside of which are attached several 
thermojunctions. Larger cooling fins are arrayed around 
the ice compartment assembly for removing heat. 

In contrast to the earlier electronic refrigerator, the 
larger improved type employs new thermoelectric ma- 
terials that achieve a temperature drop almost double 
that in the previous model. At the same time, the 
capacity of the new refrigerator represents a substantial 
gain over the one-cubic-foot cooling compartment and 
8-cubic-inch ice maker in the earlier model. Because 
of the improvement in thermoelectric materials, the 
new refrigerator requires less direct current power for 
operation than did its small predecessor. 

'HEAR-SEE" MAGNETIC TAPE PLAYER 
FOR TELEVISION 

An outgrowth of the research program which de- 
veloped the RCA tape recorder for color television 
broadcast use, the new "hear-see" home magnetic tape 
player for black-and-white television was described by 
Dr. Engstrom as "a development of major significance 
in the field of home entertainment." 

"Adding sight to the sound of recorded selections, 
this new device heralds the approach of a new era in 
the recording art," said Dr. Engstrom. "In its present 



RADIO AGE ?? 



experimental form, the player presents on a standard 
home television set, selections comparable in length to 
those on phonograph records." 

Dr. Engstrom added that research already is in 
progress on development of a simple recording attach- 
ment for the tape player. Such a system, he said, would 
permit the home user to record his favorite incoming 
TV programs for repeated viewing, and to make origi- 
nal tape recordings at home for immediate or later 
playback on the TV set. 

"Small transistorized television cameras that could 
be used with such a system of electronic photography 
already have been developed at RCA Laboratories," he 
said. "A recording system of this type also may be 
expected to bring about new and more effective tech- 
niques of television news coverage, as well as new visual 
techniques of importance in industry and defense." 

Developed by a team of scientists and engineers 
under the direction of Dr. Harry F. Olson, Director of 
the Acoustical and Electromechanical Research Labora- 
tory, RCA Laboratories, the novel tape player embodies 
techniques learned in the development of the earlier 
and larger RCA color TV tape recorder for broadcast 
use. The research team responsible for the new de- 
velopment included William D. Houghton, Maurice 
Artzt, J. T. Fischer, A. R. Morgan, J. O. Woodward, and 
Joseph Zenel, all of whom contributed also to develop- 
ment of the earlier system. 



The new RCA light amplifier, which increases visible 

brightness of a projected image up to 1,000 times, is 

demonstrated here by Benjamin Kazan, RCA scientist 

responsible for its development. 




In the press demonstration, three pre-recorded tapes 
were played by the new device through a standard RCA 
television set. They included a special 4-minute re- 
cording by Vaughn Monroe, recorded at the David 
Sarnoff Research Center on September 19; and two 
4-minute selections tape-recorded by picking up from 
the air regular television broadcasts on September 22 — 
one featuring a song by Eddie Fisher, and the other 
including portions of baseball and football games. 

Discussing the various features of the home tape 
player, Dr. Olson said: 

"This home system has been designed with an eye 
to simplicity in both production and operation. The 
magnetic tape employed is only !/4-inch in width, and 
techniques which we are now developing will permit 
the use of two tracks arranged side-by-side on the tape 
so that the playing time will be doubled. The tape 
speed is 10 feet per second, and reels of various di- 
ameters may be used. 

"Pre-recorded tapes for the television tape player can 
be easily produced by techniques already proven in the 
RCA television tape system for broadcast use, and they 
can be marketed in the same fashion as standard phono- 
graph records and sound tapes. As television itself has 
shown, the artistic possibilities of combining pictures 
with sound are limitless." 

NEW ELECTRONIC LIGHT AMPLIFIER 

The new RCA electronic light amplifier, which can 
increase by up to 1,000 times the brightness of pro- 
jected light images, was described by Dr. Engstrom as 
"a development of major potential importance in the 
held of electronic display techniques." 

The main features of the device were discussed by 
Dr. D. W. Epstein, of the RCA Laboratories technical 
staff, and Benjamin Kazan, RCA scientist who devel- 
oped both the new light amplifier and its application 
in the amplifying fluoroscope. 

"An amplifier of this type," said Dr. Epstein, "may 
find wide application in a number of areas. An example 
is radar viewing, where the observer frequently must 
cope with dim images, and where persistence as well as 
brightness are desired. Since the amplifier also con- 
verts invisible X-rays and infra-red images to bright 
visible images, other possible important uses lie in the 
military field and in astronomy, where analysis of infra- 
red radiation from dim sources plays an important role." 

Consists of Thin Screen 

Mr. Kazan described the light amplifier in these 
terms: 

Developed from the electronic light amplifier origi- 
nally developed by Mr. Kazan and Dr. F. H. Nicoll, of 
the RCA Laboratories technical staff, the new device 



J 2 RADIO AGE 



consists ot a thin screen formed by two closely-spaced 
layers, one of photoconductive material and the other 
of electroluminescent phosphor. Between these is a very 
thin layer of opaque material to prevent feeding back 
of light. The layers are sandwiched between the two 
transparent electrodes, and a voltage is applied across 
the entire assembly. 

In operation, an extremely dim light image falls 
directly on the photoconductive layer, permitting a cor- 
responding pattern of electric current to flow through 
to the electroluminescent layer. Under the influence 
of this current pattern, the electroluminescent phosphor 
emits light, forming a high-brightness image of the 
original picture. This process occurs because the photo- 
conductive material acts as an insulator in the absence 
of light, but conducts current under the influence of 
light. The electroluminescent material remains dark 
until it is excited by an electric current, which causes it 
to emit light. 

In the press demonstration, an image too dim to 
be seen clearly by the human eye was projected against 
the photoconductive layer of the panel from a slide 
projector. On the other side of the panel, the image 
appeared as an extremely bright picture of television 
quality, formed by the light emitted by the electro- 
luminescent phosphor. 

Mr. Kazan pointed out that the far greater bright- 
ness achieved with the new light amplifier in compari- 
son with the earlier type has resulted from the avail- 
ability of improved materials produced by RCA research, 
and from a new type of construction in the light am- 
plifier panel itself. 

AMPLIFYING FLUOROSCOPE FOR 
INDUSTRIAL X-RAY USE 

Adjacent to the new electronic light amplifier at the 
October 1 demonstration was an application of the 
device as an amplifying fluoroscope for industrial X-ray 
use — an application which was described by Dr. Eng- 
strom as opening the way to "far greater speed, ef- 
ficiency and accuracy in the vital field of industrial 
inspection techniques." 

"Producing an X-ray image about 100 times brighter 
than that obtained with the conventional fluoroscopic 
screen, the RCA amplifier panel at the same time pro- 
vides far more contrast than can be obtained with the 
present type of fluoroscopic equipment," said Dr. 
Engstrom. "This far greater brightness and increased 
contrast in turn provide marked improvement in per- 
ceptibility of detail. In addition, the X-ray image can 
be viewed in normally lighted surroundings, rather than 
in an unlighted enclosure where the eye must become 
dark-adapted." 



Mr. Kazan pointed out that the ability of the light 
amplifier panel to convert X-rays to visible light made 
possible the development of the amplifying fluoroscope. 
In this application. X-ray shadow pictures falling on the 
photoconductive layer permit a corresponding pattern 
of electric current to flow through to the electrolumi- 
nescent layer, which emits light corresponding to the 
original X-ray shadow picture. 

In the demonstration, the amplifying fluoroscope was 
shown in operation adjacent to a standard industrial 
fluoroscope screen of the type in general use. Even 
in a darkened room, the fluoroscopic image on the 
conventional screen remained almost invisible until the 
eyes of the observers had become dark-adapted, and 
the visible image even then remained difficult for the 
eye to observe in detail. The same image appearing 
on the new amplifying fluoroscope, however, could be 
seen clearly and in detail even when the room lights 
were turned on. The sample examined with both screens 
was an electron tube. 

According to Dr. Engstrom, further research is ex- 
pected to produce a photoconductive material which 
will respond with sufficient speed to changes in X-ray 
or light emission, making possible the development of 
an electronic amplifying fluoroscope for medical uses. 
The present device, he explained, emits its light for a 
few seconds after the X-rays have been cut off. 

The new amplifying fluoroscope is demonstrated by Mr. 
Kazan in comparison with standard fluoroscopic screen. 
In the window of the demonstration unit, the amplifying 
fluoroscope at left and conventional fluoroscope at right 
are operated simultaneously. The specimen, an electron 
tube, appears brightly only on the amplifying fluoro- 
scope, which increases image brightness 100 times. 




RADIO AGE 13 



c 



Color TV Sales Go Upward 



/OLOR television's soaring popularity in the Phila- 
delphia area and in other major cities across the country 
— as evidenced by the excellent sales record of recent 
weeks — means that color television is running well 
ahead of earlier expectations, Brig. General David Sarnoff, 
Chairman of the Board of the Radio Corporation of 
America, declared on October 15. 

General Sarnoff spoke at a ceremony at Gimbel's 
Department Store at which he received a scroll presented 
on behalf of more than 200 dealers in greater Phila- 
delphia who participated in a sales-shattering perform- 
ance during "General Sarnoff Color Television Week." 

The scroll stated: "To General David Sarnoff, on 
the occasion of your Fiftieth Anniversary in the wireless, 
radio, phonograph and television industry — we, the 
undersigned dealers in the territories served by Raymond 
Rosen & Co., Inc., as an expression of our confidence in 
your newest baby — color television — have in the week 
ending September 29, taken delivery of more than 1,000 
RCA Victor color television receivers." 

The scroll was presented to General Sarnoff by T. F. 
Joyce, President of Raymond Rosen & Co., RCA Victor 
distributor in the greater Philadelphia area. The occasion 
also marked the opening at Gimbel's in Philadelphia of 
a new traveling RCA exposition which features color 
television and the latest RCA developments in elec- 
tronics. 

General Sarnoff, who on September 30 commemo- 
rated his Fiftieth Anniversary of service to radio, tele- 
vision and electronics, said he was very optimistic over 
the present outlook for color television. 

Comments on Readiness of Color 
Asked if he had any comment on a recent statement 
by the President of a large electrical manufacturing com- 
pany that color television is not ready yet, he said: 

"I yield to no man in my enthusiasm for color tele- 
vision. Anyone who wants to wait until the wagon is 
rolling and then get on for a free ride should have the 
courtesy to remain silent. Television started in 1946. 
The company represented by the man who said that 
color is not here did not realize that black-and-white 
television was here for ten years. That company did not 
get going in television until 1956." 

Asked how many color television sets RCA would 
produce and sell in 1956, General Sarnoff said, "We 
expect to manufacture and sell 200,000 color television 
sets in 1956, as we originally estimated, and it is a con- 
servative estimate that RCA alone will produce and 
sell 500,000 color television sets in 1957." 



"We are particularly encouraged," he said, "by the 
mounting sales of RCA Victor's Big Color TV receivers, 
since our new line, which broke the $500 cost-barrier, 
was introduced in mid-July. Sales to dealers are in- 
creasing week by week. 

"Already, we are in short supply of our three lower- 
priced models — those nationally advertised at $495.00, 
$550.00 and $595.00 — and we have stepped up pro- 
duction on those models to the extent that we have 
authorized premium overtime production by the sup- 
plier of the cabinets of the low priced sets. In addition, 
we are currently selling our $650.00 and $695.00 sets at 
about the planned sales rate. 

"Our new color merchandise met with an excep- 
tionally enthusiastic response from the public. Even 
during the month of August, when the sale of TV sets 
is traditionally at a low level and before NBC expanded 
its evening color programming by more than 500 per 
cent, customer installations were far ahead of any sched- 
ule we had in mind. This information was based on 
the installation records of our own RCA Service Com- 
pany. 

Rate of Sales to Dealers Triples 

"From the first week in September — the start of 
the traditional Fall selling season — to last week our 
rate of sales to dealers has tripled. For example in one 
of our best markets, more than 1,100 color sets were 
sold to dealers last week." 

In a statement on the success of color in the Phila- 
delphia market, Mr. Joyce said: 

"During the first week in October, the RCA Victor 
dealers in the Philadelphia wholesale market accepted 
delivery on 1107 RCA Victor color television receivers. 
This was a tribute by 205 participating RCA Victor 
retailers to General David Sarnoff, Chairman of the 
Board of RCA, on the beginning of his second half 
century of service to the radio, phonograph and tele- 
vision industry. 

"Much more significant than the fact that our com- 
pany has shipped more than 1100 RCA Victor color 
television receivers in one week is the fact that Raymond 
Rosen & Company's billings on RCA Victor color tele- 
vision receivers for the month of October will be close to 
two million dollars in retail prices; that the value of the 
sales of RCA Victor color television receivers now ex- 
ceeds that of black-and-white television receivers in the 
Philadelphia market and that our company looks forward 
with confidence to selling more than 50,000 RCA Victor 
color television receivers in 1957." 



14 RADIO AGE 




New York's famed Ziegfeld Theatre — now a color 
TV studio. 



N, 



ew York's historic Ziegfeld Theatre, world- 
famous for many years as the home of spectacular stage 
presentations, has been converted by the National 
Broadcasting Company into a unique color television 
studio in which the tradition of the famed theatre will 
be carried on in the electronic era. 

Conversion of the Ziegfeld is a highlight of the 
extensive NBC program of growth in color television, 
as announced recently by NBC President Robert W. 
SarnofF. Acquired as part of a SI 2,000,000 building 
program undertaken by the company within the past 
year to double its color facilities for a major increase in 
programming this fall, the Ziegfeld represents part of 
an increase in studio facilities which also includes 
"Brooklyn Two," massive new color studio adjoining 
the previously converted Warner Brothers sound stage 
in Brooklyn, and "Color City Four," a new studio to be 
built at NBC's "Color City" in Burbank, California. 



Ziegfeld Theatre 

Becomes a Color Studio 



Its acquisition came, too, on the heels of an an- 
nouncement by NBC that it would build, in Washing- 
ton, D. C, the nation's first complete television station 
designed and constructed from the ground up specifi- 
cally for local and network color telecasting. 

Retaining the ornate splendor that has led it to be 
called "the most opulent theatre in the United States," 
the converted Ziegfeld is a combination of show busi- 
ness atmosphere and technical proficiency. As a new 
departure in theatres converted to color studios, the 
television facilities have been built into the theatre with- 
out disturbing its traditional aura. Thus the Ziegfeld 
makes an ideal studio for colorcasting big entertain- 
ment events that call for a theatrical setting. 

Innovations at the Ziegfeld 

Designers have concealed the studio control booth 
by installing it in the basement of the theatre, where 
production personnel can view the stage action through 
two Vidicon cameras. For the convenience of directors 
during rehearsals, the studio is equipped with a small 
portable control console which can be set up tempo- 
rarily on the stage floor. The device, first of its kind, 
was developed by NBC. 

Another new development installed in the studio is 
a remote control camera which can move the full width 
of the theatre, since it is attached to a rail running 
along the front of the balcony. 

For production activities requiring a "workshop" 
rather than a theatre, the Ziegfeld uses a fore-stage floor 
and fore-stage lighting which can be added quickly to 
the existing stage. For audience viewing, the studio 
has a large-screen monochrome monitor as well as 
regular color monitors. The lighting system has a ca- 
pacity of 900,000 watts of current and has 450 outlets. 

With conversion of the famous theatre channelling 
communication of Broadway splendor to home viewers, 
so will the proposed Washington station, in the words 
of Mr. Sarnoff, "make it possible to show to the whole 
nation, in living colors, the events, personalities and 
scenes of our Capital." Cost of the new two-story broad- 
cast center will be approximately $4,000,000. Its an- 
tenna will make it the highest structure in Washington. 

Another new development in the expansion pro- 
gram is a color recording system which makes NBC 



RADIO AGE 75 



the first network to present color programs on the same 
time-delay basis which is standard for black-and-white 
programs. The new lenticular film system, developed 
jointly by NBC, the Radio Corporation of America and 
the Eastman Kodak Company, will permit NBC to 
delay color programs for the West Coast so that they 
can be seen at the most convenient hours. 

Highspots of this season's schedule of color program- 
ming, which has been increased by more than 500 per 
cent, are NBC's 90-minute "spectacular" productions. 
These include "Born Yesterday," starring Mary Martin 
and Paul Douglas; the Old Vic production of "Romeo 
and Juliet," starring Claire Bloom; Alfred Lunt and 
Lynn Fontanne in "The Great Sebastians"; the Esther 
Williams Aqua Spectacle; the Sonja Henie ice show; 
the world-renowned Sadler's Wells Ballet performing 
"Cinderella"; the Anatole Litvak production of "Mayer- 
ling," starring Audrey Hepburn and Mel Ferrer; George 
Bernard Shaw's "Man and Superman"; the William 
Wyoer production of "The Letter"; Sol Hurok's "Fes- 
tival of Music"; the TV Emmy Awards; an original 
musical "Jack and the Beanstalk"; and "High Button 
Shoes." 

Announcement of New Color Schedule 

The complete programming schedule was outlined 
by Mr. Sarnoff during a special 50-minute closed cir- 
cuit colorcast which originated "live" Sept. 10 from the 
Ziegfeld Theatre, marking initial use of the theatre 



after its conversion. One of the largest closed circuits 
in broadcasting history, the program was beamed to 
audiences assembled at NBC stations in more than 120 
cities across the country. Participating in the show, in 
addition to Mr. Sarnoff, who presided, were Frank M. 
Folsom, President of RCA; Andrew Heiskell, publisher 
of Life Magazine; singers Dinah Shore and Vaughn 
Monroe, and Billie Burke, widow of the late Florenz 
Ziegfeld. 

Included in the audience were newsmen, advertis- 
ing and station executives and distributors of RCA and 
RCA-Whirlpool, who will co-sponsor the "Saturday 
Night Spectacular" and "Producers' Showcase" presenta- 
tions on the NBC network this season. 

Fifty Originating Stations 

In increasing its color television coverage of the 
country, NBC has announced that a total of 50 NBC-TV 
affiliates, serving areas which include more than 60 per 
cent of all television homes in the country, will be 
equipped to originate their own live or filmed color 
programs by the end of the year. The new total repre- 
sents an increase of 60 per cent over the number of 
NBC affiliates similarly equipped a year ago. 

Concurrently, the number of affiliates equipped to 
rebroadcast network color will increase to 134 by the 
end of the year, an increase of about 30 per cent from 
one year ago. Rebroadcasting facilities will serve areas 
that include 36,700,000 television homes — or about 
95 per cent of television homes in the country. 



The interior of the Ziegfeld, adapted to the color tele- 
vision era. NBC has maintained much of the original 
appearance of the theatre in making the conversion 
from conventional stage to color TV studio. 



The Ziegfeld's career as a color TV center was launched 

on September 22 with the Perry Como Show, whose 

star is shown here on the stage where some of the 

theatre's great spectaculars appeared. 




16 RADIO AGE 



yi 



jm&^r 



' /*__ 






Q 



Monitors placed strategically on the convention floor provided extra view of proceedings at Chicago. 



TV and Radio at the Conventions 



fy i.F.r.TRONic journalism reached a new peak in Au- 
gust when the National Broadcasting Company brought 
the political conventions to a nation-wide audience 
with a speed, flexibility and thoroughness unmatched 
in the history of television. 

Combining the skill and experience of a seasoned 
news staff and electronic advances engineered by RCA 
and NBC technicians, the NBC coverage was singled 
out by leading TV critics as the outstanding job among 
the three networks. 

NBC presented the Democratic and Republican 
conventions over both radio and television for a total 
of 111 hours and five minutes. Television coverage of 
the two conventions ran 56 hours and 35 minutes, and 
radio coverage for 54 hours and 30 minutes. In addi- 
tion, there were special programs such as "Outlook," 
"Cross-Country Caucus" and "Convention Special," as 
well as various press conferences, including that held 
by President Eisenhower. 

Coverage was under the direction of Davidson 
Taylor, Vice President in charge of Public Affairs for 
NBC; William R. McAndew, Director of News; Barry 
Wood, Director of Special Events (in charge of con- 



vention production ) ; and George McElrath, Manager 
of Technical Operations. 

The team of commentators in "TV-One" — Chet 
Huntley, David Brinkley, Bill Henry and H. V. Kalten- 
born — emerged from the conventions as household 
favorites. They received about 500 telegrams and letters 
congratulating them for their "impartiality," "imagina- 
tion" and "ability to interpret the complicated political 
doings." Pauline Frederick and Ned Brooks drew simi- 
lar compliments for their radio coverage. 

23 Correspondents on the Scene 

A total of 23 correspondents, plus 12 regional re- 
porters drawn from New York, Washington, Chicago, 
Los Angeles, San Francisco, Kansas City, Bonn and 
Rome, covered the conventions from the floor, from 
caucus rooms and from the key hotels in the two cities. 
Fifty technicians manning cameras and audio equipment 
were on duty at all times. 

And all of these people brought the news in 
through ultra-portable cameras, purse-sized transceivers, 
beer-mug transmitters, a 60-foot, hi-reach camera lift, 
in addition to standard television cameras. 



RADIO AGE 17 



Major accomplishments for NBC News included the 
record-breaking assemblage of live TV equipment in 
20 minutes for the President's press conference, the 
exclusive mobile radio and TV coverage of the Presi- 
dent's trip from the San Francisco airport to the St. 
Francis Hotel, and exclusive pictures of Vice-President 
Nixon leaving San Francisco in the early morning when 
he learned of his father's illness. 

A number of new electronic effects were successfully 
accomplished to add effectiveness to the convention 
coverage in both cities. Among them were the five-way 
split screen, never before attempted, in which the view- 
ing screen was split into five segments with individual 
pictures in each; and the electronic spotlight technique, 
which permitted cameramen to spotlight electronically 



any group or area on the convention floor. Instantaneous 
tabulation and visualization of balloting figures were 
accomplished by Teleregister. 

NBC created a constantly smooth flow of informa- 
tion within the News Department by the use of its 
own news wire. News and assignments alike traveled 
over six teleprinter machines, so that all information 
was instantly available to all key executives. This news 
was augmented by wire service reports. 

During the hectic weekend between the two con- 
ventions, NBC flew 100 persons and 18,000 pounds of 
equipment from Chicago to San Francisco. The traveling 
mobile unit went by train in its own private car, leaving 
Chicago at midnight on Thursday and arriving in San 
Francisco in time to provide pictures on Sunday for a 
special pre-convention "Outlook" program. 




Trailers Serve as Press Headquarters 

At the Democratic convention in Chicago, seven 
giant air-conditioned trailers of luxury design served 
as an RCA-NBC working press headquarters. Equipped 
with telephones, typewriters, television sets, tape re- 
corders and other tools of the trade, the trailers were 
open to all accredited newsmen covering the sessions. 

The trailers were located inside Chicago's Interna- 
tional Amphitheatre, immediately adjacent to the work- 
ing press area. In addition to work space, the facilities 
also included relaxation facilities, hot food, refreshments, 
and soft music. 



Convention coverage and hospitality: At left are NBC 
commentators Bill Henry, Dave Brinkley and Chet 
Huntley at Convention Central in Chicago during Demo- 
cratic Convention. Below is a general view of the 
hospitality center of seven giant trailers maintained by 
RCA and NBC for the press. 








The new RCA transistorized TV camera-transmitter unit 

features detachable electronic view-finder which enables 

cameraman to hold camera above eye level and still 

see the picture he is getting. 



With transmitting range of more than a mile, the port- 
able unit can pick up and send TV signals to base station 
for network broadcast to provide coverage of outdoor 
events as shown in this picture. 



T„ 



The Smallest TV "Station" 



.HE world's smallest complete television station — 
a 19-pound assembly including a transistorized portable 
camera and back-pack transmitter unit that can send 
television pictures to a base station more than a mile 
away — has been developed by RCA scientists for spot 
news telecasting and other field pickup functions. 

The miniature system, described by the scientists as 
perhaps the most compact complete equipment yet 
designed for its purpose, received its baptism of fire in 
the hands of NBC cameramen at the national political 
conventions in Chicago and San Francisco. More than 
once, the small developmental unit permitted exclusive 
and candid coverage by NBC of convention news and 
features which were not accessible to larger conventional 
equipment. 

Developed at RCA's David Sarnoff Research Center 
in Princeton, N. J., the radical new system includes a 
4-pound camera with a novel electronic view-finder, 
and a 15-pound back-pack unit housing the transmitter, 
the battery power supply, and a synchronizing generator 
required for the transmission of standard broadcast 
signals. 

Described by Dr. V. K. Zworykin, Honorary Vice- 
President of RCA, as "a major achievement in broaden- 
ing the flexibility of television," the new equipment is 



entirely transistorized, with the exception of the trans- 
mitting tube and the camera pickup tube. Seventy 
transistors are employed throughout the system. Dr. 
Zworykin pointed out that a major contribution to the 
development has been made by RCA's program of tran- 
sistor development, particularly in the field of high- 
frequency transistors. He called attention, too, to the 
fact that the use of portable cameras and transmitters 
for news coverage was pioneered by RCA and NBC at 
the national political conventions in 1952, with equip- 
ment far less advanced technically than the new transis- 
torized system. 

Uses Neu< V id icon Tube 

The RCA research team responsible for the develop- 
ment of the miniature camera and transmitter includes 
L. E. Flory, J. M. Morgan, John Dilley, W. S. Pike, 
G. W. Gray, and Lawrence Boyer, working under the 
guidance of Dr. Zworykin. 

Among the many novel features of the develop- 
mental system, Mr. Flory has called particular attention 
to these: 

— The transistorized camera is built around a new 
RCA-developed Vidicon television camera tube only 
'/2-inch in diameter and no longer than a king-size 



RADIO AGE 19 




At heart of RCA's new transistorized TV camera is this 

RCA-developed Vi-inch Vidicon tube, shown here in 

comparison with a king-size cigarette. Tube is now 

being produced in sample quantities. 



cigarette, and employing any standard 8-mm motion 
picture camera lens. According to Mr. Flory, the minia- 
ture tube, in spite of its small size, has a sensitivity 
greater than that of the standard 1-inch Vidicon pickup 
tube commonly used in portable TV camera. The tube, 
employing an improved light-sensitive surface, was 
developed by A. D. Cope, of the research staff at the 
David Sarnoff Research Center. 

— The camera is equipped with a novel electronic 
view-finder which can be detached from the camera 



and hung around the cameraman's neck. Since it is 
electronically synchronized with the camera, the finder 
displays a scene as viewed by the camera lens even 
when the two elements are separated in this fashion 
As an example of the usefulness of this feature in TV 
news coverage, Mr. Flory points out that the cameraman 
can look down into the viewfinder to observe a scene 
as picked up by the camera, while the camera is held 
overhead to see beyond a crowd or other obstacle. 

— Exclusive of the view-finder, the developmental 
camera is only 2Vz inches high, 3 inches wide, and 
8V4 inches long. All necessary circuitry and controls 
are contained within this compact unit, which feeds 
directly into the back-pack transmitter. 

— The back-pack unit weighs only 15 pounds, com- 
plete with batteries, as against approximately 50 pounds 
for previous portable transmitter equipment employing 
electron tubes. The pack itself is 12 inches wide, 13 
inches high, and 3 inches deep. The silver cell batteries 
employed with the unit can operate the camera and 
transmitter for about 5 hours, according to Mr. Flory, 
in contrast to the 2-hour life of batteries employed with 
tube-operated equipment. 

Following announcement of the new equipment, the 
RCA Tube Division disclosed that developmental sam- 
ples of the i/2-inch Vidicon camera tube are being made 
available to TV camera manufacturers. The Tube Divi- 
sion announcement pointed out that the tube has been 
designed with a heater that minimizes battery drain in 
order to meet the requirements of small experimental 
transistorized TV cameras. 



A 



"Compatible Colors to See and Wear 



nationwide campaign based on the theme 
"Compatible colors to see and wear" has been launched 
by eleven major companies and some 150 key stores in 
every part of the country, in cooperation with RCA, it 
was announced on September 17 by Frank M. Folsom, 
President of RCA. 

Declaring that color television is having a tremen- 
dous impact on the styling and merchandising plans of 
a growing number of designers and manufacturers, Mr. 
Folsom told members of the Philadelphia Fashion Group 
that a prominent part of the campaign is a coast-to-coast 
color caravan sponsored by RCA, DuPont, the Allied 
Stores Corporation and other progressive stores. 

"It will travel to 40 different cities and will stay 
one week in each city, televising four one-hour shows 
each day over a closed-circuit system," he said. "The 



programs will be performed 'live' before an RCA color 
TV camera and will be seen throughout the participat- 
ing stores. The programs will consist of a series of 
well-integrated merchandise demonstrations, featuring 
children's and adult wear, home furnishings, cosmetics 
and other merchandise of interest to women." 

Mr. Folsom emphasized the importance of color 
presentation in merchandising, saying: "If I were in 
your business today, I would be certain that I used 
color television to its fullest to help promote and mer- 
chandise every product I have. For one thing is cer- 
tain: nothing will help sell any product, any style, any 
fashion more efficiently than visual demonstration — 
and color television, next to in-person viewing, is 
the most effective form of visual demonstration ever 
developed." 



20 RADIO AGE 




Industrial Reactor Laboratories, Inc. — an architects' sketch of the projected center at Plainsboro, N. J. 



A New Center for Nuclear Research 



T 



. HE RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA has joined 

nine other companies in sponsoring construction and 
operation of a multi-million dollar nuclear reactor for 
industrial research in atomic energy at Plainsboro, N. J., 
only a few miles from Princeton. The facilities for the 
new organization, known as Industrial Reactor Labora- 
tories, will include the largest swimming pool reactor 
so far in operation. 

Incorporation of the new company was officially 
announced on September 26. In addition to RCA, the 
participating companies include: 

AMF Atomics Inc. (a subsidiary of American 
Machine and Foundry Co.), American Tobacco Com- 
pany, Atlas Powder Company, Continental Can Com- 
pany, Corning Glass Works, National Distillers Cor- 
poration, National Lead Company, Socony Mobil Oil 
Company, and United States Rubber Company. 

Each participant is represented on the new com- 
pany's board of directors, which will be headed bv 
General Walter Bedell Smith, President, and H. I. 
Hilyard, Vice-President. The RCA member of the board 
is Dr. Douglas H. Ewing, Vice-President, RCA Lab- 
oratories. H. W. Leverenz, Director of the Physical and 
Chemical Research Laboratory, RCA Laboratories, 1ms 
been named to represent RCA on the new company's 
Operating Committee. 

Aims Described by Dr. Engstrom 

Dr. E. W. Engstrom, Senior Executive Vice-Presi- 
dent of RCA. made this statement in explaining RCA's 



plans as a participant in Industrial Reactor Laboratories: 

"The establishment of Industrial Reactor Labora- 
tories, Inc., provides the Radio Corporation of America, 
as a participating company, with the opportunity to 
employ the newest and most powerful tool of research 
— the atomic reactor — for fundamental studies into the 
close relationship between nuclear and electronic phe- 
nomena. 

"The new knowledge resulting from this research 
will be of value in at least two specific areas: first, in 
determining the effect of atomic radiation in altering 
the characteristics of many materials used in electronic 
systems, as well as in the development of useful new 
materials; second, in studying the effect of radiation on 
the various types of electronic equipment for communi- 
cation, navigation, control, and other commercial and 
military functions in which electronics play a vital role. 

"It is the expectation of RCA that the results of 
its continuing research through these new facilities will 
benefit not only RCA, but the entire electronics industry 
as well." 

The new facility will be operated by Columbia 
University, which will hire a permanent staff of about 
25 to supply nuclear radiation from the reactor to the 
experimental scientists of the different companies. Each 
of the participating companies and the University will 
have laboratory space in the modern building adioining 
the reactor unit. The 300-acre site of the new establish- 
ment is now being prepared for construction, which is 
expected to be completed in late 1957 or early 1958 



RADIO AGE 2? 



Ten Years of TV in the Home 



J- he television INDUSTRY, which has had its hands 
full with one of the most phenomenal expansions of a 
commercial service in American history, devoted some 
of its time last month to stocktaking on the occasion of 
its tenth anniversary of service in the home. 

It was in September, 1946, that the introduction 
of television home receivers by RCA Victor launched 
a period of unprecedented growth for the new TV art. 
The historic first mass-produced home receiver was the 
now famous RCA Victor Model 630TS. With a 10-inch 
picture tube and a retail price of $375, the Model 630TS 
established the early performance standards for the in- 
dustry. Many other manufacturers used its chassis as a 
model for their own products. Today, after 10 years, 
many 630TS sets are still in use and giving excellent 
service. 

Competition sprang into being, following the action 
of RCA in inviting all of its licensed competitors to the 
Camden, N. J., plant of RCA Victor and providing them 
with blueprints of the Model 630TS. The infant tele- 
vision industry then began the swift progress that has 
since raised it to a major industry and service. 

Another important contribution to the spectacular 
growth of television in its first decade was the extensive 
preparation by RCA to meet the need for an increasing 
number of kinescopes, the picture tubes which are a 
vital component of all home receivers. From the early 
stages of TV expansion, RCA has served as a substantial 
source of the kinescopes used by the industry. 

Early in 1949, RCA introduced the first line of TV 
receivers using its newly developed 16-inch metal-cone 
tube for large direct-view television pictures. This was 
followed by succeeding models incorporating metal- 
shell picture tubes of constantly larger screen size. First 
came the 17-inch tube, then the 19-inch, and, in 1951, 
the 21-inch kinescope which has become the most pop- 
ular size. 

Development of Color TV 

It was also only 10 years ago, on October 30, 1946, 
that RCA demonstrated an all-electronic color television 
system. Although it was still in a laboratory stage, the 
new RCA method of color transmission established a 
principle that had long been a dream of radio scientists. 



Symbolizing 10 years of television in the home: The 

famed RCA 630TS of 1946 is shown here in comparison 

with the latest in high-quality RCA television — the 

Aldrich Big Color receiver. 



Slightly less than three years later, in August, 1949, 
RCA announced the successful development of an all- 
electronic color TV system completely compatible with 
the existing black-and-white service. The fruit of years 
of research and development at RCA Laboratories, the 
new system offered a color service which meant that 
color programs could be received in black-and-white on 
all black-and-white home sets without any modifications 
or added contraptions, and at the same time that the 
color sets to be built and produced would be able to 
receive in black-and-white any non-color broadcasts. 

The new system, operating within the 6-megacycle 
channel of black-and-white telecasting, meant also that 
transmitting stations would be able to change either 
from color to black-and-white or vice versa without 
disturbing viewers of either color or black-and-white 
sets. By March, 1954, commercial production of color 
TV receivers with a 15-inch picture tube had started 
at the RCA plant in Bloomington, Indiana. 

These early color sets were nationally advertised at 
a price of $1,000. Today, only a little over two years 
later, big-screen RCA Vicror color TV is available at 
nationally advertised prices as low as $495 — ■ a price 
reduction of more than 50 percent. 




22 RADIO AGE 



"The Presidents Favorite Music 



» 




President Eisenhower accepts the new RCA Victor album 
from Arthur Fiedler, conductor of the Boston Pops Or- 
chestra. Looking on at left is Howard Hanson, President 
of the National Music Council. 



_|_HE FIRST pressing of a new record album called 
"The President's Favorite Music" was presented to Presi- 
dent Eisenhower at the White House on September 10 
by Arthur Fiedler, conductor of the Boston Pops Orches- 
tra, on behalf of the RCA Victor Record Division. 

The nine selections in the album, one of them 
played by the Boston Pops under Mr. Fiedler's direction, 
represent many of the President's musical favorites. 
The album cover carries a picture of the President and 
Mrs. Eisenhower and, on its back, a tribute to the 
influence of good music, written and signed by the 
President. The tribute says: 

"I wish to salute musicians and the important part 
they play in the life of our people. American music 
has brought us pleasurable distinction at home and 
abroad. 

"Millions of Americans are engaged in the creation, 
performance and active appreciation of music. Indeed 
it is a rare day when any one of us does not hear 
some form of music; it is hard to imagine our lives 
without it. 

"The enjoyment of music — speaking for myself, 
at least — has a moral and spiritual value which is 
unique and powerful. It reaches easily and quickly 



across lingual, racial and national barriers. The develop- 
ment of American music, like the native development 
of any art, is therefore the development of a national 
treasure." 

The idea for the album originated with George R. 
Marek, Vice-President and Manager of RCA Victor's 
Album Department. He and Alan Kayes, Manager of 
Classical Artists and Repertoire for RCA Victor, worked 
closely with the Committee of Arts and Sciences for 
Eisenhower in production of the work. 

The new album, available either on one 33 VS or 
two 45-rpm extended play records, includes the follow- 
ing selections: 

SIDE 1 

Band 1 — Bach-Stokowski: "Sheep May Safely Graze" 
(from "Birthday" Cantata); Leopold Stokowski and 
his Symphony Orchestra 

Band 2 — Beethoven: "Coriolan Overture", Op. 62; 
Boston Symphony Orchestra, Charles Munch, Con- 
ductor 

Band 3 — Verdi: "La Traviata" Act II, "Di Provenza 
il Mar" in Italian; Leonard Warren, Baritone, Rome 
Opera House Orchestra, Pierre Monteaux, Conductor 
( Recorded in Italy) 

Band 4 — Johann Strauss, Jr.: "The Bat: Overture"; 
Fritz Reiner conducting the RCA Victor Orchestra 



SIDE 2 



: "Porgy and Bess" (A sym- 
Boston Pops Orchestra, Arthur 



Band 1 — Gershwin 
phonic synthesis); 
Fiedler, Conductor 

Band 2 — Spiritual: "He's Got the Whole World in 
His Hands" ( Arr. Hamilton Forrest); Marian An- 
derson, Contralto, with Franz Rupp at the piano 

Band 3 — Tiomkin- Washington: "High Noon" ("Do 
Not Forsake Me"), from the Stanley Kramer pro- 
duction "High Noon"; Al Goodman and his Or- 
chestra 

Band 4 — Mendelssohn: "Fingal's Cave Overture," 
Op. 26; Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Fritz Reiner, 
Conductor 

Band 5 — Bach-Stokowski: "We All Believe in One 
God" ("Giant Fugue"); Leopold Stokowski and his 
Symphony Orchestra 



RADIO AGE 23 



Worker Safety Wins Honor for RCA 




A 



RECORD of outstanding company-wide safety per- 
formance at RCA manufacturing plants during 1955 
has brought RCA the National Safety Council's Award 
of Honor — the council's highest safety tribute. 

Presentation of the award was made on September 
27 to Brig. General David Sarnoff at Governor Averell 
Harriman's Dinner at the Sheraton-Ten Eyck Hotel in 
Albany, N. Y. The dinner was given for participants 
in the Governor's Worker Safety Conference, conven- 
ing for the first time at Albany. David L. Arm, Director 
of Industrial Safety of the National Safety Council, in 
presenting the Award of Honor to General Sarnoff, 
declared: 

"I am pleased to present this Award of Honor to 
you, General Sarnoff, in your capacity as Chairman 
of the Board of the Radio Corporation of America. 
This Award is granted for an outstanding safety per- 
formance by your company during the calendar year 
1955. 

"I bring to you the sincere congratulations of the 
Board of Directors and the Staff of the National Safety 
Council and hope that you will express our gratification 
for this outstanding performance to all the workers in 
all your plants. 

"It is particularly significant that this Award is 
being presented to you, General Sarnoff, on the occasion 
of this first meeting of the Governor's Worker Safety 
Conference. It is proof that you not only are interested 
in talking about safety, but that you actually encourage 
your people to put it into practice." 

Acceptance by General Sarnoff 
General Sarnoff, presiding at the dinner as Chair- 
man of the Governor's Industrial Safety Advisory Com- 
mittee, declared in accepting the award: 

"On behalf of Management of the Radio Corpora- 
tion of America and our 80,000 employees, I accept 
with profound gratitude the Award of Honor of the 
National Safety Council for outstanding safety per- 
formance at RCA manufacturing plants in 1955. 

"I have been advised that simultaneously wit'i 
notification to us of this Award, information reached 
us that eleven individual RCA manufacturing locations 
had earned separate awards from the National Safety 
Council. 




National Safety Council Award of Honor is presented 

to Brig. General David Sarnoff by New York's Governor 

Averell Harriman in tribute to RCA's outstanding record 

of industrial safety. 

"These high tributes to our safety record will, I 
am sure, be regarded with appreciation and pride by 
all members of the RCA family, and serve as a further 
inspiration in our continuous program to reduce on-the- 
job accidents. I may point out, also, that we have 
enlarged this program to include off-job safety practices 
that are proving equally beneficial in safeguarding 
against accidents that mean loss of time and human 
suffering." 

The National Safety Council notification of the 
Award of Honor to RCA stated that the tribute was 
earned by RCA by reduction in accident frequency by 

51 percent in 1955, as compared with the RCA average 
during the previous three years. It also was stated that 
RCA had succeeded in reducing accident severity by 

52 percent in 1955, as compared with the previous 
three years. 

Of the eleven awards presented separately to indi- 
vidual RCA manufacturing locations, five were the 
Award of Honor and the remaining six received the 
Award of Merit. It was revealed than in selecting RCA 
plants for these awards, the National Safety Council 
had studied the safety records based on the 1955 per- 
formance of a total of 9,315 industrial manufacturing 
plants. 



24 RADIO AGE 



RCA-NBC Views on UHF Broadcasting 



iiNV move to shift ail television broadcasting to the 
Ultra High Frequency (,UHF; band would be most 
injurious to the public interest" and couid "jeopardize 
the whole future ot television broadcasting in the United 
States," the Radio Corporation of America and the 
National Broadcasting Company, declared on October 1. 

In comments hied with the Federal Communication.-) 
Commission, RCA and NBC said the twelve Very High 
Frequency (VHF) channels are needed in conjunction 
with the seventy UHF channels "in order that television 
may continue to have room in which to grow and 
expand." 

The comments were submitted in connection with 
the FCC's inquiry into the feasibility of transferring 
television broadcasting to the UHF band. In a report 
and order last June 25, the Commission said it was 
convinced it should undertake an analysis of the possi- 
bility of improving and expanding the nationwide tele- 
vision system through the use of the UHF band with- 
out the concomitant use of VHF channels. 

Shift To UHF Called "Unwarranted" 
"We believe," said RCA and NBC, "that any deter- 
mination at this time by the Commission to move all 
television broadcasting to the UHF would be unwar- 
ranted, would jeopardize television broadcasting as a 
service to the public and would not be in the public 
interest. 

"Natural propagation characteristics of the UHF 
band make it impossible for the 70 UHF television 
channels 'to render service to the public at least as 
good as or better than the service that can be provided 
to the public under the present system,' which includes 
12 VHF channels as well as 70 UHF channels. But 
preservation and expansion of UHF broadcasting arc 
essential to the public interest and attainment of the 
full potential of television broadcasting. 

"It is of greatest importance to the future of tele- 
vision broadcasting that UHF television be encouraged 
now; that it not be left exposed to the possibility of 
withering in a state of suspended animation pendinc 
resolution at some future time of additional technical 
aspects of its operation. 

Differences In UHF And VHF Performance 

"The present obstacles to fully effective utilization 

of the UHF channels do not lie primarily in failure to 

solve technical problems. These obstacles have arisen 

principally from problems of economics and circulation." 

In their comments. RCA and NBC noted that there 



are basic differences in the performance of television 
in the VHF and UHF channels. 

"These differences," they said, "arise primarily from 
conditions of nature. The differences are such that the 
service provided by VHF television in areas of moun- 
tainous terrain and cities with large man-made struc- 
tures will normally continue to be superior to that pro- 
vided by UHF. UHF can furnish a highly satisfactory 
service to the public, provided allocations are made to 
take these factors into account. But VHF should con- 
tinue to be assigned to areas where use of the UHF 
band would impair service to the public." 

RCA reported that on the basis of recent experiments 
with UHF equipment, it believes it can design and 
manufacture commercial UHF transmitting equipment 
to operate at an effective radiated power of 5,000 kilo- 
watts. The highest power now used by any UHF station 
is 1,500 kilowatts. RCA also believes that if it were to 
receive a firm order for a 5,000-kilowatt UHF trans- 
mitter, it could set a delivery target date of approx- 
imately a year-and-a-half to two years from the receipt 
of the order. 

TVs Growth Based On Use Of 12 VHF Channels 

Discussing the past and future growth of television, 
the RCA and NBC comments said: 

"Since World War II television has become one of 
the fastest growing industries in the United States. 
This phenomenal growth and development have been 
based principally upon utilization of 12 VHF channels. 
"The 12 VHF channels are needed in conjunction 
with the 70 UHF channels in order that television may 
continue to have room in which to grow and expand. 
Even when only existing television stations are taken 
into account, there is real doubt as to whether it would 
be feasible to prepare an allocation of channels in 
heavily populated areas of the country on the basis 
of "0 UHF channels alone. The AM broadcast band 
is crowded with stations although there are 107 channels 
available for assignment to standard broadcasting. When 
television, both commercial and educational, expands to 
full stature even the existing 82 channel system may be 
severely taxed." 

Suggestions For Encouraging UHF 

RCA and NBC recalled the suggestions they made 
to the Commission last December for preserving and 
fostering UHF. These included the following: 

"Urge the Congress to repeal the excise tax on 
all-channel receivers and thus make such receivers 



RADIO AGE 25 



competitive in price with VHF-only receivers. 
Urge the executive branch of the Government to 
support such repeal. 

"De-intermix on a sufficiently broad basis to 
create a nucleus of predominantly UHF service 
areas from which UHF may grow and expand. 

"Encourage multiple owners with resources and 
know-how to undertake the operation of UHF 
stations in intermixed markets. Encourage other 
qualified persons to undertake UHF operation in 
intermixed markets. 

"Permit UHF stations to use directional antennas. 

"Permit UHF stations to use on-channel boosters." 

RCA and NBC noted that some action has been 
taken on the proposals. They said: 

"The Commission already has authorized higher 
power and translator-type stations. In addition, the 
Commission has indicated it looks with favor upon the 



principle of de-intermixture. We regret that the Com- 
mission's recommendation for the removal of the excise 
tax on all-channel receivers has not been accepted by 
the Congress or the Treasury Department. 

"We believe these actions by the Commission are 
constructive but more is needed without delay. We 
again urge the Commission to take action with respect 
to the suggestions we have made." 

RCA and NBC concluded by saying: 

"We know of no existing technical or other factor 
which would justify transferring all television broadcast- 
ing to the UHF band. In our opinion, for the Com- 
mission now to consider such action would be most 
injurious to the public interest and can jeopardize the 
whole future of television broadcasting in the United 
States. 

"We believe the 82 existing television channels are 
required for the achievement of a full and adequate 
television service to the public." 



Felloivsbips for Employees New Weather Radar 



Ten employees of RCA have been named to receive 
David Sarnoff Fellowships during the current academic 
year, according to an announcement on September 18 
by Dr. C. B. Jolliffe, Vice-President and Technical Di- 
rector of RCA. 

Dr. Jolliffe, who is Chairman of the RCA Education 
Committee, explained that the fellowships were estab- 
lished in honor of the Chairman of the Board of RCA. 
Each fellowship is valued at approximately $3,500 and 
includes full tuition fees, $2,100 for living expenses, 
and $750 as an unrestricted gift to the university. Al- 
though appointments are for one academic year, each 
fellow is eligible for reappointment. 

The David Sarnoff Fellows are selected on the 
basis of academic aptitude, promise of professional 
achievement, and character. They will pursue graduate 
studies in electrical and mechanical engineering, physics, 
applied mathematics, business administration, and dra- 
matic arts. Recipients of the awards are currently 
employed by various RCA divisions and subsidiaries. 
During their year of study, they are on a leave of 
absence from RCA. 

The ten recipients will undertake studies at Harvard, 
the University of Pennsylvania, Yale, the University of 
Michigan, Princeton, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, and the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. Five 
of them will be working toward a doctorate in their 
selected sciences. 



A new light-weight weather-avoidance radar system 
designed to the "flyweight" requirements of business 
and private aircraft has been developed by RCA en- 
gineers to help pilots of small planes in avoiding storms 
and turbulent air. 

Announced as the first such radar system designed 
specifically for small planes, the new equipment is to 
go into commercial production later this year. For some 
time, RCA has been producing a weather-penetration 
radar system for larger and faster aircraft, and has pro- 
vided such equipment to many American and foreign 
commercial airlines and to the Royal Australian Air 
Force. 

The new light-weight system will enable pilots of 
small planes to "see" and avoid storms and turbulence 
up to 50 miles ahead. Weighing only 50 pounds, it 
is similar in general operation to the larger airline 
equipment. Like the larger system, the light-weight 
equipment employs a nose-mounted antenna to pick up 
storm formations ahead, and projects a picture on a 
radarscope mounted in the plane's cockpit or cabin. 

The small-aircraft system also features circuitry 
which enables the pilot to switch-in a closeup view of 
a given weather area ahead, and provides a special 
antenna tilt control to permit use of the radar for 
terrain mapping. 

The equipment highlighted an RCA display at the 
National Business Aircraft Association show in Miami 
on October 23-25. 



26 RADIO AGE 




WBUF, Buffalo, New York, shown above, is NBC's new 

UHF station. In connection with its opening, Miss Peggy 

McCutcheon, shown at right, was chosen "Miss Channel 

17" from among hundreds of contestants. 

New UHF Station 
in Buffalo 

_L he first ultra-high frequency television station to be 
purchased by the National Broadcasting Company, 
WBUF in Buffalo, N. Y., was dedicated on October 11. 

The $1,500,000 new home of the station was dedi- 
cated in ceremonies on NBC's "Today" show by Charles 
R. Denny, Executive Vice-President, Operations, of 
NBC. William B. Lawless, Jr., President of the Buffalo 
Common Council, and Charles C. Bevis, Jr., General 
Manager of WBUF, joined Mr. Denny in the ceremony. 

In a statement on the dedication, Robert W. Sarnoff, 
President of NBC, said the occasion was "a milestone" 
for NBC and RCA, and added: 

"WBUF's modern studio is a striking symbol of our 
faith in the future of UHF broadcasting. It has always 
been NBC's conviction that television must make full 
use of the UHF band of 70 channels to complement the 
original quota of only 12 channels available to the VHF 
band. It is through UHF channels that television can 
achieve its full potential of growth. It is through the 
UHF channels that all parts of our nation will have their 
full choice of television programs presented under our 
competitive system of broadcasting." 

Upon moving to the new studio, Station WBUF 
increased its power output from 148,000 watts to a 
power of 500,000 watts. A further power increase is 
contemplated. 




The station recently launched a full-scale campaign 
to make every home television set in the Niagara Fron- 
tier Area capable of receiving the ultra-high frequency 
signal. In plans announced by Mr. Bevis, it is carrying 
the full NBC Television Network schedule exclusively 
in the Buffalo area. 

Operating under the title "Project 17", the cam- 
paign "will be conducted with the mobility and speed 
of a military action," according to Mr. Bevis. 

Prior to full organization of the effort, the number 
of homes in the Buffalo metropolitan area equipped to 
receive ultra-high frequency television broadcasts in- 
creased 54 per cent in the first six months of operation 
of the station. Goal of the new project is 100 per 
cenr conversion. 

As a part of the expanded NBC programming trans- 
mitted by the station, NBC television coverage of the 
Democratic National Convention was carried in full 
and exclusively on Channel 17, the station's outlet. 



RADIO AGE 27 



Electronics in Latin America 




By Albert F. Waiters 

Vice-President and Operations Manager, 
RCA International Division 

I jatin America today is a vast proving ground for 
uses of electronics. 

One of the world's most powerful radio transmitters, 
an RCA 250 kw broadcast transmitter, is now rising on 
the Mexican border. 

At Puenta Arenas, southernmost tip of the South 
American continent, an RCA 1-kw broadcast transmitter 
speaks the language of Terra del Fuego, "Land of Fire". 

One of the longest hops for microwave radio in the 
world carries telephone messages over Colombia's tower- 
ing Andes. 

Electron microscopes seek biological, agricultural 
and other secrets at record reaching altitudes in Mexico 
and Venezuela. 

In Venezuela, the world's first microwave-operated. 
RCA-equipped railroad helps to run trainloads of iron 
ore down to the Orinoco River. 




All over this vast and vital area, new TV stations 
are bringing nearer the era of a hemispheric network. 
Puerto Rico is building the first complete TV educa- 
tional system in the world. A recently built TV center 
at Televilla, near Havana, Cuba, will house three TV 
transmitters operating on three different channels. This 
is the first such center outside of the United States. 

New microwave communication facilities, among 
the most modern around the globe, are functioning in 
Cuba, Colombia, the Dominican Republic. 

In Panama, the votes in the National Congress are 
recorded electronically, a Mexican National Bank oper- 
ates its 70 branch systems by radio. And over Latin 
cities where ancient Spanish bells once pealed, new 
electronic carillions now sound. 

Electronics by RCA 

These are indeed the electronic Americas, with 
electronics by RCA. The scientific magic of RCA elec- 
tronics in the form of VHF communications systems, 
microwave, two-way radio, broadcasting and television 
has made possible many economic, cultural and social 
advantages. 

Mexico, the Caribbean countries, Central American 
and South American nations have proven leaders in the 
pursuit of social and economic advancement through 
electronics. RCA International Division finds it a 
privilege to cooperate with them. 

These electronic achievements of Latin America are 
made possible by the vision of government and com- 
mercial executives, by national researchers, engineers, 
production workers, administrators, creative artists in 
many fields, construction and maintenance experts, as 
well as specialists from RCA distributor or company 
organizations and from RCA International headquarters 
and regional offices. 

Each of the countries has embraced at least one 
branch of electronics which brightens its economic out- 
look, encourages cultural activity and entertainment, 
and stimulates government and private enterprise. 

One of the most far-reaching uses of electronics in 
Latin America is in the field of telecommunications. 

An outstanding example of modern microwave radio 
relay equipment linking all major cities of a country 
is the VHF communications system delivered by RCA 
International Division to the government of the Do- 
minican Republic. Completion of this system, which 

RCA microwave station at Santiago de los Caballeros, 

Dominican Republic, is one of 20 stations making up 

a nation-wide telecommunications system. 



28 RADIO AGE 



was begun in November, 1953, coincided with the four- 
day holiday commemorating the 25th anniversary of 
the government of Generalisimo Doctor Rafael Leonidas 
Trujillo Molina. 

This RCA microwave system radiates from the capi- 
tal city, Ciudad Trujillo, into three main regions. Do- 
minican Republic engineers, especially trained for the 
job, are in charge of the stations. These technical men 
also cooperated in installing the equipment under the 
guidance of engineers from the RCA International 
Division. The system, credited by the Government of 
the Republic with aiding in its economic development. 
is now due for expansion. Its tall microwave towers 
have already stood off four hurricanes, including "Hur- 
ricane Katie's" winds of 150 miles an hour. Wire lines 
went down but the RCA towers withstood the blasts. 

Colombian VHF Systems 

New microwave-carried telephone and telegraph 
service between Bogota and Barranquilla, Colombia was 
inaugurated on June 13, 1956. This is the latest link 
of an expanding nationwide microwave radio relay 
communications system being completed by RCA Inter- 
national Division. 

Microwave communications systems are ideal for the 
Colombian terrain, where maintenance of wire lines 
is both difficult and costly. One of the RCA microwave 
antennas is on top of El Campanario, a rain drenched 
peak 12,000 feet high. 

Plans have already been made for another addition 
to the system during 1957 and 1958 which will bring 
it to its full circuit capacity. Basic service to all prin- 
cipal cities is provided. When completed, 27 cities will 
be linked by 328 telephone circuits and 146 new tele- 
graph circuits. 

This extensive microwave system was planned by 
Empresa Nacional de Telecomunicaciones. a govern- 
ment telecommunications agency under the Ministrv 
of Communications. The L. M. Ericsson Company of 
Sweden provided the carrier and the telephone switch- 
ing equipment, and RCA International Division supplied 
the radio equipment. 

Cuba Has Vast Program 
Cuba is another country which is modernizing its 
communications. Special inaugural ceremonies marked 
the opening of the first link connecting Campo Batista 
and Ciudad Militar in the vast national microwave 
chain being installed by RCA International Division for 
the government of Cuba. Major General Fulgencio 
Batista, President of the Republic of Cuba, personally 
put this initial link into operation. He made the first 
telephone call and sent the first teletype message from 
Campo Batista to Ciudad Militar. Campo Batista, an 




The late President Anasatasio Somoza appeared on 
initial telecast last July 15 at RCA TV demonstration in 
Managua, Nicaragua. Left to right are Rafael Huezo, 
Minister of Finance; President Somoza; Leonard Ferri, 
Manager of Regional Sales, Carribean and Central 
America, RCA International Division, and Luis Felipe 
Hidalgo, Manager of Radio Managua. 



important Air Base located near San Antonio de los 
Banos in the province of Havana, is also the home of the 
RCA International Division school established in April. 
1955, to train Cuban technicians in the operation and 
maintenance of the system. Ciudad Militar, located in 
the city of Havana, is the headquarters of the Cuban 
General Staff. 

The author accompanied President Batista on a de- 
tailed inspection tour of all aspects of the RCA VHF 
communications installation, including warehousing fa- 
cilities, school activities, mobile microwave and mobile 
radar equipment. The President expressed himself as 
well pleased with RCA's contribution to the continuing 
expansion of Cuban communications. 

Geography, once a barrier to progress, is now an 
ally. Mexico's rugged state of Tabasco is the site of 
an RCA VHF system which will help develop the 
country's natural resources. The system, first of its kind 
in Mexico, will connect all the principal cities of the 
state. It is being installed by RCA Victor Mexicana. 
S.A. de C.V., RCA associated company in Mexico. 

General Miguel do los Llanos, Governor of Tabasco, 
said that this was the first important step his state gov- 
ernment was making to reach a previously inaccessible 
region of the state. It will provide the people with 
opportunity to develop natural resources so that through 
their own effort and work they may open new horizons 
in the state of Tabasco. 

The world's first micro-wave operated railroad is 
part of an electronic network of communications ex- 
panded by RCA International Division for U.S. Steel's 
Orinoco Mining Company in Venezuela. Ships of the 



■ 

V 



RADIO AGE 29 



National Shipping and Trading Company are equipped 
with "Fleetrone' communications equipment to receive 
tide and weather information to help them navigate the 
Orinoco River. These ships carry iron ore from the 
famous Orinoco Mining Company mines to smelting 
plants in England and the United States. RCA two-way 
radio communications equipment ties in with the RCA 
VHF communications system in use by the Orinoco 
Mining Company and helps schedule arrivals and load- 
ings at Puerto Ordaz on the Orinoco. 

In Colombia RCA's single sideband, two-way radio 
equipment, the SSB-1, has provided outstanding service 
in experiments conducted in cooperation with the Min- 
istry of Public Works, the Colombian Army, and Ca-Ra- 
Col, a leading Colombian broadcasting company. The 
excellent performance of the demonstration circuits has 
resulted in plans by these organizations to expand their 
communications requirements with the SSB-1. 

The Colombian Army placed a substantial order after 
the single sideband circuits were demonstrated between 
Bogota and Villa Vicencio, approximately 80 miles east; 
Bogota and Buenaventuro, 350 miles west; and Bogota 
and El Banco 300 miles to the north. 

Radio Station Ca-Ra-Col is presently conducting an 
interesting experiment using fixed station units and 
mobile units for transmitting program material from 
along the highways of Colombia back to the studio. 

Another firm which is switching to RCA single side- 
band radio in Explanicas, S.A., a road construction com- 
pany, which followed with interest the SSB-1 activity 
at the Ministry of Public Works. 

Expansion in Television 

The Latin American family of RCA-equipped tele- 
vision stations is ever on the increase. Great strides have 
been made since Mexico became the first TV country 
in Latin America in 1950, with Brazil a close second by 
a matter of days. RCA TV equipment is now operating 
in Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic. 
Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, and Vene- 
zuela, bringing ever closer the possibility of a hemi- 
spheric television network. 

Nicaragua recently joined Guatemala and became 
the second country in Central America to acquire RCA 
television broadcasting equipment. The late President 
of Nicaragua, Anastasio Somoza, personally inaugurated 
the country's first TV station by appearing on the initial 
telecast, demonstrating the government's interest in the 
project. 

Network television in Venezuela got a substantial 
boost when Radio Caracas pushed its TV coverage to 
Maracaibo. Radio Station Ondas del Lago in Maracaibo 
also acquired RCA transmitter equipment to receive 
video shows originating in the East. 

30 RADIO AGE 



With an outstanding community education program 
already to its credit, the Department of Education of 
the Government of Puerto Rico is preparing programs 
for the finest television station designed for exclusive 
educational use. Commercial television station WAPA- 
TV in San Juan, also is RCA equipped. 

There are now nine RCA TV transmitters operating 
in Cuba. In addition to CMQ-TVs three at Televilla, 
CMQ-TV has one other RCA transmitter in its network. 
The remaining stations are links in the Television Na- 
cional chain and the RCA-equipped Channel 2. 

In Brazil, Emissoras Associadas operates RCA- 
equipped television stations in Sao Paulo and Belo 
Horizonte, and another in Rio de Janeiro. The company 
also owns one of South America's most extensive radio 
networks. Brazil is on its way to nation-wide TV 
coverage. 

In support of electronic activity in their countries, 
RCA-associated companies are expanding their facili- 
ties. A new electron tube plant is under construction 
in Brazil which is also providing additional manufac- 
turing space for the production-line assembly of radios 
and television sets and the manufacture of records. A 
tube plant went into operation in Chile in June. In 
Mexico, plans are being studied for a tube factory ad- 
joining the present record, radio, and TV plant in 
Mexico City. Caracas, Venezuela, is the home of RCA's 
newest associated company, RCA de Venezuela, C.V. 

New or expanded broadcast facilities are operating 
in Mexico, Cuba, Peru, Chile, and elsewhere, and radio 
in all countries is an active enterprise. An Ecuadorian 
importing firm has acquired RCA equipment to enter the 
radio broadcasting field to advertise its products. 

Great sports stadia in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and 
Venezuela use RCA sound equipment. Public welfare 
organizations rely on modern RCA communications. 
Progressive countries are on the march in electronic 
Latin America. 



Chile's President Ibanez, with leaders of government, 

banking and commerce, inspects tube manufacturing 

operations in the new RCA tube plant in Santiago. 





RCA equipment helps to guide the F-104 Starfighter, shown in flight in this U. S. Air Force photo. 



Radar for the Starfighter 



R c 



JZK HAS developed and is producing a compact, 
lightweight electronic fire-control radar system for the 
world's fastest combat plane, the F-104 Starfighter of the 
United States Air Force. 

The development was disclosed by Theodore A. 
Smith, Executive Vice-President, RCA Defense Elec- 
tronic Products, in an announcement stating that "the 
RCA system will enable Starfighter pilots to find and 
destroy enemy aircraft." 

A major feature of the system, according to Mr. 
Smith, is a bright radar display which, for the first time, 
will enable a pilot to view the radar picture in full 
daylight without the encumbrance cf a light-shielding 
hood. Before the development of the new RCA system, 
a pilot was required to use a hood to obtain daytime 
observations of the radarscope, an operation which ob- 
scured his vision of flight controls and surrounding sky. 

The development of the Starfighter itself was an- 
nounced only a short time previously by the Air Force 
and the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, California Divi- 
sion, the manufacturer. It has been described by Gen- 
eral Nathan F. Twining, Air Force Chief of Staff, as 
"the fastest and highest-flying fighter anywhere in the 
sky . . . the most advanced plane of its type ever de- 
veloped." A day and night fighter with a climbing speed 
equal to its speed in level flight, the Starfighter has 
wings so thin and keen that a felt covering is used on 
the leading edge when the plane is on the ground in 
order to protect crewmen. 

"RCA, under contract with the Lockheed Corpora- 
tion, is producing to Lockheed requirements electronic 



fire-control radar systems designed to meet the special 
requirements of the Starfighter's tremendous speed and 
operational altitude, which extends into the upper stra- 
tosphere," Mr. Smith said. 

The new RCA radar equipment, according to Mr. 
Smith, is "a notable achievement" in simplification and 
design, and in the systematizing of a minimum number 
of components. Mounted in the Starfighter, it will 
enable a pilot to detect an enemy plane while it is still 
beyond the range of human eyesight, and to obtain a 
continuous flow of information about its movements. 

RCA System for Canadian Fighter 

A further RCA contribution to continental defense 
was announced on September 27 by the U. S. Air Force 
with the disclosure that RCA has been awarded a multi- 
million dollar contract under which RCA and the Min- 
neapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company will design and 
develop a complete and integrated electronic weapon 
system for the new CF-105 jet fighter of the Royal 
Canadian Air Force. The plane is under development 
by Avro Aircraft, Ltd., of Canada. 

According to Mr. Smith, the USAF contract, on 
behalf of the Canadian Department of Defense Pro- 
duction, assigns to RCA full responsibility for the de- 
velopment of a complete electronic system for fire 
control, navigation and communication, and an inte- 
grated flight control system. Honeywell's Aeronautical 
Division is working with RCA on an associate basis, 
with responsibility for development of the automatic 
flight control. 



RADIO AGE 31 



©KflJDSut 




Radar for India . . . 

Air India International, which re- 
cently acquired a fleet of U. S. -built 
planes, is going to equip them with 
RCA's airborne weather radar. The 
Indian line thus joins six major Amer- 
ican airlines and four foreign operators 
in installing the recently-developed sys- 
tem, which detects storms up to 150 
miles ahead of the aircraft to provide 
the pilot with early warning of turbu- 
lent areas to be avoided. The Air India 
installation involves eight planes, in- 
cluding five "Super G" Constellations. 

Long Time . . . 

The RCA Service Company re- 
cently looked at its watch and calcu- 
lated that it has provided more than 
50,000 hours of closed circuit field 
engineering services since it started 
this activity just under two years ago. 
The total covers 33 major telecasts 
supervised by RCA field engineers, in- 
cluding such closed-circuit features as 
the program heralding successful dis- 
covery of the Salk anti-polio vaccine 
and the dedication of the General Mo- 
tors Technical Center in Warren, Mich. 
As the Service Company sees it, this 
total demonstrates that large-screen 
closed-circuit TV is now an accepted 
medium of business communications. 



Another Book . . . 

The RCA Tube Division presses 
have run again — this time it's a new, 
comprehensive 256-page manual con- 
taining technical data on 112 types of 
power tubes and 13 types of associated 
rectifier tubes. The new work covers 
basic theory of power tubes and their 
application in an easily understandable 
style, as well as full information on 
parts and materials, installation, inter- 
pretation of tube data, and a number 
of other features of interest. The title 
of the opus is "RCA Transmitting 
Tube," (Technical Manual TT-4), and 
it can be obtained either from RCA 
distributors or by sending Si to Com- 
mercial Engineering, RCA, Harrison, 
N.J. 




Fast Workers . . . 

RCA is helping to speed things up 
in the canning and bottling industries 
with a couple of weird and wonderful 
items — a high-speed uncaser-sorter of 
cans, and an electronic high-speed 
crown detector for bottles. The uncaser- 
sorter unpacks food and beverage cans 
from their cases, sorts them to align 
the open ends, and lines them up pre- 
cisely in single file for delivery to 
filling machines — all at the rate of 
800 cans a minute. Two major brewers 
already have purchased four of the 
machines. The new crown detector is 
a compact device for inspecting prac- 
tically all sizes and types of bottled 
products at a rate of 410 bottles a 
minute to make sure that each bottle 
has been properly capped. 




More Educational TV . . . 

Puerto Rico has just purchased 
RCA equipment for the island's first 
television station designed for exclu- 
sively educational use. According to 
Puerto Rican Department of Education 
officials, the new station marks the 
start of a plan for educational TV 
facilities which will cover the entire 
island, with initial plans calling for 
two TV studios, three microwave units, 
and one mobile TV unit. The transac- 
tion recently announced involves an 
RCA 25-kw transmitter, studio equip- 
ment, microwave links, and a mobile 
TV unit. The new transmitter is to be 
located at the top of a mountain 15 
miles from San Juan. 

Economy Size . . . 

A compact, low-cost single-channel 
control consolette for school and in- 
dustrial sound systems has been engi- 
neered by RCA's Theatre and Sound 
Products Division, with an eye to the 
budget and coverage requirements of 
schools, factories, etc., needing an eco- 
nomical intercommunication system 
that can also be used for program dis- 
tribution. The economy size unit 
measures only 22 inches wide and can 
be mounted on a desk. The unit is a 
self-contained proposition with facil- 
ities for communicating with up to 16 
rooms not only with two-way conversa- 
tion, but with such fare as entertain- 
ment and educational programs from 
radio, tape recordings, and phonograph 
records. 



32 RADIO AGE 



YOU CAN 



SELECT at RCA! 































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TYPE OF DEGREE AND YEARS OF EXPERIENCE PREFERRED 


FIELDS OF ENGINEERING ACTIVITY 


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KINESCOPES (B & W and Color), OSCILLOSCOPES — Electron 

Optics — Instrumental Analysis — Solid States (Phosphors, High Tempera- 
ture Phenomena, Photosensitive Materials and Glass to Metal Sealing) 




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Locations: C-Camden, N.J. F- Cocoa Beach, Fla. H- Harrison, N.J I -Clark, N.J. (periodic foreign assignments). L- Lancaster, Pa. M— 
inoorestown, N.J. N- New York, N.Y. S- RCA Service Co. (Cherry Hill, N.J.; Alexandria, Va.; Tucson. Ariz.; San Diego, Sacramento, 
San Francisco, Calif., Foreign Assignments). V-Somerville, N.J. W-Waltham, Mass. X-West Los Angeles. Calif. Y-Marion, Ind. 




Modern benefits program . . . 
relocation expenses paid . . . 
Please send resume of education and 
ejperience, with location preferred, to: 



Mr. John R. Weld, Employment Manager 
Dept. A-6K, Radio Corporation of America 
30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, N.Y. 



RADIO CORPORATION of AMERICA 



Copyright 1956 Radio Corporation of Ameri 



He fixed 



8750 



RCA Victor 
TV sets . . . 




• . . and now he's 



ready for COLOR! 

The average RCA Service Company technician has five years' 

experience — nearly 10,000 service calls successfully 

completed on RCA Victor television. 

Many of these TV specialists boosted their technical knowledge 

through comprehensive RCA color TV training courses 

. . . Through actual experience while RCA pioneered the 

miracle of color TV and set the pace in color service. 

And they're backed by RCA specialized engineering 

— engineering that designed the color TV test 

equipment now used by the entire industry. 

Yes, RCA Service Company television experts are ready for color today! 




RCA SERVICE COMPANY, INC. 

A RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA SUBSIDIARY 

CAMDEN 8 NEW JERSEY 



RADIO AGE 

RESEARCH • MANUFACTURING • COMMUNICATIONS • BROADCASTING • TELEVISION 

KA*. 



JANUARY 1957 




COLOR TV "FESTIVAL OF MUSIC" 




RCA- First to bring your home the stereophonic 
sound you've heard at movies 



With the development of stereo- 
phonic sound by RCA Victor, 
recorded music and voices achieve 
depth, direction and realism never 
before heard in the home. 

You hear the music in perspective, 
as in the concert hall — strings from 
the left, brass from the right. The 
secret lies in amazing RCA Victor 
Stereophonic Tape, pre-recorded 
with two sound tracks. The attractive 
new RCA Victor High Fidelity 



Stereotape Player reproduces the 
sound through two separated groups 
of speakers . . . gives recorded music 
new dimensions. 

RCA, originator of many other 
"firsts" in sound, puts this miracle 
in your living room. And even now, 
RCA scientists at the David Sarnoff 
Research Center in Princeton, N. J., 
are at work in other fields of 
"Electronics for Living"— electronics 
that make life easier, happier, safer. 




"VICTROLA" Stereotape Player. Two 
units — tape transport, amplifiers and 
3 speakers in one; 3 speakers in other. 
8STP2. Both, complete, $350.00. Avail- 
able also in matched luggage-styled 
cabinets at $295.00. 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

ELECTRONICS FOR LIVING 



VOLUME 16 NUMBER 1 



•ARCH • MANUFACTURING • COMMUNICATIONS 
BROADCASTING 'TELEVISION 



JANUARY 1957 



CONTENTS 




COVER 

A scene from Moussorgsky's 
"Boris Godounov," starring 
Boris Christoff, was one of 
the highlights of "Festival of 
Music," color Spectacular on 
NBC's "Producers' Showcase" 



NOTICE 

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Radio Age is published quarterly by 
the Department of Information, Radio 
Corporation of America, 30 Rocke- 
feller Ploza, New fork 20, N. Y. 

Printed in U.S.A. 



Page 

RCA Sales Again Top Billion-Dollar Mark 3 

Folsom Sees Opportunities to Increase Business 6 

The NBC Story: 30 Years of Network Service 7 

TV Teaching Gets a Helping Hand 10 

For Barnstorming Opera: 'Hearty Approval' 12 

Medical TV — Just What the Doctor Ordered 13 

Tracking Long-Range Missiles 16 

Off to the Fair 18 

Electronics for Greater Safety 20 

The Feminine Touch in RCA 24 

New Member in the 'Golden Disc Club' 26 

Miniature Memory for Computers 27 

Applause for Color Television 28 

New Distribution Center on the West Coast 29 

Answer to Anti-Trust Suit 30 

Television Awards to NBC 31 

News in Brief 32 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 



RCA Building, New York 20, N. Y. 



DAVID SARNOFF, ChaiVr 
JOHN Q. CANNON, Se 



FRANK M. FOISOM, President 
ERNEST B. GORIN, Treasurer 




Color Revision sets in production c ,h. RCA Victor plant in Blooming , on/ 



RCA Sales Again Top Billion-Dollar Mark 

Sarnoff, in Year-End Statement, Puts Total at $1,125,000,000 for 1956 
With Net Profit After Taxes Estimated at $40,000,000 



JL OR 1956, business volume of the Radio Corporation 
of America totaled approximately SI. 12 5, 000,000 — an 
increase of about six percent over 1955 and a figure 
exceeding the billion-dollar mark for the second time 
in RCA's 37-year history — Brig. General David Sarnoff, 
Chairman of the Board of RCA, announced in a year- 
end statement. 

"While final figures for the year are not yet avail- 
able, and are subject to final audit," said General Sarnoff, 
"it is estimated that profit, before Federal Income Taxes, 
will be about eighty million dollars. Net profit after 
taxes is estimated to be about forty million dollars. 
After preferred dividends, this is equal to approximately 
$2.60 per common share. This compares with $3.16 a 
share earned in 1955. 

"The decrease in profit in 1956 was caused mainly 
by higher costs of labor and materials and the lower 
prices at which black-and-white TV sets and tubes were 
sold in a highly competitive market." 

General Sarnoff said dividends to stockholders de- 
clared for 1956 amounted to $23,981,000 (preferred. 
$3,153,000; common, $20,828,000). This amounts to 
$1.50 per common share. The number of common shares 
outstanding is 13,850,000. RCA employment totaled 
83,000 persons, and of that number 8,000 are employed 
overseas. 

He said Government business accounted for 20 per 
cent of the total and the current backlog of Government 
orders is approximately $325,000,000. During 1956, 
RCA spent nearly $60,000,000 on improvements and 
expansion of facilities, he asserted. 

Color Television 

General Sarnoff recalled that throughout the year 
under review, many statements have been made publicly 
about the status of color television in the United States. 

"Some of these," he said, "were made by well- 
intentioned people interested in the progress of a new 
art and the promise of a new industry. Others were 
made by those whose objective is to retard the progress 
of color television in order to serve their short-term 
purposes. In every pioneering industry there are those 



who prefer to see the other fellow undertake the risks 
of initial investments and do the spade work while 
they watch and wait. Sometimes they even try to im- 
pede the progress of the pioneer. 

"For RCA, which has pioneered in world-wide 
radio communications, in radio broadcasting, in black- 
and-white television, in electronics and compatible color, 
such man-made roadblocks do not represent a new 
experience! We recall, for example, that when RCA 
pioneered and established black-and-white TV, there 
were those in the industry who labelled us as Tele- 
visionaries' and the head of one company asserted pub- 
licly that 'television is economically so unsound that it 
will never succeed.' As late as 1946, an officer of the 
same company testified before the Federal Communica- 
tions Commission, 'We are not making and do not plan 
to make any black-and-white receivers.' 

Answer to Critics 

"But several years later, after RCA had demon- 
strated, beyond peradventure, the great success of TV 
and that the public embraced it eagerly, these same 
folks jumped on the bandwagon. 

"History often repeats itself, and I suspect that the 
same pattern will emerge in color TV as did in black- 
and-white TV. Today, we hear arguments in some 
quarters that it will be years before color can reach 
the stage of profitable operations, etc. Moreover, some 
other irresponsible statements have been made that in 
its efforts to establish and promote color television as 
a regular service to the public, RCA has, this year, 
poured untold millions of dollars into this undertaking. 

"Although it is unusual for a private corporation 
engaged in a highly competitive enterprise to disclose 
figures relating to a new segment of its business," said 
General Sarnoff, "I feel, nevertheless, that the interests 
of RCA stockholders, and the industry generally, would 
be constructively served if the record of the actual facts 
of the situation were made public. Accordingly, here 
is the record, and here are the facts. 

"RCA introduced, for the first time, simplified large- 
screen 21-inch compatible color TV receivers for the 
fall of 1955. During the remaining few months of 



January 1957 




RCA Victor's Mark III high fidelity instrument features AM- 
FM radio, 4-speed record changer in luxurious cabinet. 

that year, a small quantity of these sets was produced 
and sold; the major portion was sold in 1956. To date 
we have sold and delivered 102,000 of these 21-inch 
color sets. During this period we also sold and de- 
livered color picture tubes, color components and equip- 
ment. The total factory billing price of all these color 
sales amounted to approximately $58,000,000. 

"After accounting for this year's costs of color 
developments and improvements, the extra costs of 
training personnel, of advertising and promotion cam- 
paigns involved in launching a new product and service, 
and the costs of providing color programs on the air, 
the net loss (after Federal taxes) of all RCA color 
activities for 1956 amounted to approximately $6,900,- 
000. This is certainly a reasonable expenditure to lay 
the foundation for a business that promises substantial 
profits in the near future. 

"Such 'starting up' expenditures are inescapable for 
anyone who would pioneer and lead the way in a new 
field. The first year's efforts to tool up and mass 
produce automobiles, or black-and-white television sets, 
and bring them to the market also entailed losses. But 
the subsequent years produced handsome profits that 
more than made up for the earlier losses. Moreover, a 
position of leadership was established in the industry 
for the organization that pioneered. 

"In color television, as in black-and-white, there 



was the additional requirement to provide programs on 
the air before sales of receiving sets could be made, 
and the need to build up a reasonable circulation before 
advertising sponsors could be attracted to the new 
medium. 

Color TV Outlook 

"As we enter 1957," continued General Sarnoff, 
"the question is — What will the New Year bring? 
I believe that it will bring increased color television — 
more color programs will be broadcast and more people 
will buy color sets for their homes. Also, color tele- 
vision will expand in many fields of usefulness in addi- 
tion to broadcasting; for example, medical, industrial 
and educational TV as well as for closed-circuit theatre- 
TV, sales presentations, and inter-department store 
shopping. 

"The year 1957 will witness acceleration on all 
fronts of color TV as a new dimension in entertain- 
ment, education, news and sports, as well as advertising 
and merchandising. And because of the progress we 
achieved in 1956, it seems reasonable to expect that 
some other manufacturers will follow us and enter the 
color TV field before long. Competition in color pro- 
grams and in sales of color sets will stimulate sponsor- 
ship and accelerate growth of the industry. 

"RCA's goal for color television in 1957 is to pro- 
duce and sell 250,000 color sets, to double the number 
of color programs on the air, to attract sponsors to the 
new and productive medium, and to encourage others 
in the industry to enter the field. 

"Barring unforeseen circumstances, we expect on 
this volume to earn, during the second half of 1957, a 
modest profit on the color sets and color tubes we sell. 
Thereafter, profits from operations in all branches of 
color TV should be substantial. 

"RCA is firmly convinced that color television will 
provide a greater and more interesting service to the 
public, a profitable business for broadcasters, manu- 
facturers, distributors and dealers, and a rewarding 
medium for advertisers. The future of television is in 
color." 

National Broadcasting Company 

General Sarnoff noted that the National Broadcast- 
ing Company, which was organized in 1926 as a service 
of RCA, observed its Thirtieth Anniversary in 1956. 
He continued: 

"Its avowed purpose was 'to provide the best pro- 
grams available for broadcasting in the United States,' 
and the hope was expressed that every event of national 
importance might be broadcast throughout the nation. 
The NBC has steadily adhered to that premise both in 
radio and television. Eight national political campaigns 



RADIO AGE 




RCA Wayfarer portable TV has convenient side tuning. 

have been broadcast by the radio network and five have 
been on TV. The second inauguration of President 
Eisenhower on January 20, 1957, will be broadcast on 
a world-wide basis. 

"Measured by the quality of its programs and finan- 
cial results, NBC made its thirtieth year the greatest 
year in its history." 

Research Achievements 

In looking ahead to 1957, it is helpful to consider 
what transpired in research and engineering in 1956, 
General Sarnoff said. He pointed out that for instance 
RCA scientists, on October 1, 1956, demonstrated the 
following new developments and several unique appli- 
cations including: 

A magnetic tape recorder for both color and black- 
and-white TV for broadcast use. 

A home "Hear-and-See" magnetic tape player which 
plays television programs, or phonograph records 
which are recorded on magnetic tape, so that they 
can be seen as well as heard through standard tele- 
vision receivers. 

A room cooled or heated by electronic panels, oper- 
ating in complete silence and with no moving parts. 

An electronic amplifier of light which amplifies by 
up to 1,000 times the brightness of projected light; 
and an application of it in the form of an amplify- 
ing fluoroscope for industrial X-ray use. 

"In time," said General Sarnoff, "these developments 
will find their way to the market place. They will serve 
the public, benefit industry and open immense fields for 



further exploration and invention. RCA engineers and 
merchandisers are studying the commercial aspects of 
these inventions, all of which hold great promise." 

Electronics For Defense, Home, Industry 

General Sarnoff said that during 1956 RCA under- 
took various new electronic projects related to guided 
missile weapon systems, electronic controls for jet air- 
crafr, fire-control systems, airborne communications and 
air traffic control. 

He listed the following results of RCA's continued 
research and engineering: Weather radar for commer- 
cial airlines and smaller planes, transistors, electronic 
computers, stereophonic sound, increased popularity of 
high fidelity phonograph records, expanded traffic over 
RCA's global radiotelegraph network and extension of 
TEX, RCA's international customer-to-customer tele- 
printer exchange service. 

In summing up RCA's objectives, General Sarnoff 
declared: "RCA is engaged in the fullest possible de- 
velopment of electronics as a science, art and industry. 
We are dedicated to continued pioneering and research, 
and to the engineering and production of instruments 
and systems of quality, dependability and usefulness. 
RCA strives to contribute in every possible way to the 
national security of the United States, to the progress 
of industry generally, to the advance and improvement 
of services to the public, and to the pre-eminence of 
this country in international communications. 

"There is the most vigorous competition in all fields 
of the Corporation's activities and this is a healthy sign 
of the promise of the art and industry in which we are 
engaged. RCA's objective is to meet the competition 
successfully, to earn a reasonable return on its invest- 
ment, to safeguard the interests of its employees and 
stockholders and to fulfill its responsibilities to the 
nation and the public." 




RCA Victor all-transistor portable radio. 



January 1957 



Folsom Sees Opportunities to Increase Business 



V_jHANGING SALES and distribution patterns in Ameri- 
can marketing — strongly apparent in 1956 in the highly 
competitive radio-television and electronics industry — 
will continue into 1957 and will represent a major 
factor in providing opportunities to increase business 
volume, Frank M. Folsom, President of the Radio Cor- 
poration of America, declared in a year-end statement. 

"The shift in selling, largely at the dealers' level, 
features greater concentration on brand-name mer- 
chandise to build business and create new customers," 
said Mr. Folsom. "The question — "What's in a name?' 
— is being answered convincingly and repeatedly by 
increased sales volumes of well known brands, dis- 
tinguished for quality, dependability and service. 

"The American public's faith in brand name prod- 
ucts and in advertising will remain firm and unshake- 
able just as long as they stand the test of experience, 
that they are as good as we say they are. Quality and 
value — these are the cornerstones upon which brand 
name products firmly rest. The brand name products 
we manufacture today have a heritage that in most 
instances goes beyond our own span of years. As manu- 
facturers we are entrusted with the responsibility of 
maintaining and advancing that product heritage. 

Industry's Sales At All-Time High 

"These trends had a marked effect on merchandising 
in 1956 — a business year in which sales volume for 
the electronics industry as a whole established an all- 
time record of more than $11.3 billion." 




Mr. Folsom said that "steadily and progressively, 
color TV is taking hold." He added: 

"We continuously note increased interest in color 
on the part of the public, dealers, competitive manu- 
facturers, broadcasters and sponsors. Color television 
sales are on the increase in many of our markets. More 
and more dealers are enthusiastically and aggressively 
behind color as one of the newest, most promising items 
to be sold. 

"Color quality is excellent. Owners of color sets 
are highly pleased with their purchase and with the 
increasing amount of color programming. An extensive 
survey of color TV set owners confirms this fact." 

Phonographs, Records and Radios 

The phonograph record business, Mr. Folsom said, 
is "on the ascendancy," with strong indications that its 
growth will continue. He listed four main factors re- 
sponsible for this: ( 1 ) more families are seeking 
home entertainment; ( 2 ) the teen-age population, 
comprising millions of record fans, is rising sharply; 
(3) more "Victrola" phonographs are being sold as the 
"45" record-player, the three-speed line and high fidelity 
(hi-fi) continue to boom; (4) retail outlets for records 
are expanding. He reported that RCA Victor's record 
sales for 1956 increased sharply over 1955, with the 
increases scored in every classification of music. 

Mr. Folsom said sales and profits of RCA Victor 
radios, "Victrola" phonographs and tape recorders made 
a marked gain in 1956. 

"The expanding use of transistors in radio sets pro- 
vides a base for continued interest on the part of the 
consumer for the purchase of new radios," he said. 
"RCA Victor's introduction of high-performance, low- 
cost, transistor radios provides for a depth of penetra- 
tion in the market never before possible. In 1956, 
RCA Victor more than doubled the number of high 
fidelity instruments sold during 1955. Our sights are 
set on 1957 for a similar increase. In addition, the tape 
recorder field represents a new and growing business." 

Relative to the future, Mr. Folsom said: "Based 
upon an analysis of basic economic indicators, the RCA 
Economic Planning Department forecasts the economic 
outlook for 1957 as favorable, assuming, of course, that 
the United States will not become involved in war." 

RCA color TV brings a new dimension of entertainment 
into the home, and reaction has been highly favorable. 



RADIO AGE 



The NBC Story: 30 Years of Network Service 




Scene from "The Barretts of Wimpole Street," starring Katharine Cornell and Anthony 
Quayle, shows elaborate setup required for one of NBC's color television productions. 



-Lhe National Broadcasting Company celebrated 
its 30th anniversary as a radio network at a convention 
of affiliates at the Americana Hotel, Bal Harbour, Miami 
Beach, Florida, the week of December 10. Both radio 
and television affiliates participated, for in the inter- 
vening years, beginning in 1939, NBC also introduced 
television to America. 

NBC's inaugural radio program November 15, 1926 
originated from New York, Chicago and Independence, 
Kansas. It was carried by twenty-five stations, the most 
that had taken part in a simultaneous program up to 
that time. The stations extended along the Atlantic 
seaboard from Portland, Maine, to Washington, D. C, 
and as far West as Kansas City. 

Today NBC operates from coast to coast and beyond 
to Canada, Cuba, and Hawaii, with a radio network of 
188 affiliates and a television network of 207 affiliates. 

The opening program was a first in broadcasting in 
more ways than one. It marked the first remote pickups 
from multiple points. The late Dr. Walter Damrosch 
conducted the New York Symphony Orchestra, and 
with other stars, appeared from the old Waldorf-Astoria, 
New York. Maty Garden sang from Chicago and the 
late Will Rogers chatted from his dressing room at 
Independence, Kansas. 



Among the other stars in that first show were 
pianist Harold Bauer, conductor Cesare Sodero, Edwin 
Franko Goldman with his band, and Ben Bernie, B. A. 
Rolfe, and Vincent Lopez with their orchestras. 

While individual stations from the end of 1920 had 
provided some forms of radio shows, mainly with local 
talent, it was not until the appearance of the network 
that an important share of the nation could rune in on 
the big stars. 

When They Started 

As the years went by a parade of artists from other 
media started into radio, and later into television. Al 
Jolson made his first NBC broadcast on Jan. 4, 1928. 
Rudy Vallee began his NBC career a year later, and 
Amos 'n Andy (Charles Correll and Freeman Gosden ) 
moved from local to network radio. Fred Allen's first 
radio appearance was in 1930. Two years larer, Ed 
Wynn, Jack Benny, Jack Pearl and Groucho Marx had 
gone on the network either as regulars or guests. An- 
other year and Bob Hope was a network guest for the 
first time. Eddie Cantor's first NBC appearance goes 
back to 1926. 

Fibber McGee and Molly (Jim and Marian Jordan) 
began their long network career in 1935. Edgar Bergen 



January 1957 




General Sarnoff introduced TV to the public on April 30, 
1939, in historic pickup at New York World's Fair. 

and his dummy Charlie McCarthy were introduced 
to the NBC audience in 1937, and the late John Barry- 
more appeared in a series of Shakespearean plays in 
that year, too. 

In 1948, Milton Berle headed the group of stars 
attracted by the bright lights and prospects of television, 
and quickly won the title of "Mr. Television." Tele- 
vision soon began developing other stars, many of whom 
it could call exclusively its own. At the same time, TV 
was incorporating into its schedule the best of the radio 
features. Programs like "Dragnet," "People Are Funny," 
and "Your Hit Parade" gained greater popularity than 
ever through the new medium. 

From the day of its inaugural broadcast, NBC has 
sought to adhere to a policy of presenting "the best 
programs available for broadcasting in the United 
States." The network has been consistent in covering 
entertainment, news, education and politics, among 
other topics. At the same time, through its capacity as 
a significant national advertising medium, it has enabled 
its affiliates to carry programs that would be economi- 
cally, if not physically, impossible for the individual 
station to provide on its own. 

Political Conventions Since 1928 

In politics it has broadcast in detail every Republican 
and Democratic convention since 1928, with television 
making its first appearance in 1940 at the Republican 
convention in Philadelphia. The network also has con- 
sistently reported returns of every national election since 
its 1926 formation. As an essential part of its political 



service, NBC from the beginning has made its facilities 
available to the various parties for campaign purposes, 
with television playing an ever-increasing role as the 
size of its audience grew. 

Significant from the beginning was the radio con- 
centration on educational features such as the "Music 
Appreciation Hour" for younger listeners which Dr. 
Damrosch conducted. It began Oct. 26, 1928. The 
music hour was preceded on Oct. 2 of that year by the 
first NBC relay of "The National Farm and Home 
Hour," still a regular radio feature. The latter program 
is in its 29th year. 

Actually NBC's oldest program is "The National 
Radio Pulpit," which started on the network June 3, 
1928, after having been broadcast locally in New York 
since May 6, 1923. Another long-running religious 
feature still on the air is "The Catholic Hour," which 
opened March 2, 1930. "Eternal Light," representing 
the Jewish faith, is in its fourteenth year. 

In the first NBC decade it became sharply apparent 
that network radio was offering an important means of 
providing close contact between the people and their 
government. For instance, President Roosevelt was 
heard on NBC twenty times in his first nine months in 
office. He made his first "Fireside Chat" on March 12, 
1933, eight days after taking office. His inauguration 
was the second to be carried by NBC, the network 
having described the inauguration of President Hoover 
in 1929. 

First Inauguration on TV 

The first telecast of an inauguration was President 
Truman's on Jan. 20, 1949, to fifteen stations in the 
East and Midwest. Four years later, when President 
Eisenhower took office, television was available coast 
to coast. 

World War II had brought many changes in the 
coverage of news and special events. Listening posts 
were set up on each coast to serve as an "ear" for for- 
eign shortwave broadcasts. First word of the German 
invasion of Russia was an official Berlin short-wave 
announcement. 

NBC correspondents located in all parts of the world 
provided eyewitness word pictures of such events as 
the Japanese bombing of Manila in 1941, the coming 
of American troops to Sicily in 1943 and the landing 
on the beaches of Normandy, France, in 1944. 

Perfected during the war was the portable tape 
recorder, since greatly refined. It has been a boon both 
to the newsgatherer and to the general broadcaster. 

In the field of sports, NBC carried ringside descrip- 
tions of such famous battles as the Dempsey-Tunney 
"long count" fight in Chicago, Sept. 22, 1927, and the 
Louis-Schmeling fight from New York in 1938. Now 



RADIO AGE 



there is boxing every Friday night on both radio and 
television. 

College football, including the annual Army-Navy 
game beginning in 1934, has been a regular fall radio 
feature, expanding into television as that medium added 
sight to the announcer's voice. 

Televised World Series baseball has been on the air 
annually since the memorable first viewing of the New 
York Yankees-Brooklyn Dodgers games in 1947. The 
first year only four stations in the East could be hooked 
together, compared to the coast-to-coast array of the 
present day. 

In the Forefront in Music 

From the beginning NBC has been in the music 
forefront. There was that early outstanding concert 
series known as the "Atwater Kent Auditions." The 
Boston Symphony was heard on the NBC Network 
first in 1927. 

The network was the first to conduct regular broad- 
casts from the stage of the Metropolitan Opera House 
in New York, beginning in 1931. By 1937 it had an 
orchestra of its own — the NBC Symphony — formed 
especially for broadcasting. 

Brig. General David Sarnoff, who was responsible 
for the creation of NBC and whose keen sense of music 
appreciation was the inspiration behind the orchestra, 
persuaded the noted conductor, Arturo Toscanini, to 
return to America from retirement in 1937 to conduct 
again as maestro of the NBC Symphony. Toscanini 
held that post through the season of 1954, when he 
retired at the age of 87. The noted conductor also 
appeared before the TV cameras on numerous occasions 
— the first on Match 20, 1947. 

Growth of Color TV 

Living color, television's newest and brightest coast- 
to-coast dress, has set another milestone in the 30-year 
history of the National Broadcasting Company. 

Just as in black-and-white television, NBC has 
pioneered the production of color programs since the 
"introductory year" of 1953. Today it carries approxi- 
mately 55 hours a month in special and regular shows. 
That total ultimately will be increased until the bulk 
of live programs are in color. Recently announced 
was a $3,500,000 expansion program of coast-to-coast 
color facilities for the 1957-58 season. 

As the new year began, 134 of NBC's 207 television 
affiliates were ready to carry network color, twenty more 
than a year ago. Of these, thirty were able to originate 
live shows in color. 




Fred Allen was a radio favorite in Fanny Brice made Baby Sn 
the 1930's and 1940's on NBC. famous on NBC radio net* 




Maestro Toscanini began conduct- Jim and Marian Jordan, be 
ing NBC Symphony in 1937. known as Fibber McGee and Mi 




Comedian Eddie Cantor's first NBC Milton Berle was first major en 
appearance was in the year 1926. tainer to head his own TV sh 



January 1957 



TV Teaching Gets A Helping Hand 



J-HE first live programming ever produced expressly 
for educational television stations on a national basis 
will be provided by the National Broadcasting Company 
beginning in March. 

The network will furnish specialized educational 
programs to all of the nation's non-commercial educa- 
tional stations. The programs will be produced in the 
NBC studios and furnished live to the educational sta- 
tions over network lines. 

The programming service will be provided at no 
charge to the stations. NBC has committed more than 
$300,000 for programs, production facilities and per- 
sonnel in connection with the project. The Educational 
Television and Radio Center at Ann Arbor, Mich., 
which has received funds from the Ford Foundation, is 
supplying the local loops to connect the educational 
stations with the NBC network lines and is consulting 
closely with NBC on the design of the programs. 

The plan was announced December 13 by Robert 
W. Sarnoff, President of NBC, at the network's 30th 
Anniversary Convention in Miami Beach, Florida. In 
other highlights of his convention address, Mr. Sarnoff 
hailed color television as the "booster charge for our 
fourth decade," drew a hopeful picture of future net- 
work radio operations, and warned that television as a 
communications service will decline if the current flood 
of feature and syndicated film programs leads to dis- 
placement of network programs and starts a trend that 
results in curtailing networks' access to the air. 

On NBC's educational TV plans, Mr. Sarnoff said: 

"These programs will be telecast during an after- 
noon time period which does not conflict with our 
regular schedule. They will also be kinescoped for 
repeat broadcast or subsequent classroom use, thus cre- 
ating an important and enduring educational television 
library." 

Conducted By Experts 

The programs will consist of three half-hour pres- 
entations each week, with instruction in mathematics, 
the humanities and government. The project will ex- 
tend through twenty-six weeks in 1957, beginning in 
March for thirteen weeks, and resuming in October for 
another thirteen-week period. The three program series 
will be conducted by experts in the fields. James R. 
Newman, author and editor of "The World of Mathe- 
matics," already has agreed to supervise the mathematics 
course. 



Twenty-two non-commercial educational stations are 
now on the air, and it is possible that this number may 
be increased to twenty-six by March. The stations fall 
into two broad classifications — the community-type 
stations and those run by a single educational institu- 
tion. In the first group, the general direction is pro- 
vided by a board representing the various educational 
and cultural interests of the community. The Pittsburgh 
and St. Louis stations are of this kind. The second type 
of educational station is exemplified by those managed 
and directed by the University of Illinois, Ohio State 
University and Michigan State University. Alabama 
has a state-wide network administered by a state com- 
mission, with production centers at the university, 
Alabama Polytechnic and the Birmingham area public 
schools. North Carolina has a single station with pro- 
grams fed in from several institutions. 

Twenty-five Hours A Week 

The educational TV stations operate an average of 
more than twenty-five hours weekly, with some of them 
broadcasting as much as fifty hours a week. Broadly 
speaking, their programs are of two kinds: those planned 
for in-school use, and those designed for general educa- 
tion of a less formal nature. 

The educational stations have a potential audience 




NBC President Robert W. Sarnoff speaking at Miami 
Beach where he announced the new educational TV plan. 



10 



RADIO AGE 











Station KETC in St. Louis, one of the 
pioneers in educational television, will 
be among the twenty-two stations to 
receive NBC programming aid. The 
programs will be conducted by experts, 
including James R. Newman (left), 
editor of "The World of Mathematics." 



of about 43,000,000, which is larger than the regularly 
enrolled school population of the United States. 

In addition to the twenty-two educational stations, 
more than a hundred colleges, universities and school 
systems are using closed-circuit television in their 
classrooms to teach everything from Milton to Marriage. 
Many of these closed-circuit systems have been supplied 
by RCA. One of the largest will be furnished for the 
University of Georgia's $2,500,000 Center for Con- 
tinuing Education, now in the final construction stage 
on the Athens, Georgia, campus. The new center will 
serve as a hub of adult education for the entire South- 
east as well as for the State of Georgia. From its 
RCA-equipped television broadcast studio, the Center 
will also operate a non-commercial television station 
of the kind that will be aided under the new NBC 
programming plan. 

"We see our twenty-six-week project as a demon- 
stration operation," Mr. Sarnoff said. "We believe that 



when our project terminates at the end of 1957, its 
values and lessons can be carried forward in ways that 
will help enrich the whole future of education by 
television. 

"Every citizen has a stake in the success with which 
these educational stations carry out their mission. The 
drastic national shortage of teachers and classrooms 
lends a special urgency to their efforts to build them- 
selves into a major educational force. Those of us who 
live in television and who seek its full development in 
every area in society have a particular sympathy for 
the difficult problems of financing and programming 
which the educational stations face. In my judgment, 
we also have an interest going beyond that of the aver- 
age citizen to lend such support as we can in solving 
these problems." 

Approval from Educators 

Leaders in education were quick to voice their 
approval of the NBC plan. 

Dr. Grayson Kirk, President of Columbia University, 
said: "In formulating and carrying through this project, 
the National Broadcasting Company earns the gratitude 
of all who are devoted to the field of education." 

Dr. H. K. Newburn, President of the Educational 
Television and Radio Center at Ann Arbor, Michigan: 
"We feel that this cooperative arrangement not only is 
an expression of your faith in the practical educational 
uses of the television medium, but it is in a real sense 
an indication of your broad interest in the educational 
welfare of the American people." 

Dr. Herman Wells, President, University of Indiana: 
"I believe that the National Broadcasting Company's 
pioneering plan to supply live programs to the nation's 
educational television stations is one of the boldest and 
most important forward steps yet taken by television 
on behalf of our schools and colleges. I salute NBC 
for this fine public service." 

Dr. Carroll V. Newsom, President, New York Uni- 
versity: "The National Broadcasting Company's plan 
is an important step. I congratulate the National Broad- 
casting Company for its concern and interest in educa- 
tion via television." 

Educational stations now on the air are in Alabama 
( Munford, Birmingham and Andalusia); California 
(San Francisco) ; Colorado (Denver) ; Florida (Miami) ; 
Illinois (Chicago and Urbana) ; Massachusetts (Boston) ; 
Michigan (Detroit and East Lansing); Missouri (St. 
Louis); Nebraska (Lincoln); North Carolina (Chapel 
Hill); Ohio (Cincinnati and Columbus); Oklahoma 
(Norman); Pennsylvania (Pittsburgh); Tennessee 
(Memphis); Texas (Houston); Washington (Seattle) 
and Wisconsin (Madison). 



January 1957 



11 



For Barnstorming Opera: 'Hearty Approval' 



W„ 



hen the curtain came down on the NBC 
Opera Company's performance in Newark, New Jersey, 
one night last month, the capacity crowd applauded en- 
thusiastically. It was a rousing finale for the Company's 
first barnstorming tour to bring top-flight "opera in 
English" to cities and towns that had never seen it 
before. 

The rroupe of ninety-five singers, musicians and staff 
members covered more than 10,000 miles to stage fifty- 
four performances in forty-seven cities. There were 
thirty-five showings of Puccini's "Madame Butterfly," 
the tragic story of the beautiful Japanese girl and the 
American Naval Officer, and nineteen performances of 
Mozart's "Marriage of Figaro," the satiric comedy that 
epitomizes the 18th Century's light-hearted classic 
approach. 

The Opera Company's reception was overwhelmingly 
favorable — in large cities like Atlanta and New Orleans 
and in small towns like Pittsburgh, Kansas, and Lake 
Charles, Louisiana. In South Bend, Indiana, floats 
lined the streets, bands played and the townsfolk turned 
out in crowds reminiscent of a homecoming celebration 
for a victorious Notre Dame football team. 

The music critics, too, were lavish in their praise 



Adelaide Bishop, Phyliss Curtin, and Ralph Herbert in 
scene from NBC Opera Company's "Marriage of Figaro." 




of the Opera Company. "A smartly mounted, carefully 
cast production," The New Orleans Times Picayune 
called the NBC group's "Madame Butterfly." "The 
attention and the applause of the huge audience in- 
dicated hearty approval." The Fort Worth Press hailed 
the performance as "one of the highest professional 
caliber, beautifully staged, lighted and costumed, with 
colorful, stylized settings." The Waterloo (Iowa) 
Courier described it as a "magnificent performance." In 
Norfolk, Virginia, The Ledger-Dispatch said the NBC 
Opera Company demonstrated convincingly "that opera 
in English can be successful. The well matched and 
expert company achieved a real ensemble performance 
in which the English translation by Edward Eager was 
a particularly happy one." 

"Operatic Missionary Job" 

The NBC Company's objective of bringing opera 
to the grass roots was lauded by the critics as "a 
crusade of major proportions," and "a highly com- 
mendable operatic missionary job." 

Bookings for next season's tour already are under 
way. Both of the operas in the first tour will be re- 
peated, and a third — Verdi's "La Traviata" — will be 
added to the repertoire. 

The producer was Samuel Chotzinoff, and the music 
and artistic director was Perer Herman Adler. Mr. Adler 
himself staged "The Marriage of Figaro," and Bill 
Butler staged "Madame Butterfly." Conducting honors 
were shared by Mr. Adler and Herbert Grossman. 

Commenting on the tour, Mr. Chotzinoff said: 
"When we set out on our eighr-week tour of forty- 
seven cities, we did so with the idea that 'opera in 
English' was what the American public wanted and 
would enjoy. We felt that doing these operas in a 
Theatrically effective way with casts of fine singers who 
also could act and who looked their parts, was going 
to bring us great success. And we are gratified that 
this turned out to be completely true. 

"The audience laughed uproariously at the comic 
lines in 'Figaro' and was moved to tears by the pathos 
of 'Madame Butterfly.' The old idea that opera is a 
wedding of the arts including music, drama and decor 
was given living validity by our opera company. And 
the thousands who came to see us showed their appre- 
ciation with tumultuous applause." 



12 



RADIO AGE 



Medical TV— Just What the Doctor Ordered 



T 

J-H 



-HE INCREASINGLY important role of television in 
the field of medicine is pointed up by two recent devel- 
opments. One is a new application of closed-circuit 
TV that provides immediate comparative data of chemi- 
cal activity within live normal and cancer cells. The 
other is the start of commercial production of the 
first compatible color TV camera system designed specifi- 
cally for medical use. 

Closed-circuit TV is one of the most dramatic of a 
whole host of marvelous mechanisms of electronics that 
are fashioning a better world for medicine. In this new 
era of medical electronics, conventional instruments like 
the stethoscope — traditional badge of the physician 
for more than a century — seem likely to give way 
eventually to diagnostic robots with years of medical 
skill built right in. Electronics has already provided the 
electron microscope, X-ray systems, the television micro- 
scope, infrared and ultrasonic equipment, and an im- 
posing array of measuring devices such as electronic 
particle counters, radiation meters and electrocardio- 
graphs. 

Over the years, RCA scientists and engineers have 
led the way in adapting electronics to the special needs 
of medicine, and the two new television developments 
are the latest of a long line of medical devices. 

Television for Cell Research 

The new TV technique for use in cell research was 
made possible by a developmental RCA ultraviolet-sensi- 
tive TV camera tube. It is now undergoing experimental 
examination at the National Institutes of Health, 
Bethesda, Maryland. The RCA ultraviolet TV system is 
being used with a high-power microscope and an 
electronic oscilloscope to obtain direct observations and 
oscillographic measurements of the metabolism of living 
cells, according to Dr. George Z. Williams, Chief of 
the NIH Clinical Pathology Department, and Research 
Pathologist of the National Cancer Institute of the NIH. 

The successful application of ultraviolet television 
to medical microscopy and oscillographic spectroscopy, 
Dr. Williams said, gives promise of new speed and 
facility in the analysis of cells and tissue. The system 
introduces numerous advances in cell research: 

( 1 ) For the first time, it enables researchers to 
observe and take motion pictures, simultaneously, of 
chemical activity within living cells. 

(2) It makes possible microscopic study and analy- 



sis of hundreds of living cells in only a fraction of the 
time formerly required. 

(3) It makes possible direct observation and rapid, 
accurate measurement and identification of certain 
chemical changes within the cells. 

The ultraviolet television system uses a standard 
RCA black-and-white TV camera, a type widely used 
throughout the television broadcast industry. The cam- 
era's standard monochrome Vidicon tube has been re- 
placed with the experimental RCA ultraviolet-sensitive 
Vidicon camera rube. The pickup tube and its cir- 
cuitry were developed originally at RCA's David Sarnoff 
Research Center by A. D. Cope and L. E. Flory, under 
the supervision of Dr. V. K. Zworykin, and furnished 
to Dr. Williams for the cell-research program at NIH. 

The National Institutes of Health is the principal 
research arm of the United States Public Health Service. 
It embraces seven research institutes, each devoted to 
specific medical studies, and a Clinical Center which 
provides patient care for the various institutes. 

"The RCA ultraviolet closed-circuit TV system," 
Dr. Williams said, "makes it possible to obtain quick 
and accurate measurements of ultraviolet absorption in 



Dr. George Z. Williams examines specimen on monitor 
of RCA TV system which provides comparative data of 
chemical activity in live normal and cancer cells. 




January 1957 



13 




E. C. Tracy and J. H. Roe examine the four-lens turret 
of RCA's first color TV camera designed for medical use. 

healthy and abnormal cells. The ultraviolet TV camera 
tube sees more than the eye can discern when living 
cells are illuminated with visible light. The direct 
oscillographic analysis and record of any part of the 
object-image provides immediate comparative data." 

Dr. Williams pointed out that previously, the study 
and observation of ultraviolet-treated specimens repre- 
sented a long and laborious process due to the lack of 
a practical medium for direct observation. The ultra- 
violet TV camera tube developed by RCA makes prac- 
tical "seeing" ultraviolet pictures by television. 

The overall ultraviolet equipment chain, devised by 
Dr. Williams, includes an ultraviolet light source, a 
high-power microscope, the RCA broadcast TV camera 
with ultraviolet camera tube, a monitor, an oscilloscope, 
and various motion picture cameras for filming images 
on both the TV monitor and the oscilloscope. 

In operation, the ultraviolet light source is focused 
on the specimen under the microscope. The RCA 
camera is mounted so that it "peers" through the eye- 
piece of the microscope. Sensitive to ultraviolet, it 
"sees" and transmits to the monitor an image of the 
cell and the action and reaction of its ultraviolet-absorb- 
ing chemicals, both those normal to the cell and those 
induced artificially or by disease. 

Color TV Camera System 

First units of the new color television camera sys- 
tem have been earmarked for the Walter Reed Army 
Medical Center, Washington, D. C; Smith, Kline & 
French Laboratories, a Philadelphia pharmaceutical firm; 



and the University of Michigan Medical School at Ann 
Arbor. Other orders are being accepted for delivery in 
the spring. 

"The RCA medical TV camera has been recognized as 
an electronic development of major significance to medi- 
cal research and education," said E. C. Tracy, Manager, 
RCA Broadcast and Television Equipment Department. 
"It makes available to the medical and educational in- 
structor an important new classroom aid which com- 
bines the immediacy of television, the realism and 
detail of compatible color, and the quality performance 
of broadcast equipment with its own specially de- 
veloped features for maximum flexibility and economy." 

The medical camera is designed around three Vidicon 
camera tubes and special electronic circuitry which 
makes possible televising surgical procedures in full- 
color detail under normal operating-room lighting. It 
measures only 26 by 15 by 14 inches, weighs less than 
200 pounds and, to eliminate interference with surgery 
or demonstrations, is designed for permanent installa- 
tion in an overhead fixture which supports both camera 
and surgical lamp. 

Mr. Tracy said that the new design approach in the 
medical camera provides users with numerous operat- 
ing and performance advantages. It permits long periods 
of exposure to a single scene without danger of image 
burn-in, and virtually eliminates "halo" or overloading 
effects caused by reflections from polished instruments 
or wet tissue. 

A Variety of Uses 

Television has numerous uses in the medical field. 
In addition to its value in diagnosis and consultation — 
a use laden with rich potentialities for the future — TV 
may be put to work supervising an entire hospital ward 
from a central point. In clinics, interesting cases can 
be brought instantly to the attention of a large group 
of trained onlookers. Biopsies and autopsies can be 
presented to medical students. 

As an educational tool, TV is invaluable in prepar- 
ing the doctors of tomorrow — both physicians and 
dentists — to give more expert care. Dr. Albert F. 
Furstenberg, Dean of the University of Michigan Medi- 
cal School, summed up the educational value of television 
like this: "The application of closed-circuit color TV 
to surgical instruction enables large numbers of students 
to 'stand' at the surgeon's shoulder, to see what he sees, 
to observe each precise movement of hands, fingers, and 
surgical instruments. In essence, color television equips 
the Medical School with a medium of inestimable value 
for providing surgical and clinical information im- 
mediately and with complete detail to large groups of 
students." 



14 



RADIO AGE 



Not long ago at Philadelphia's famed Willis Eye 
Hospital, a specialist performed an intricate operation 
involving the planting of a plastic lens in the eye of a 
patient. In the narrow confines of the operating room, 
only one man at a time could have watched from 
nearby. But television gave a close-up view to some 
300 ophthalmologists. 

"Only through the eye of the camera," says the 
Journal of the American Medical Association, "can 
hundreds of persons be brought to within a few feet 
or inches of interesting visual material." 

Early Medical TV Experiments 

RCA's interest in medical television goes back to 
February, 1947, when it televised a "blue baby" opera- 
tion at Baltimore's Johns Hopkins Hospital for more 
than 300 surgeons, internes and nurses in various view- 
ing rooms in the hospital. Later the same year, RCA 
sent the first televised pictures of surgery through the 
air from the operating room of a New York hospital 
to receivers set up in the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel for 
a meeting of the American College of Surgeons. Since 
those experiments, RCA specialists have put on more 
than fifty medical television demonstrations throughout 
the United States and in Latin America and Europe. 

RCA Victor color television cameras at the famed 
Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, D. C. 




Besides, RCA equipment — including a fully outfitted 
mobile television studio — has been used extensively 
by the pharmaceutical firm of Smith, Kline & French 
in its own surgical and clinical demonstrations before 
medical gatherings. 

Advantages of Color 

The early demonstrations were in black-and-white 
television, but in 1955, RCA introduced a compatible 
color TV system for medical use. Doctors agreed that the 
addition of color to medical television lent realism and 
authenticity to human tissue and areas of infection, 
and gave a sense of three-dimensional presentation 
valuable in revealing the extent and depth of lesions 
and incisions. 

On January 19, 1955, color television of govern- 
mental-approved standards was used for the first time 
as a means of inter-city consultation and diagnosis. In 
the hush of a Philadelphia hospital, a patient lay on 
the operating table. The surgeon had made his incision 
and was awaiting a confirmation of the diagnosis by 
consulting specialists. Even though the consultants were 
more than a hundred miles away, the surgeon got his 
confirmation almost instantly — through the use of 
color television. 

RCA cameras focused first on the patient, then on a 
magnified piece of tissue that had just been removed. 
More than 150 doctors examined the specimen on large- 
size color television receivers in Baltimore and Washing- 
ton. A pathologist in Baltimore spoke up and his re- 
marks were carried to doctors in the other two cities 
over the closed-circuit system. The diagnosis was dis- 
cussed and confirmed, and the operation completed. 

"It was like bringing 150 specialists right into the 
operating room," said one doctor. 

Color System at Walter Reed 
The most extensive color television system ever de- 
signed for hospital use is the one for the Walter Reed 
Army Medical Center. The system includes three 
separate and complete color broadcasting studios and 
thirty large-screen monitors. It will be used for medical 
instruction, research and consultation. 

With this color TV system, it is possible for an 
operation at Walter Reed to be viewed by a specialist 
two blocks away at the Armed Forces Institute of 
Pathology, central laboratory for the Army, Navy and 
Air Force. If the removed tissue requires pathological 
examination, it can be sent by pneumatic tube to the 
laboratory. Then, while the surgeon watches on his 
TV monitor, the pathologist can prepare the specimen 
for slide projection and hold a two-way picture and 
voice consultation with the surgeon. 



January 1957 



15 




1. Immediately before a launching, skilled technicians check 
every piece of gear to make sure it is in perfect condition. 



2. From the moment a missile like the Snark, shown here, is 
fired, its flight is recorded by optical and electronic devices. 



Tracking Long-Range Missiles 



D, 



"evelopment of long-range missiles has become a top 
priority item in our national defense program, and has 
focused sharp attention on Patrick Air Force Base on the 
east coast of central Florida. There the giant "birds" like 
the Snark, Navaho, Redstone and Bomarc are tested under 
the supervision of the Air Research and Development 
Command. From a scrub-covered launching area on Cape 
Canaveral, the missiles are fired out over the Atlantic 
Ocean. They are "tracked" by camera, radar, telemetry and 
other means along the range of islands shown on the map 
below, a range that will eventually be in full operation for 
5,000 miles from Florida to lonely Ascension Island. 

The RCA Service Company, under sub-contract to 
Pan American World Airways, Inc., has responsibility for 
the all-important technical aspects of range operations. 
RCA experts plan, engineer, install, maintain and operate 
the electronic and optical equipment used for tracking. 

A single missile flight may produce as much as 50,000 
feet of photographic film and more than 100,000 feet of 
magnetic and punched tape. Electronic devices inside the 



missile itself, known as telemetry devices, radio to the 
ground vital information about performance. On some 
missile flights, telemetry alone has furnished more than 400 
separate pieces of information. The data recorded by the 
various electronic and photographic devices cover every 
aspect of the missile's performance — speed, altitude at 
various stages, rate of climb, fuel consumption, and other 
factors. 

Once a test flight has been completed, this vast bulk 
of data is processed by mathematicians and machines. The 
end product is a Flight Test Report of fifty to 100 pages 
telling how well the missile's guidance system, engine and 
other equipment functioned. This report is turned over 
to the missile manufacturer. Engineers analyze it and 
decide what changes to make in the missile's design. 

The techniques developed for gathering and processing 
missile test data will be used in the Vanguard Project to 
track the earth satellite when it is launched from Cape 
Canaveral some time after next July 1. Pictures on this 
and the opposite page show step-by-step the various aspects 
of the tracking operation. 






3. Missile's takeoff is recorded by as many as 75 special 
cameras, like this Fairchild Analyzer aimed by binocular sights. 



4. Huge radars at launching site begin tracking the missile, 
then as it moves down-range each station in turn takes over. 




5. Electronic devices inside the missile send back critical data 
which are picked up by telemetry antennas like this one. 



6. Information is sent to Operations Room where officer 
can destroy missile electronically if it veers off course. 




As missile soars down-range, it is fol- 
ded by high-speed, long focal-length 
meras like this tracking telescope mount. 



8. Each of the down-range stations, like 
Eleuthera here, is a technical outpost 
manned by an average of 80 technicians. 



9. Data from down-range and launch 
area are rushed to Laboratory for pr 
essing and inclusion in Flight Test Rep< 




The United States pavilion at the International Trade 
Fair at Stockholm, Sweden, where RCA Victor closed- 
circuit television (right) was one of the main attractions. 



Off to the Fair 



K 



i-T Damascus' International Trade Fair, Syrian ex- 
hibitors had a complaint: visitors were staying away 
from their booths in droves. Then RCA technicians 
lent a sympathetic ear and some television equipment. 
They hooked up TV sets at strategic points around the 
exhibition area. Immediately the crowds grew so large 
that exhibitors had to call for police help to maintain 
orderly lines. 

"RCA stole the show," enthused one local exhibitor. 

The incident is typical of the drawing power of 
RCA displays at International Trade Fairs from Stock- 
holm to Bangkok during the fall and early winter. At 
these fairs, the United States showed its wares and its 
way of life to millions of peoples overseas in a deter- 
mined bid to build world trade and good will. In 
addition to television, RCA demonstrated radios, tape 
recorders and high fidelity phonograph equipment. 

But television was indisputably the major attraction, 
especially the "See-Yourself-On-TV" feature. Astrakhan- 
hatted hillsmen, nomadic tribesmen in billowing bur- 
nooses, natives in the traditional tarboosh — adults and 
children alike — would wave and grin in delight as 
they watched themselves on the monitor screens. At 
Salonika, Greece, doting parents would station their 



offspring in front of monitors and then line up for 
their turn at the camera where they would wave to 
the youngsters. The children, thinking they were on 
a two-way hook-up, would wave back excitedly before 
the TV receivers. 

At one fair, television was used as a traffic control 
device. During fashion shows when the crowd got too 
large, the show's operators would turn on the closed- 
circuit TV to draw away some of the people. 

Often the throngs around the RCA booths were so 
large that the demonstrators had to resort to a ruse. 
They would turn off the equipment and pretend to be 



18 



RADIO AGE 



closing up for the day, only to start again once the 
crowd had dispersed. In Afghanistan, the monarch, 
Mohammed Zahir Shah, appeared on the first telecast 
in his nation's history — a closed-circuit hook-up from 
the United States pavilion to 8,000 of his subjects. 

"Exchange Program" In Thailand 

At the fair in Bangkok, Thailand, an "exchange 
program" was set up. The RCA-equipped Government 
station — Thai TV — would pipe its regular programs 
into the twenty receiving sets scattered throughout the 
American pavilion. In return, the closed-circuit pro- 
grams from the fair — featuring Benny Goodman's 
orchestra and explanations of the various American ex- 
hibits — were sent out over Thai TV. 

Tape recorders also proved to be big drawing cards 
at the fairs. In Damascus, RCA crews hit upon an 
appealing gimmick for demonstrating the equipment. 
They would pre-record a message in Arabic. Then, 
selecting a volunteer from the audience, they would 
hand him an English version of the message to read. 
After he had stumbled through it in halting English, 
the RCA men would re-wind the tape to the Arabic 
section and play it back to the amazement of the 
volunteer and the amusement of the crowd. 

Expressing appreciation for RCA's participation in 
the program, William R. Traum, Deputy Director of 
the Commerce Department's Office of International 
Trade Fairs, said: "In providing the initial grant from 
his emergency fund for the trade fair program, President 
Eisenhower referred to it as 'seed money' to stimulate 
the presentation of American industrial exhibits over- 
seas and to help counteract propaganda against free 
enterprise. The response of the American industrial 
community has been most gratifying." 

Praise For RCA's Representatives 

Reaction of the fairs' managers was universally 
favorable. Typical was a letter to the RCA International 
Division from W. Bradlee Smith, manager of the United 
States Government exhibition at the Salonika Fair. 

"[The RCA representatives] did an outstanding job 
in setting up the closed-circuit RCA television show," 
said Mr. Smith. "They supervised the unpacking and 
arranging of the exhibit and under some adverse con- 
ditions of electric power got their sets operating beau- 
tifully. At no time did we have a breakdown; at no 
time was the television off; and when it is realized that 
the fair ran continuously eight hours a day for twenty- 
five days, I think this is an outstanding accomplishment." 

The RCA exhibits at the fairs were handled by the 
RCA International Division and the RCA Victor Com- 
munity Relations Department. 

January 1957 




Robert Gold (left) and Walter Lawrence at monitor of 
RCA "See-Yourself-On-TV" installation at Salonika. 




Above, natives examine with interest RCA equipment at 
the International Trade Fair at Kabul, Afghanistan. 
Below, crowds at the fair in Damascus, Syria, watch a 
closed-circuit television program on RCA receivers. 




ELECTRONICS 

for greater 
safety . . . 

A 

-tA-M airline pilot in the Far East remarked: In this 
part of the world, we would rather lose an engine than 
our Weather Radar." 

A steelworker in West Virginia commented: "With 
industrial TV, we can see even where we can't look." 

A freighter captain in New York said: "I'd rather 
sail for $200 a month less pay than sail without elec- 
tronic equipment." 

These terse comments dramatically underline the 
growing importance of electronics to greater safety. 
Today electronic devices are adding startling new di- 
mensions to man's senses and abilities, relieving him of 
scores of dangerous jobs, and providing him with vital 
communication lifelines — on land, on sea and in the air. 

Safety On Land Through Electronics 

At the Strip Steel Hot Mill of the Weirton Steel 
Company division of National Steel Corporation in 
West Virginia, flashing lights warned of trouble. In 
a huge reheating furnace, where the temperature ap- 
proached a searing 2,000 degrees, a slab of steel had 
moved past the uniform heating area so that its edge 
overhung the hearth, resulting in what steelmen call a 
"cold edge." When the slab started through the rolling 
process, it skewed, causing a cobble that brought the 
mechanism to a grinding halt. 

The trouble was that the operator controlling the 
movement of slabs into the furnace could not actually 
see them, for no human could withstand the furnace's 
scalding heat. He had to work by signal which some- 
times came too late. The "cold edges" meant aggra- 
vating delays, and in extreme cases, a costly roll might 
be broken. 

Now the perplexing problem of "cold edges" has 
been solved by a new wonder tool of electronics known 
as closed-circuit television or industrial television — 
ITV for short. An RCA TV camera, encased in a 
metal box with a built-in air conditioning system, peers 
into the blinding glare of the furnace. It is connected 
by closed circuit to a monitor 150 feet away in the 
furnace's control booth, dubbed the "pusher's pulpit." 

When the front slab in the furnace has reached the 
required heat for rolling, the operator opens the door 





, ^ /TG1P 


■ 








1 — 1 L — 1 1 1 CZI 


/ " — i- t --^-t 




v.^:,^;-- 



at the rear of the furnace by remote control. The rais- 
ing of the door starts the TV camera. As a cold slab 
is pushed into the rear of the furnace, the heated slab 
at the front is forced into the discharge chute and the 
next slab in line moves forward. Thanks to television, 
the operator can safely position this slab so its edge will 
not overhang the hearth. He can do the entire job 
safely and efficiently from the comfort of the control 
booth. 

Industrial television is only one example of how 
the wizardry of electronics is vastly enhancing personal 
safety, efficiency and economy in industry and on the 
highway. Electronics' increasing importance to industry 
may be judged from the fact that industrial concerns 
are now spending about $700,000,000 a year for elec- 
tronic equipment, nearly three times as much as they 
spent in 1948. Estimates are that this figure will 
double in the next five years under the sharp spur of 
automation, which depends largely upon electronics as 
its intricate nerve center and sensory system. 

Three RCA TV monitors guide operator of giant shear 
at the Lukens Steel Company plant in Coatesville, Pa. 




20 



RADIO AGE 



In the packaged goods and bottled beverage indus- 
tries, "Inspected by Electronics" has become sharply 
synonymous with purity and safety. Surveys show that 
metal particles like chewing gum foil and hairpins 
account for well over half the contamination of pack- 
aged products. To catch such particles, RCA has five 
different types of electronic metal detectors, all work- 
ing on the same general principles. The packaged 
product is moved through an inspection opening where 
it is scanned by a high frequency electromagnetic field. 
In other words, radio waves travel through the package 
to search out metallic specks. Whenever any are found, 
an alarm system is set off. 

Today, in addition to its widespread use in con- 
fectionery plants, the metal detector has become stand- 
ard equipment in the drug, tobacco, chemical, lumber, 
mining, rubber, textile, plastics, and food processing 
industries. 

150 Bottles A Minute 

Just as the electronic metal detector safeguards pack- 
aged goods, the RCA automatic beverage inspection 
machine provides assurance that bottled beer and soft 
drinks will be free from such foreign particles as a wisp 
of cellophane or a tiny bristle. The inspection machine's 
multiple electronic "eyes" scan up to 150 bottle a 
minute — about four times as many as human inspec- 
tors. A defective bottle is automatically shunted aside, 
while the approved ones move along the conveyor belt 
for labeling and packaging. 

Fully as important as inspection in the promotion 
of safety is prompt and dependable communications. 
In the Army, electronic eyes and ears are providing the 
vital link between headquarters and front line. There 
is scarcely any industry that could not furnish examples 
of the value of radio communications as a safety device. 
Electric utility companies depend on radio for restoring 
service knocked out by storm. The oil and gas industry 
relies on it. So do the construction, transportation and 
mining industries, to say nothing of public safety 
agencies like fire and police. On the ribbon-like super- 
highways of today, a comprehensive communications 
system is essential to safety and service. 

Russell S. Deetz, who as Project Manager is respon- 
sible for over-all operation of the new Ohio Turnpike, 
puts it this way: "Effective communications is the most 
important single factor in the operation of a facility of 
this size. It helps us integrate all the patron services, 
and permits us to maintain administrative control of all 
the Turnpike's functions." 

Nerve center of the Ohio Turnpike system is in 
Berea, on the outskirts of Cleveland. From there a net- 
work of Very High Frequency (VHF) and microwave 





Newsweek Photo (Ed Wergeles) 

The S. S. Untied Siaies, world's 
most modern ocean liner, is out- 
fitted from bridge to lifeboats 
with RCA radio communications 
equipment. Operator (right) sits 
at console in the passenger 
liner's radio operations room. 



radio stretches in both directions along the 241-mile 
highway, connecting police cars, service trucks, toll sta- 
tions, maintenance areas and administrative vehicles 
with the Turnpike Headquarters. 

Through this vast communications network, a 
round-the-clock check-up is available on road condi- 
tions, fog and sudden emergencies. The New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania Turnpikes, like the Ohio Turnpike, 
use RCA microwave and mobile radio equipment. 

Safety In Marine Navigation 

On our seaways as well as our highways, electronics 
is insuring greater safety and comfort. 

Out of the fog loomed a giant ocean liner, threading 
the white-flecked Narrows and gliding into New York 
Harbor. Faint streamers of smoke trailed from her two 
red, white and blue stacks as she moved up the Hudson 
River under gray, drizzling skies. 

Four-and-a-half days out of Le Havre, France, the 
S. S. United States, first lady of the seas and the world's 
fastest, most modern ocean liner, was keeping her 
rendezvous with the tugs. Neither the fog nor the 
storm she had passed through at sea had delayed her 
crossing. Equipped with the latest electronic aids to 



January 1957 



21 



navigation and communications, the United States had 
once again defied the challenge of the weather and the 
hazards of the sea. 

From bridge to lifeboats, the superliner is outfitted 
with RCA radio communications equipment. This 
equipment includes radiotelephone, radiotelegraph, and 
high, intermediate and low frequency transmitters and 
receivers which link the United States with other ships 
and with the principal cities of the world. Each of its 
staterooms has a telephone which can be connected to 
the ship-shore communications system. Two of its 
twenty-four aluminum lifeboats carry rugged, battery 
powered radio transmitters and receivers for use in 
case of emergency. 

The loran (long range navigation) system, which 
determines the United States' position from radio sig- 
nals broadcast by synchronized transmitting stations, is 
an RCA product. So are the radio direction finder, 
which fixes the ship's position during fog and storm 
when other means may be impractical, and the distress 
alarm system, ever alert to the emergency signals of 
other ships. For the recreation of her 2,000 passengers, 
the liner has two permanent theatres, furnished with 
RCA motion picture projection and sound reproduc- 
tion equipment. 

The United States is the latest in the flotilla of 
luxury liners outfitted with RCA equipment. The 
roster includes her running mate, the America, the 
American Export Line's Independence and Constitution, 



In the radio room of the aircraft carrier Saratoga, 
operators work with RCA communications receivers. 






U. S. Navy Photo 




and the Holland-America Line's Nieuw Amsterdam, 
to mention but a few. 

However, passenger ships are not the only vessels 
affected by the quiet revolution in navigation and com- 
munications at sea in the decade since the U. S. Navy 
took the wraps off its super-secret war-time equipment. 
Freighters, tankers, fishing trawlers, even the sturdy 
little tugs that churn up thin white wakes in the harbor 
— all have benefited by the maritime magic of elec- 
tronics. 

Electronics In The Navy 

The Navy's growing dependence on electronics is 
indicated by the fact that where a typical pre-World 
War II destroyer used about sixty vacuum tubes, 
today's destroyer uses some 3,200 such tubes. Electronics 
has become a vital factor in communications for assur- 
ing cohesion and mobility, and in navigation for pro- 
moting accuracy and safety. 

Today specialized RCA receivers, for picking up 
messages from shore stations and from ships, are an 
integral part of the communications system aboard Navy 
vessels like the supercarriers Forrestal and Saratoga, the 
missile cruisers Boston and Canberra, the atomic sub- 
marine Nautilus and others. Hub of the Navy's vast 
communications network is the RCA-built transmitter 
at Jim Creek in the state of Washington which gives 
orders to all the Navy's scattered ships and submarines. 

RCA's pioneering work in radar, loran and sonar is 
making possible safer voyages for the entire fleet. At 
the same time, its continuing research program is de- 
veloping improved electronic devices for the Navy. 

Until recent years, marine equipment was designed 
primarily for large commercial and Navy ships. It was 
bulky and expensive. Then RCA engineers pioneered 
in adapting electronic gear to the needs of the small- 
boat owner. They put the emphasis on compact design, 
smart styling, and simplified operating controls. Today 
a wide range of electronic equipment is making pleasure 
craft navigation easier and safer for the 25,000,000 men, 
women and children who follow the call of the sea in 
their own time and in their own way — every way 
from a gleaming outboard to a glassed and glossy luxury 
yacht. 

Safety In Air Navigation 

Electronic devices are adding new dimensions of 
safety, speed and comfort to air transportation. 

Through darkening, cloud-swept Western skies, the 
big airliner droned on toward its destination. Suddenly, 
the glowering clouds closed in and rain blotted out 
Captain George Henderson's view of the land below 
and the ominous peaks ahead. But a glance at the 
plane's radarscope brought reassurance. Across the tele- 



22 



RADIO AGE 




United Air Lines Photo 
United Air Lines is one of the fifteen major commercial 
airlines now using RCA's Weather Radar equipment. 

vision-like screen passed a series of queer configurations 
that conveyed to trained eyes a succession of heartening 
sign-posts along the route. 

The radar beams "saw through" the squall to detect, 
many miles ahead, the turbulent core of the thunder- 
head whose violent updrafts and downdrafts can mean 
uncomfortable — and sometimes dangerous — moments 
in air travel. With this advance warning of the storm 
center. Captain Henderson flew skillfully through the 
trouble area. The result: a safer, smoother flight and 
arrival at his destination on schedule. 

This plane bore the red, white and blue insignia of 
United Air Lines, but it might have belonged to any 
one of fifteen airlines that now use RCA AVQ-10 Radar. 
Airlines relying on RCA's Weather Radar, besides 
United, are American, Continental, Trans World, Pan 
American, Swissair, Air-India, Iberia, British Overseas 
(BOAC), Air France, Sabena, Cubana, Union Aero- 
maritime de Transport (French), Cia. Mexicana de 
Aviacion, and Qantas Empire Airways (Australian). 

Weather radar is a good example of how the sciences 
of electronics and aeronautics have joined to create 
modern aviation. In the impressive cockpit of the 
modern airliner are more than 400 dials, scopes, levers, 
switches, buzzers, warning lights and other electronic 
and mechanical marvels. Virtually every move of the 
plane is determined by electronics. 

For example, electronic communications (radio) 
provide pilots with runway, departure and flight instruc- 
tions. Electronic controls are the heart of many func- 



tioning parts of the airliner. In the air, pilots follow 
radio tracks. Position and altitude are generally deter- 
mined by electronics. Weather radar permits selection 
of safe paths through or around storm areas; ground 
search radar aids in air traffic control. Two-way radio 
keeps pilots in contact with ground control stations 
throughout flight and provides landing instructions. 

Thus is electronics vital in air navigation, in com- 
munications, and in traffic control, and RCA has made 
and is continuing to make significant contributions in 
all three areas. 

In military aviation, electronics is playing a critically 
important role. General Carl Spaatz, former Air Force 
Chief of Staff, has said that in any future war "superior 
electronics would be decisive." Some measure of the 
Air Force's reliance on electronics may be seen from 
the fact that roughly one-third the cost of a modern 
all-weather jet fighter plane goes into electronic gear. 

Today, RCA is working closely with the Air Force 
and the Navy on projects designed to promote greater 
safety — both for the men who fly the planes and for 
the millions of Americans who look to air power as 
our first line of defense. 

Defense Projects 

RCA's defense projects are, for the most part, 
shrouded in secrecy. But an indication of their vast 
scope and diversity may be gained from a few examples. 
RCA is developing and producing land-based tactical 
launching and guidance systems for the "Talos" guided 
missile, a surface-to-air defense weapon for use against 
enemy aircraft. RCA has developed and is producing 
a compact lightweight electronic fire-control radar for 
the world's fastest combat plane, the new F-104 Star- 
fighter jet. RCA operates the hundreds of electronic and 
optical instruments used to track guided missiles at the 
Air Force Missile Test Center at Patrick Air Force 
Base on the east-central coast of Florida. 

The importance of electronics was aptly summed 
up by Maj. General Thomas P. Gerrity of the Air Force 
in these words: "There is no aspect of operation or 
control of modern aircraft that does not depend in large 
measure on electronics. Without electronics, we could 
not achieve the high performance required of our com- 
bat aircraft." 



Electronics' contributions to greater safety are dis- 
cussed more fully in two booklets recently published 
by RCA — "Safety In Marine Navigation," and "Safety 
In Air Navigation." These booklets may be obtained 
by writing to the Department of Information, Radio 
Corporation of America, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New 
York 20, New York. 



January 1957 



23 




The Feminine Touch In RCA 



Miss Betty Duval, Manager, RCA Training, directing a 
class for supervisory personnel at office in Camden. 



o 



"me of the most significant post-war trends in the 
American labor force has been the notable increase of 
women workers. Fifty per cent more women are at 
work now than were employed fifteen years ago. The 
current total is 21,000,000, which means that one out of 
every three persons employed in this country is a 
woman. 



In RCA the percentage of women workers is even 
higher than the national average — about 40 per cent. 
Of RCA's 75,000 U. S. employees, 30,500 are women. 
They hold positions of importance in training, person- 
nel sales, accounting, radio and television program pro- 
duction, research, engineering and many other fields. 
They work as managers, supervisors, coordinators, and 
executive secretaries. One woman — Mrs. Douglas 
Horton — serves as a member of the Board of Directors 
of both RCA and NBC. 

Four women are assistant officers of the Corpora- 
tion, serving as Assistant Secretaries of our facilities 
in Camden and Harrison, New Jersey, and in New York 
City. Another woman is manager of RCA's training 
activities, while still another has an important job in 
the sales branch of the RCA Victor Television Division. 
Both these women have won the RCA Victor Award of 
Merit, the company's highest honor for salaried em- 
ployees. 

Twenty-nine women engineers work in RCA's var- 




Women production workers, like these assembling parts for high fidelity instruments at the Canonsburg, 
Pennsylvania, plant of RCA, play an important role in the company's manufacturing setup. 



24 



RADIO AGE 




Miss Jeannette McEwen, a tube 
design engineer, in Harrison, N.J. 



Mrs. Kathryn Cole, manager of 
NBC's Information Department. 



Miss Margaret E. Stevenson, an 
Assistant Secretary of RCA. 




Mrs. Edith Mayaud, a junior en- 
gineer in the Lancaster plant. 



Miss Doris Ann, Supervisor of TV 
Religious Broadcasts for NBC. 



Miss Ann Hathaway, a tube de- 
sign engineer at Harrison, N. J. 



ious laboratories. One of them, a graduate of Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology and holder of several 
patents, is an engineering leader in the advanced devel- 
opment of color television picture tube design at our 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania, plant. 

At RCA's Woodbridge, New Jersey, plant, a woman 
is Manager of Special Tube Production Engineering, 
supervising a group who work on thirty-five tube types 
each month. In the Tube Division's Chemical and Phys- 
ical Laboratory, a woman engineer is in charge of a 
team working on new analytical procedures for mate- 
rials being developed for future use in receiving tubes. 

Women represent a substantial proportion of RCA's 
manufacturing workers, the workers who turn out tele- 
vision sets, radios, phonographs, records, electron tubes 
and other products for the home and for industry. 
Women's finger dexterity and patience have given them 
access to many new jobs in electronic manufacturing. 
Application of these skills has been dramatically demon- 
strated in the manufacture of new products like the 



tiny transistor that performs many functions of the 
electron tube. 

In the broadcasting end of the business, too, women 
have found many satisfying careers. NBC employs 
more than 1,500 women, of whom 215 hold posi- 
tions of substantial responsibility. They are engaged as 
supervisors of radio sales service, religious broadcasts 
and talks, costume design, religious television programs 
and literary rights. Women manage NBC's Information 
Department, General Office Services, and Sales Traffic 
activities. Women also work as producers, staff writers, 
public relations coordinators, cost accountants and co- 
ordinators of public service programs. 

Working wives hold important positions in many 
branches of RCA. A few years ago, when a girl married, 
everybody took it for granted that she would give up 
her job. But today the girl who announces she is being 
married is asked, more often than not: "Are you plan- 
ning a trip or will you be in the office on Monday?" 



January 1957 



25 



New Member in the 'Golden Disc Club' 




Elvis Presley has sold 11 million single records. 



T 

J-H 



-HESE DAYS you can get into an argument about 
Elvis Presley almost at the drop of a phonograph record. 
But there is little room for argument on one point: 
as a record salesman, the guitar-thumping Tennessean 
has already won a high place for himself among the 
best-selling RCA Victor artists of all-time. 

In the past year, the singer who switched from 
driving a truck to driving teen-agers crazy, has sold 
11,000,000 single records — more than anyone else has 
ever done in a comparable period. In addition, he has 
sold better than 2,000,000 albums. 

In his first year in the big-time, Elvis has made 
the "Golden Disc Club" — the record industry's All- 
America Team — with four titles that have sold more 
than a million copies each. "Don't Be Cruel," with 
"Hound Dog" on the flip-side, topped the list with 
3,200,000 copies, "Love Me Tender" sold 2,300,000, 
"Heartbreak Hotel" 1,600,000, and "I Want You, I Need 
You, I Love You" 1,200,000. The phenomenal success 
of Presley's pressings has old-timers talking about him 
in the same breath with best-selling artists of the past. 

Altogether, RCA Victor and its predecessor, the 
Victor Talking Machine Company, have produced sixty 
"golden discs" with sales of a million or more. The 
first one was recorded by Enrico Caruso just fifty years 
ago — "Vesti la giubba." He followed that up with 
"O sole mio" which also hit the magic million mark. 

In 1920, Paul Whiteman, the "King of Jazz," re- 
corded a lilting tune called "Whispering" which became 
the first pop-record to sell a million copies. 



In the fast-moving, free-spending days of 1928, 
everybody was singing, humming or whistling "Ra- 
mona." Gene Austin recorded the number and it 
soared over the million mark in just a few months. 
After "Ramona," there were nine lean years, years in 
which radio threatened to put the phonograph out of 
business entirely. Eventually, though, it was radio that 
became the No. 1 showcase for records and actually 
revitalized the phonograph industry. 

This trend began taking shape in 1937 when radio 
stations from coast to coast started playing a swinging 
instrumental by Tommy Dorsey and his orchestra, 
"Marie." It was Dorsey's first golden record. A year 
later, he recorded "Boogie Woogie," a tune that has 
since sold nearly 4,500,000 copies, an all-time record 
for an instrumental. RCA had three other golden rec- 
ords in 1938 — "Beer Barrel Polka" by Will Glahe, 
"Jalousie" by Arthur Fiedler conducting the Boston Pops 
Orchestra, and Artie Shaw's "Begin The Beguine." 

Four By Glenn Miller 

The years immediately before Pearl Harbor saw the 
rise of a great new name on the American musical scene, 
the name of Glenn Miller. Between 1939 and 1941, 
he put four numbers on the all-time best-seller list — 
"In The Mood," "Sunrise Serenade," "Tuxedo Junction," 
and "Chattanooga Choo Choo." 

The post-war years have been dominated by vocalists. 
In fact, between 1946 and 1955 not a single instru- 
mental disc reached the million mark. Two of the lead- 
ing vocalists have been Perry Como and Eddie Fisher. 
Como's first million-copy record was "Prisoner of Love," 
and he later scored with "Don't Let The Stars Get In 
Your Eyes," and "Hot Diggity." Fisher made the all- 
time list with "Anytime" and "I Need You Now." 

Up until 1953, Victor's golden records had been 
awarded only to soloists or instrumental groups. But 
the Ames Brothers changed the pattern with "You, You, 
You," and repeated their success with "Naughty Lady 
From Shady Lane." Last year, with Como's "Hot 
Diggity," Kay Starr's "Rock And Roll Waltz," and 
the four Presley discs, RCA had more records in the 
magic million class than ever before in a single year. 

Lawrence W. Kanaga, Vice President and General 
Manager of the RCA Victor Record Division, summed 
up the situation like this: 

"The Presley story isn't the kind that is repeated 
too often. But when it is repeated, we only hope it 
happens at RCA Victor." 



26 



RADIO AGE 



Miniature Memory 
For Computers 



J- HE ELECTRONIC MEMORY, a key element in modern 
commercial and military computers, has been reduced 
to unprecedented compactness and simplicity by RCA 
Laboratories with the development of a novel printed 
plate magnetic storage unit that can tuck away 256 
bits of computer information in a thin wafer less than 
an inch square. 

Linked in series to form a large-capacity memory 
system, the tiny plates will enable computers to store 
electronically more than a million bits of information 
in a space about the size of a shoebox, and to recall 
the bits in a few millionths of a second in any desired 
order, combination, or quantity. 

The fruit of a continuing research program that led 
to the earlier development of the RCA magnetic core 
memory used in many present-day computers, the new 
"aperture plate" memory was devised by a research 
group under the direction of Dr. Jan A. Rajchman, 
research scientist at RCA's David Sarnoff Research 
Center. In appearance, the tiny plate is something en- 
tirely new in electronics. Perforated with neat rows of 
minute holes, it resembles a diminutive punch-board. 

Dr. Rajchman points out that the new memory, 
unlike the earlier magnetic core system, lends itself to 
extremely simple production techniques. The tiny plates 
are made of an RCA-developed ferromagnetic material, 
a ceramic-like substance that can be molded in any 
desired shape or size and hardened by heating. They 
are produced with essential circuitry already incorpo- 
rated by means of a printing technique similar to that 
used in making printed electronic circuits for radio and 
television sets. The fabrication technique, developed by 
Chandler Wentworth of the RCA Laboratories technical 
staff, has been used to produce thousands of the plates 
during the research program. 

Operates in Two-Unit Code 

Dr. Rajchman explains that the aperture plate 
memory, like its magnetic core predecessor, depends for 
its operation on the fact that computer language can 
be expressed entirely in terms of "0" and "1", used in 
various combinations to represent any words, numbers, 
or symbols. As an example, one such coding system 
expresses as 0000, the number 1 as 0001, 2 as 0010, 
3 as 0011, 4 as 0100, and so on up to 9, which would 
be expressed as 1001. 




This tiny perforated plate (left) is the heart of a new 
electronic memory system, developed by Dr. Jan A. 
Rajchman (right) of the David Sarnoff Research Center. 

"When we translate into a language that employs 
only two symbols, it is possible to design a memory 
system in which each of the elements can be switched 
electrically to represent one or the other of the two 
values," says Dr. Rajchman. "In the aperture plate, 
one of the values is represented by a flow of magnetism, 
or magnetic flux, in one direction around a hole in the 
plate while the other value is represented by a mag- 
netic flux in the opposite direction. The values can be 
changed as desired simply by applying to the right spot 
an electrical signal strong enough to reverse the direc- 
tion of the magnetic flux." 

The circuits of the memory are so arranged that 
each of the holes in each plate can be reached indi- 
vidually for putting in or reading out information. 

Prospects For The Future 

Looking ahead to the application of the new aper- 
ture plate system and the further development of mag- 
netic memories. Dr. Rajchman says: 

"The development of these plates has now reached 
a stage which opens possibilities of memories of very 
large capacities. Because this arrangement requires 
much less driving power than previous systems, it 
promises also to reduce and simplify the associated 
electronic circuits. Furthermore, it makes possible very 
compact memories of relatively small capacity. 

"Three years ago, it was predicted that micro-second 
memories with capacities reckoned in millions of bits 
would be available at a relatively low cost in a distant 
future. We believe that the aperture plate is now ready 
to usher in this era. But the demand for larger and 
faster memories is incessant, and we may look fotward 
to the development of still newer techniques in the 
future, making possible the storage and instant selective 
readout of billions of bits." 



January 1957 



27 



Applause for Color Television 



Recent unfavorable stories in the press about color 
television have brought sharp retorts from appliance 
distributors and dealers, as well as from the general 
public. A selection of their comments follows: 

C. G. Deason, Jr., Deason Radio Company, San 
Antonio, Texas: "Having enjoyed a very successful busi- 
ness in electronics for twenty-nine years, I feel sure that 
I am able to speak up and tell a true story about color 
TV. We have done an outstanding job in our territory 
and with no more service problems than on black-and- 
white. Any man, woman or child with average intelli- 
gence can learn to operate a color TV set if given the 
proper instructions. I think RCA Victor has opened up 
a new field of entertainment." 

Rudolph Valas, Valas Stores, Inc., Denver, Colorado: 
"Our experience indicates that the RCA color sets re- 
quire even fewer services than black-and-white sets of 
any make. It is interesting to note that the greatest 
amount of effort to discourage color sales is being made 
by manufacturers who have no color sets in production 
or are now just beginning." 

Ward E. Terry, Ward Terry & Company. Denver, 
Colorado: "[Unfavorable stories on color TV] seem to 
be based on statements made by competitors of RCA who 
have been left at the starting point in the development 
of color television. These same companies let RCA 
pioneer black-and-white television and then climbed on 
the bandwagon at a late date because they were forced 
into it. It would be very much the same as if you asked 
a member of the Communist party what he thought of 
democracy; he would tell you it just doesn't work." 

H. B. Price, Jr., Price's Inc., Norfolk, Virginia: 
"Just recently I visited the RCA color tube plant in 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania. As one retailer who was very 
dubious about the status of color, I am now convinced 
that color is here; that it is dependable, and that many 
strides have been made in developing the present cir- 
cuitry and tube that are being used by RCA. It's going 
to take a lot of money and know-how on the part of 
any manufacturer to catch up with RCA, and I think 
it behooves them either to get in the business or admit 
they are not capable of it and let color progress in the 



normal, healthy economic manner that any new product 
of its fabulous performance should enjoy." 

/. E. Cleworth, West Michigan Electric Company, 
Benton Harbor, Michigan: "Sales have increased sharply 
every month of 1956, with a backlog of orders building 
up. This in itself proves that dealers handling color 
television are confident in the future of it. The buying 
public today is ready and able to buy color sets, and is 
proving it by increased sales at the dealer level." 

Earl I. Rounkles, Hutchinson, Kansas: "We have 
owned our color set, which is a 21-inch model, for over 
one year. Mrs. Rounkles tunes it as well as any TV 
set we have ever owned. The color is just beautiful. 
Our set has not had any service and it is played con- 
tinually. We certainly enjoy the color TV programs." 

W. A. Clark, Belleville, Illinois: "The color reception 
is excellent and a real pleasure to watch, making you 
wish all shows were in color. The black-and-white re- 
ception is also excellent, well above the average of all 
sets in our neighborhood. You could not ask for a 
clearer, better picture. I have two boys, one seven and 
one twelve years old, as well as my wife and I. None 
of us is an engineer, yet any one of us can tune the 
set satisfactorily." 

Mrs. Sam Drew Winter, Ferguson, Missouri: "How 
many times have those who are behind the times said, 
'It's no good' because they do not have it? I recall 
many said four-wheel brakes were 'no good.' The same 
was said about V-8 engines and about the first TV sets. 
The color we get on our set is like we have on the 
color pictures we take with our camera." 

W. E. Johnson, Johnson Bros., Baltimore, Maryland: 
"Color TV sets represent about 30 per cent of our total 
television volume in instruments — and more in dollars. 
We can show you a sale of three consecutive color sets 
to a lady so enthused that she bought sets for the 
homes of her son and daughter. We can show you 
several more customers who bought a second color set 
for their own 'second' set use. We can show you photo- 
graphs of crowds of people in our stores who came to 
see color TV, to ask about it, to exclaim over its beauty 
and to buy." 



28 



RADIO AGE 





This ultra-modern RCA distribution center in Los Angeles is largest facility of its kind in California. 

New Distribution Center on the West Coast 



JLhe RCA Victor Distributing Corporation re- 
cently opened in Los Angeles a $1,400,000 distribution 
center, the largest facility of its kind in California. The 
new center is designed to provide faster, more efficient 
service for the nearly 2,000 RCA Victor and RCA 
Whirlpool dealers in the Los Angeles area, and for 
the thousands of customers they serve. 

The new distribution center is a one-story build- 
ing of modern design, situated on a seven-and-a-half- 
acre landscaped lot in the Telegraph Road-Washington 
Boulevard industrial district. The building, accom- 
modating offices, three large display rooms and a ware- 
house, contains 3,500,000 cubic feet of storage space, 
enough for 50,000 television sets. 

The main display room will exhibit the latest RCA 
television sets, radios, phonographs, and other products. 
A hi-fi listening room and a color TV room connect 
with the main display area. 

Principal speaker at the opening ceremonies on 
October 25 was Frank M. Folsom, President of RCA. 
He said the new center was "a tangible indication" of 
RCA's faith in the future growth of California. 

"We of RCA are so confident of the growth pos- 
sibilities here," Mr. Folsom said, "that we have nearly 
tripled the size of our facilities in California in the last 
ten years. During the same period, we have increased 
our investment by more than 300 per cent, our em- 
ployees by 300 per cent and our payroll by 500 per cent. 

"In 1946, there were 195 electronic manufacturing 



firms in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Today, 
there are 460 companies in this area that are concerned 
primarily with turning out electronic products or com- 
ponents. During the same period, the dollar volume 
rose from $425-million annually to a 1956 total which 
I understand will exceed one billion dollars. This means 
that the Los Angeles area alone accounts for nearly 10 
per cent of the nation's electronics production. 

Rise of 60% Foreseen 

"Looking to the future, our surveys show that the 
growth of electronics will continue to be more rapid 
than most other industries. Ten years from now, we 
expect to see total volume reach more than $18-billion. 
That would represent a growth of 60 per cent and 
should put electronics well up among the top five 
manufacturing industries in this country. The elec- 
tronics industry in California can certainly be expected 
to keep pace with this nation-wide growth." 

As a feature of the opening ceremonies, an ex- 
perimental solar battery developed at RCA's David 
Sarnoff Research Center at Princeton, New Jersey, was 
used to break a ribbon stretched across the entrance of 
the new building. 

The Los Angeles center is one of ten operated by 
the RCA Victor Distributing Corp., which handles the 
distribution of RCA Victor and other products through 
dealers served by its various branches. Last month the 
Corporation awarded contracts for a new office-ware- 
house in Davenport, Iowa. 



January 1957 



29 



Answer to Anti-Trust Suit 



T 

J-H 



.he Radio Corporation of America and the 
National Broadcasting Company have issued the follow- 
ing statement relative to the civil anti-trust suit filed 
in federal court in Philadelphia by the Anti-Trust Divi- 
sion in December: 

"This suit results from a jurisdictional dispute be- 
tween two agencies of government, in which RCA and 
NBC have been caught in the middle. The NBC- 
Westinghouse exchange of stations in Philadelphia and 
Cleveland, with which the action deals, was approved 
by the Federal Communications Commission in De- 
cember, 1955, after a thorough study of all the facts. 
On the basis of this study, the FCC decided that the 
exchange was in the public interest. 

"Contrary to the claim made by the Anti-Trust 
Division in this suit, not only was Westinghouse not 
coerced by RCA and NBC to make the transfer but 
Westinghouse in fact sent a letter to the FCC urging 
approval of the transfer as being in the public interest." 

Letter to the Commission 

The letter, signed jointly by the Chairman of the 
Board of Westinghouse Broadcasting Company, Inc., 
and the Chairman of the Board of the National Broad- 
casting Company, was sent on November 10, 1955, to 
George C. McConnaughey, Chairman, Federal Com- 
munications Commission. It said: 
Dear Chairman McConnaughey: 

Attached are the replies of our respective 
companies to the points raised by the Commis- 
sion in its letter of October 17, 1955, describing 
the proposed exchange of the Westinghouse 
stations in Philadelphia for the NBC stations 
in Cleveland and answering the other questions 
raised by the Commission. 

The decision to make this exchange was 
arrived at after careful consideration of all factors 
at the highest management level of both com- 
panies. It has the approval of our respective 
Boards of Directors and the approval of the 
Boards of Directors of our respective parent 
companies. 

The companies, therefore, entered into the 
agreement satisfied that the exchange is a fair 
one, that its consummation will serve the best 
interests of both companies, and that it is con- 
sistent with the public interest. 

We jointly urge the Commission to approve 
this exchange at an early date. 



The statement by RCA and NBC went on to say: 

"It was on the basis of this representation by West- 
inghouse as well as the other material before it that 
the FCC approved the transfer now challenged by the 
Anti-Trust Division. 

"The FCC is specifically authorized by Congress to 
pass upon such station transfers, and NBC acted in ac- 
cordance with its decision. Now another branch of gov- 
ernment — the Anti-Trust Division — is trying to undo 
the action of the Federal Communications Commission. 

"If American businesses are to be hauled into court 
by the Anti-Trust Division because they act in con- 
formance with the rulings of an authorized government 
agency, then indeed confusion will be compounded by 
confusion. We are confidenr that this dispute between 
government agencies will not result in RCA and NBC 
being penalized for scrupulously following the pro- 
cedures established by law." 



T 

1h 



TV Tape Vn the Air' 



.HE FIRST "on-the-air" public demonstration of RCA's 
new video magnetic tape has heralded a new era of 
television in which all programs, whether in black-and- 
white or in color, can be recorded for later viewing. 

The demonstration, a two-and-a-half-minute, tape- 
recorded segment featuring singer Dorothy Collins, was 
colorcast coast-to-coast by NBC on the "Jonathan Win- 
ters Show" October 23. 

Under the RCA system, a television program is 
recorded on magnetic tape in much the same manner 
that sound is recorded on tape. The video magnetic 
tape can be replayed immediately, without the chemical 
processing required in the use of films. 

In introducing the system to the viewers, Mr. Win- 
ters showed a section of the video tape and said, "For 
the first time in history you are going to see a color 
television picture transmitted from a piece of tape just 
like this. It is called video magnetic tape. On it is 
recorded both sound and picture — with the picture 
in full compatible color, as well as black-and-white." 

The principle of video magnetic tape recording was 
first demonstrated in color by RCA under laboratory 
conditions on Dec. 1, 1953, at the David Sarnoff Re- 
search Center, Princeton, N. J. On May 12, 1955, the 
system was employed in a closed-circuit transmission 
from New York to St. Paul. NBC has been field-testing 
the system. 



30 



RADIO AGE 



Television Awards to NBC 



R, 



.OBERT W. Sarnoff, President of the National 
Broadcasting Company, has received a special Sylvania 
Television Award for his "outstanding contribution to 
music on television," with special reference to his 
launching of the "NBC Opera Theatre." 

Altogether, NBC won twelve of the twenty-three 
network awards presented December 6 at the annual 
Sylvania awards dinner in the Hotel Plaza, New York. 

The "Kaiser Aluminum Hour," the weekly dramatic 
program which went on the air in the fall of 1955, 
was selected as the "outstanding new series." Other 
award-winning NBC personalities and programs were: 

"A Night to Remember" on the "Kraft Television 
Theatre" on March 28, winning two awards as the 
"outstanding television adaptation" and the "outstand- 
ing production." 

Joan Lorring in "The Corn is Green" on the "Hall- 
mark Hall of Fame" telecast of January 8, for the "out- 
standing performance by a supporting actress." 

The "Ernie Kovacs Show" as the "outstanding 
comedy show." 

The "NBC Opera Theatre" as the "outstanding 
serious musical series." 

"The Bachelor" on the Sunday Spectacular of July 
15, as the "outstanding light musical production." 

The "Kraft Television Theatre" as the "outstanding 
dramatic series." 

"Project 20" as the "outstanding documentary series." 

"The Long Way Home" on "Robert Montgomery 
Presents the Schick Television Theatre" March 28, as 
the "outstanding human interest program." 

The "NBC Matinee Theatre" as the "outstanding 
network daytime show." 

In addition, NBC won a special Sylvania citation 
for its coverage of the national political conventions. 

Edison Award for "Wide Wide World" 

Another prize-winning NBC program is "Wide 
Wide World" which received the Thomas Alva Edison 
Foundation Award on December 3 as "the television 
program best portraying America." In presenting the 
award, Charles Edison, former Governor of New Jersey 
and Honorary President of the foundation, said: 
" 'Wide Wide World' is doing what television does 
best, by taking its audience on visits, via live cameras, 
to places and events of topical interest and historical 
significance throughout the United States." 



Five NBC programs received Look Television 
Awards, presented annually by Look Magazine and 
determined in a nationwide poll of TV critics and 
editors. They were: 

"Caesar's Hour," starring Sid Caesar — "For superior 
humor and originality in the presentation of straight 
comedy." 

"Perry Como Show" — "For the musical series which 
best demonstrated variety, originality and excellence." 

The second colorcast of "Peter Pan," starring Mary 
Martin on "Producers' Showcase" — "For the best in- 
dividual show, including Spectaculars, concerts, operas, 
tributes, ballets and musical plays." 

"Project 20" — "For the most interesting and best 
special program or special TV coverage appearing on 
a one-time or occasional basis." 

"NCAA Football" — "For the most informative 
sports analysis or effective on-the-spot coverage." 



The "NBC Matinee Theatre," selected as the outstanding 
network daytime show, featured such presentations as 
Louisa May Alcott's "Little Women" with Judith Braun 
as Jo, Irene Hervey as Mother March, Alexander Lock- 
wood as Papa March, and Ariana Ulmer as Meg. 




January 1957 



31 



®K£UKi 







Congratulations . . . 

Congratulatory messages from Presi- 
dent Eisenhower, former President 
Herbert Hoover and Sir Winston 
Churchill headed a long list of anni- 
versary wires and cables received by 
NBC. Mr. Eisenhower said: "Con- 
gratulations to the National Broad- 
casting Company on the occasion of 
its 30th Anniversary. Over the past 
30 years your company has contributed 
to the strength and pleasure of the 
national community by stretching an 
efficient and responsible network of 
radio stations across the land. Linking 
us with major cities around the world, 
you have widened the markets of 
commerce and increased an effective 
range of artists and information. I 
wish you continuing success as you 
serve the best interests of the listen- 
ing public." 




Most Powerful . . . 

The nation's first million-watt ultra 
high frequency (UHF) television sta- 
tion — WBRE-TV, Wilkes-Barre, 
Pennsylvania — is putting in complete 
RCA live and film color-TV camera 
systems. The installation will make 
WBRE-TV the world's most powerful 
broadcast station with facilities for 
originating live local color TV shows. 



Tiny Light Cell . . . 

A tiny light-sensitive electronic de- 
vice that may be used to guide missiles 
by sunlight, spot the flashes of distant 
artillery, or enable blind telephone 
operators to find plug-in positions on 
a switchboard has been developed at 
the David Sarnoff Research Center, 
Princeton, New Jersey. A novel type 
of photocell no larger than the eraser 
on a lead pencil, the device is able to 
sense with a high degree of accuracy 
both the direction and intensity of a 
source of light. It can do many things 
that in the past have taken four 
separate conventional photo-cells. 

Drive-In Theatres . . . 

"Impac," the non-breakable, chip- 
proof, colorfast casing material used 
on RCA Victor portable radios, is now 
going into drive-in theatres. It is be- 
ing used on in-car speakers to meet 
the need for an instrument capable of 
holding its shape, color and overall 
appearance despite weather abuse and 
wear-and-tear of drive-in theatre op- 
erations. RCA will continue selling its 
"Starlight" speaker with die-cast alu- 
minum casing, too. 




Shan's 'Saint Joan' . . . 

A recording of George Bernard 
Shaw's "Saint Joan," done by the Cam- 
bridge Drama Festival's original cast, 
has been released by RCA Victor. The 
recording is the complete reading of 
the Shaw play as performed at the 
Phoenix Theatre in New York, with 
Siobhan McKenna in the starring role. 




Boating Equipment . . . 

New RCA "Radiomarine" equip- 
ment for pleasure boats and small 
commercial ships goes on display this 
month at the National Motor Boat 
Show in New York City. The new 
line includes a series of specially de- 
signed radiotelephone antennas and a 
six-channel VHF radiotelephone for 
large pleasure craft. Other features 
are a new direction finder with a spe- 
cial "sense" switch that enables users 
to determine more quickly whether 
bearing is correct, and electronic fish 
finders for both commercial fishermen 
and pleasure boat owners. 




Awards For Radar Men . . . 

RCA has set up proficiency awards 
for the Air Force's radar controllers, 
those ground-based specialists who 
keep a constant radar eye on the skies 
and advise intercept pilots on the 
location and movement of targets. The 
first RCA trophies were awarded to 
men scoring highest achievement in 
a weapons and gunnery meet recently 
at Vincent Air Force Base, Arizona. 
The trophies will be given each year. 
They are named in memory of Brig. 
General Clinton D. Vincent who was 
the second youngest general in Air 
Force history, receiving his star at the 
age of 29- 



32 



RADIO AGE 



New careers for engineers, now that 

Color TV is here! 

RCA's pioneering in this exciting medium means unlimited 
opportunities for you in every phase from laboratory to TV studio 



Now, more than ever, new 

engineering skills and tech- 
niques are needed in the 
television industry — to keep 
abreast of the tremendous 
strides being made in Color 
TV. RCA - world leader in 
electronics — invites young 
engineers to investigate these 
challenging opportunities. 
Only with RCA will you find 
a scientific climate particular- 
ly suited to the needs of young 
engineers. Your knowledge 
and imagination will be given 
full rein. Rewards are many. 
Your talents are needed in 
research — in TV receiver de- 
sign — in network operations 
— even "backstage" at TV stu- 
dios. The experience and 
knowledge you gain can take 
you anywhere! 



WHERE TO, 
MR. ENGINEER? 

RCA offers careers in TV and 
allied fields — in research, devel- 
opment, design and manufactur- 
ing—for engineers with Bachelor 
or advanced degrees in E.E., 
M.E. or Physics. Join the RCA 
family. For full information 
write to: Mr. Robert Haklisch, 
Manager, College Relations, 
Radio Corporation of America, 
Camden 2, New Jersey. 





Like 2 sets in 1— get Color and black-and- 
white shows, too! It's RCA Victor Compatible 
Color TV. See the great Color shows in "Living 
Color"— regular shows in crisp, clear black-and- 
white. With Big Color, you see everything. 



Big-as-life 21-inch picture tube — overall 
diameter. Actually 254 square inches of view- 
able picture area. And every inch a masterpiece 
of "Living Color." Here are the most natural 
tones you've ever seen— on a big-as-life screen! 



: 




Color every night — right now! Something 
for everyone! You'll have "two on the aisle" 
for the best shows ever — drama, comedies. Spec- 
taculars, children's shows, local telecasts. For now 
216 TV stations are equipped to telecast Color. 



Big Color TV is so easy to tune, even a 
child can do it! Turn two color knobs and 
there's your Big Color picture! It's easy, quick, 
accurate. It's a new thrill when the picture pops 
onto the screen in glowing "Living Color." 




Practical and trouble-free! Service at new 
low cost! Big Color is dependable Color. And 
RCA Victor Factory Service is available in most 
areas (but only to RCA Victor owners). $39.95 
covers installation and service for ninety days. 






Color TV is a common-sense investment — 
costs only a few cents a day. It's sure to be- 
come the standard in home entertainment for 
years to come — yet you can enjoy Color every night 
right now! And you can buy on easy budget terms. 




Now starts at $495 — no more than once 
paid for black-and-white. This is the lowest 
price for Big Color TV in RCA Victor history! There 
are 10 stunning Big Color sets to choose from— 
table, consolette, lowboys, and consoles, too. 



Make sure the Color TV you buy carries 
this symbol of quality. Because RCA pioneered 
and developed Compatible Color television, RCA 
Victor Big Color TV— like RCA Victor black-and- 
white-is First Choice in TV. 



RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 



ELECTRONICS FOR LIVING 




Fire control radar tells 



WHERE TO AIM 

WHEN TO EIRE / 



All-seeing radar pinpoints the target for 
these Air Force planes. Whatever arma- 
ment they carry — guns, rockets or missiles 
— fire control radar tells them where and 
when. It provides the far-sighted vision 
necessary for modern long-range combat 
operations. 

Today's modern fighter plane is an elec- 
tronic wonder, with fire control radar- 
computer systems supplying a continuous 



flow of information about target position 
in terms of range and rate of closing. 

RCA is a major supplier of airborne fire 
control equipment to the Armed Forces. 



It has produced, and in several instances 
developed, these systems for many of the 
latest aircraft. Some of these are illus- 
trated above. 




Defense Electronic Products 

RADIO CORPORATION of AMERICA 

Camden, N.J. 



RADIO AGE 

RESEARCH • MANUFACTURING • COMMUNICATIONS • BROADCASTING • TELEVISION 

Kansas c/tv , 

APRIL 1957 

Ap R29W57 





RCA's BIZMAC 'BRAIN' JOINS THE ARMY 



Tl 



he Radio Corporation of America 
in 1956 did the largest volume of busi- 
ness in its 37-year history. For the 
second year in succession sales ex- 
ceeded one billion dollars. 

Sales of products and services 
amounted to $1,127,774,000 in 1956, 
compared with $1,055,266,000 in 1955, 
an increase of 7 per cent. 

Net profit before Federal income 
taxes was $80,074,000, and after taxes, 
$40,031,000. Earnings per share of 
Common Stock were $2.65 in 1956, as 
compared with $3.16 in 1955. 

The Corporation's Federal income 
taxes, social security taxes, property 
taxes and other state and local taxes 
totaled $55,633,000 in 1956. In addi- 
tion, the Corporation paid excise taxes 
of $32,170,000, making the total 1956 
tax bill $87,803,000, an amount equiva- 
lent to $6.31 per Common share. 

Dividends totaling $23,965,000 were 
declared by RCA in 1956. This in- 
cluded $3.50 per share on the Preferred 
Stock. Dividends on the Common Stock 
were $1.50 per share, the same as in 
1955. 

Color television continued to ad- 
vance in 1956 with public interest 
stimulated by the RCA Victor line of 
new and simplified 21-inch color sets. 
Regular color programming on NBC 
was increased during the year and is 
being further increased in 1957. More 
programs should result in more sales of 
color TV sets and stimulate growth of 
the industry. 

Engaged in the development of elec- 
tronics as a science, art and industry, 
RCA is dedicated to pioneering and 
research, and to production of elec- 
tronic instruments and systems of qual- 
ity, dependability and usefulness. To 
the full extent of its resources and fa- 
cilities, the Corporation contributes to 
the national security and expanding 
economy of the country. As one of the 
leading industrial organizations in the 
United States, RCA aims to advance 
the progress of radio-television, to 
provide new and improved service to 
the public, and to strengthen the pre- 
eminence of the United States in inter- 
national communications. 



^htlAsVQpoOi' 



Chairman of the Board 





RESULTS AT 

From RCA 1956 



A GLANCE 

Annual Report 



Products and Services Sold 

Per cent increase over previous year 

Profit Before Federal Taxes on Inc 

Per cent to products and services sold 
Per common share 



$1,127,774,000 $1,055,266,000 

6.9% 12.1% 

80,074,000 100,107,000 

7.1% 9.5% 

5.53 6.91 



Federal Taxes on Income 

Per cent to profit before Federal taxes 

on income 
Per common share 


40,043,000 

50.0% 
2.88 


52,582,000 

52.5% 
3.75 


Net Profit 

Per cent to products and services sold 
Per common share 


40,031,000 
3.5% 
2.65 


47,525,000 
4.5% 
3.16 


Preferred Dividends Declared 

Per share 


3,153,000 
3.50 


3,153,000 
3.50 


Common Dividends Declared 

Per share 


20,812,000 
1.50 


20,901,000 
1.50 


Total Dividends Declared 


23,965,000 


24,054,000 


Reinvested Earnings at Year End 


222,087,000 


206,020,000 


Stockholders' Equity at Year End 


273,753,000 


257,682,000 


Long Term Debt at Year End 


249,996,000 


250,000,000 



Working Capital at Year End 

Ratio of current assets to current liabilities 

Additions to Plant and Equipment 
Depreciation of Plant and Equipment 
Net Plant and Equipment at Year End 
Number of Employees at Close of Year 



300,839,000 327,175,000 

3.0 to 1 3.1 to 1 

57,517,000 31,039,000 

22,609,000 19,123,000 

189,972,000 157,994,000 

80,000 78,500 



John L. Burns 
John T. Cahill 
Elmer W. Engstrom 
Frank M. Folsom 
Harry C. Hagerty 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

John Hays Hammond, Jr. 
George L. Harrison 
Mrs. Douglas Horton 
Harry C. Ingles 



Charles B. Jolliffe 
Edward F. McGrady 
William E. Robinson 
David Sarnoff 
Walter Bedell Smith 



RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

ELECTRONICS FOR LIVING 




ARCH • MANUFACTURING • COMMUNICATIONS 
BROADCASTING 'TELEVISION 




APRIL 1957 




COVER 

An o v e r - a I I view of RCA's 
Bizmac electronic "brain" un- 
veiled recently at the Detroit 
headquarters of the Ordnance 
Tank-Automotive Command. 
(See page 16.) 



NOTICE 

When requesting a change in mailing 
address please include the code letters 
and numbers which appear with the 
stencilled address on the envelope. 



Rod 


io Age 


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ubfi 


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the 


Deparlrr 


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Cor 


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Printed in 


U.S.A. 



VOLUME 16 NUMBER 2 



CONTENTS 



Page 

"Radio Pill" Developed for Medical Research 3 

RCA Plays Key Role in Project Vanguard 6 

RCA's New President 8 

What the Networks Are — And Are Not 9 

Miniaturization: The Big Trend Toward Smallness 12 

Bizmac — World's Largest Electronic "Brain" 16 

The Men and Women Who Own RCA 18 

"Assignment: Southeast Asia" 20 

Stereophonic Sound 22 

"Hot Line" for Hot News 23 

Campus to Corporation — An Engineer's First Year 25 

Equal Job Opportunity: A Case History 27 

Candid Camera on Como 28 

Airline Communications 30 

News in Brief 32 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

RCA Building, New York 20, N.Y. 

d 



DAVID SARNOFF, Chairman of (he B 
JOHN Q. CANNON, Secretary 



JOHN L. BURNS, President 
ERNEST B. GORIN, Treasure 




Newly installed RCA Victor color television system at Walter Reed Army Hospital in Washington, D.C. 



'Radio PilF Developed for Medical Research 



Tiny Plastic Capsule Sends Out FAI Sigiuls as it Passes Through the Body; 
Believed to Hold Promise of New Data on Gastro-intestinal Ills 



A 



."radio pill" that sends out FM signals to medical 
researchers as it passes through the human body was 
demonstrated for the first time recently at the Rockefeller 
Institute. Designed for research in the intestinal tract, 
the new pill is a plastic capsule one and one-eighth 
inches long and four-tenths of an inch in diameter. It 
is the world's smallest FM radio broadcast station. 

The "radio pill" has been developed and tested 
jointly by the Rockefeller Institute, the New York 
Veterans Administration Hospital, and the Radio Cor- 
poration of America. It was designed by Dr. V. K. 
Zworykin, Honorary Vice President of RCA and Affiliate 
in Biophysics in the Medical Electronics Center of the 
Rockefeller Institute, and his associates, as it had been 
envisaged by Dr. John T. Farrar, Chief of the Gastro- 
enterology Section of the New York Veterans Adminis- 
rration Hospital and Assistant Professor of Clinical 
Medicine at the Cornell University College of Medicine. 
The "pill" was developed by engineers of RCA's Com- 
mercial Electronics Products unit in Camden, N. J. 

Seen Useful in Medical Research 
"The 'radio pill' seems to offer many possibilities 
as an important new tool in medical research," said Dr. 
Farrar. "It can be swallowed like any other medicinal 
capsule without discomfort, and will permit measure- 
ments on internal organs with minimum psychological 
and physical disturbance to normal bodily functions. 
It is hoped that the pill will prove valuable in studying 
human digestion and absorption in normal and patho- 
logical states. The new information which may be 
obtained on the physiology of muscular contractions 
is expected to be important in understanding gastro- 
intestinal disorders. 

"The knowledge which is gained about the muscular 
activity of the right side of the colon, heretofore almost 
inaccessible to study, may prove useful in understanding 
the pathological physiology of such ailments as spastic 
colitis, ulcerative colitis and other organic and functional 
disease states. Besides measuring pressure changes in 
the digestive organs of the body, the 'radio pill' is being 
modified so it may generate and transmit impulses re- 
lating to temperature within the gastro-intestinal tract." 



In addition to Drs. Farrar and Zworykin, other offi- 
cials at the demonstration were Dr. Detlev W. Bronk, 
President of the Rockefeller Institute; Dr. John B. 
Barnwell, Assistant Chief Medical Director for Research 
and Education of the Veterans Administration; and Dr. 
George H. Brown, Chief Engineer of RCA's Commercial 
Electronic Products unit. 

Electronic Components of the Pill 

Dr. Zworykin, who pioneered in the development 
of the television tube and also did fundamental work 
in perfecting the electron microscope, said the new 
"radio pill" has several electronic components. It con- 
sists of a tiny transistor, an oscillator, a ferrite cup 
inductance core and other circuit elements, and a minute, 
replaceable storage battery which powers the oscillator 
and has a life of fifteen hours. This battery is similar 
to the one used in the famous proximity fuse for anti- 
aircraft shells during World War II. 

Heart of the capsule is the oscillator which is so 
sensitive that its frequency varies with changes in the 
pressure to which the pill is exposed. Information about 
these pressure changes is transmitted continuously in 
the form of FM radio signals that carry for a distance 
of several feet. These signals can be picked up on an 
outside FM radio receiver when an antenna is held close 
to the body. They can be recorded on one or more of 
three instruments: a meter, a recording galvanometer 
which makes a permanent record of wavy lines on paper 
much like an electrocardiograph, and a cathode-ray oscil- 
lograph similar in principle to the picture tube of a 
home television set. 

When the pill is swallowed by the patient, its course 
through the gastro-intestinal tract can be traced by 
fluoroscopy or other means. Since it has magnetic prop- 
erties, it can be manipulated by magnetic forces outside 
the body. The capsule can be recovered and re-used in 
later experiments. 

Studies involving use of the "radio pill" are carried 
out in the New York Veterans Hospital, for the time 
being at least, with the patient under continuous obser- 
vation. In its present stage, the pill is an experimental 
technique. Its commercial possibilities will be evaluated 
following extensive laboratory tests and experiments. 



April 1957 



Working with Drs. Zworykin and Farrar are Carl 
Berkley, Visiting Investigator at the Rockefeller Institute 
from RCA, and Fred L. Hatke, Rockefeller Institute 
electronics engineer. Both are members of the Medical 
Electronics Center at the Institute. Developments at 
RCA in Camden, New Jersey, have been under the 
direction of H. E. Haynes and A. L. Witchey. Prelimi- 
nary testing has been conducted during the past year. 

Electron Microscope — Researchers' Super-eye 

Dr. Zworykin has long been active in the field of 
medical electronics. The electron microscope, on which 
he was a pioneer, has been acclaimed as one of the most 
important research tools of the Twentieth Century. At 
the flick of a switch and the turn of a dial, it reveals 
disease cells never before visible to man, and permits 
the study of intricate cell structures. With the electron 
microscope, medical researchers can view specimens 
smaller than one ten-millionth of an inch. The instru- 
ment provides direct magnifications up to 50,000 times. 
Photographs of the specimens, taken by an automatic 
camera within the microscope, are so sharply detailed 
that they can be enlarged to more than 300,000 times 
the size of the specimen. At this rate, a dime would be 
magnified to a diameter of more than three miles. 

Because of its ability to make the tiny polio virus 
visible, the electron microscope played an important role 
in development of the Salk vaccine. It also made pos- 
sible the photographing of influenza virus for the first 
time. Today it is helping researchers probe the destruc- 
tive mysteries of cancer, multiple sclerosis and the com- 
mon cold, among other diseases. It is used by such 
world-famous research centers as the Rockefeller Insti- 
tute in New York, the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, 
and the Venezuelan Institute for Neurology and Brain 
Research, as well as by numerous hospitals, medical 
schools, and laboratories. 

At the Squibb Institute for Medical Research in New 
Brunswick, New Jersey, the electron microscope has 
stepped up the production of vital antibiotics as much 
as a week — by eliminating ineffective cultures before 
they are developed. Various species of the antibiotic- 
producing actinomyces are used to produce streptomycin, 
a Squibb product, as well as neomycin, chlormycetin, 
aureomycin, terramycin and other wonder drugs. During 
manufacture, each of these species is subject to attack 
by infectious actinophages, capable of destroying a 
complete strain of antibiotics. These actinophages are 
too small to be seen by a light microscope, and it would 
take several days of culture tests to detect their presence 
and introduce a new strain. But with the electron micro- 
scope, it is possible to detect them early and prevent lost 
time in production. 



This photo shows the actual 
size of the "radio pill" which 
has been developed for re- 
search in the intestinal tract. 




Pressure 
X)iap^r>aq m 



Disassembled Capsule 



• 



Flrr 
Oscillator* 



33ntte-r>y < 



Dr. Zworykin said that in the years ahead, electronics 
may play an even more significant role in medicine than 
it does today. 

Future of Medical Electronics 

"It is quite clear," said Dr. Zworykin, "that the 
demand for high quality medical care will become more 
and more universal as time progresses. In this medical 
care, the preventive aspect should, and without doubt 
will, play a predominant role. In other words, before 
long our entire population may well expect detailed 
medical check-ups at frequent intervals. With the devel- 
opment of new diagnostic techniques, the number of 
tests included in any one check-up is likely to expand. 
Before long their interpretation, and eventually their 
performance, may well impose an impossible load on the 
time and the store of knowledge of the practitioner. 

"There are other drawbacks in the techniques em- 
ployed at the present time for physical examinations. 
The various tests are separated in time, rendering cor- 
relation difficult. The information provided by them 
might be considerably more meaningful if a whole series 
of measurements, such as electrocardiogram, temperature, 
blood pressure, and so on could be recorded simultane- 
ously by a single piece of electronic equipment operated 
by a technician. In large part, the recorded data might 
be in the form of deviations from a prescribed norm 
for the age, height and weight of the patient, which 
could be set on the testing apparatus. 

"Thus the trained physician would be provided 
simply with a record presenting physiological data in 



RADIO AGE 



the form most significant for the health of the patient. 
This data could be placed on punched cards to provide 
a permanent record for the patient. At each successive 
examination, the data from the punched card for the 
preceding examination would be compared with the 
newly obtained data, immediately indicating to the 
examining physician the changes which had taken place 
in the physical condition of the patient. 

Diagnosis — by Electronics 

"Looking further into the future, we can imagine 
the testing apparatus feeding the information derived 
from the tests and converted into numerical quantities 
into an electronic computer. The computer would have 
stored in its memory the best medical knowledge of the 
day. It would apply this stored information to the cor- 
related data obtained from the patient, to arrive at a 



verdict regarding the physical condition of the patient 
and, eventually, indicating steps for the correction of 
malfunctions. While such a complete diagnostic device 
admittedly appears rather remote, it appears less fan- 
tastic to imagine an electronic system which would 
merely indicate whether the patient is or is not in need 
of further medical attention. Such more modest equip- 
ment might prove extremely useful in reducing the case 
load of the physician. 

"This is just one way in which electronics may be 
expected to contribute to medical practice. Apart from 
it, an extrapolation of past developments makes certain 
a continuous refinement and extension of electronic aids 
for research, diagnosis and therapy. In summary, elec- 
tronics may be expected to play an increasing role in 
supplying the physician and biologist with the tools 
required for an advance in his field." 



Dr. John T. Farrar (right) holds antenna against Dr. V. K. Zworykin to demonstrate how 
FM radio waves are picked up from "radio pill" as the capsule passes through the body. 




April 1957 



RCA Plays Key Role In Project Vanguard 



3°METime after July 1, a powerful rocket will stand 
poised for flight on the concrete launching pad at the 
Air Force Missile Test Center in Florida. This needle- 
like projectile will actually be three rockets in one. 
Mounted in the nose will be a shiny magnesium sphere 
twenty inches in diameter and crammed with electronic 
equipment. Extending from the sphere's surface will 
be four collapsible antennas and a coupling device that 
will release it from the last of the three rockets needed 
to blast it into space as the earth's first artificial satellite. 

In the Test Center's Operations Room, technicians 
and engineers of the RCA Service Company will be 
making their final check-ups to be sure everything is 
set for the firing. The RCA Service Company, which 
has responsibility for important technical aspects of 
operations at the Missile Test Center, is playing a key 
role in Project Vanguard, the vehicle by which the United 
States will attempt to launch several earth satellites be- 
tween July, 1957 and December, 1958. This period 
has been designated as the International Geophysical 
Year, a worldwide effort devoted to exploration and 
study of the planet Earth. 

T-time minus five hours — five hours before the 
scheduled firing — will find tension growing among 
the RCA men peering intently at the battery of scopes, 
sky screens and consoles in the Operations Room. One 
controller will be in touch with aircraft monitoring 
the electronic spectrum over the range to make sure 
there is no interference by radio signals from ships or 
islands. Another will be directing the aircraft and 
patrol boats whose job is to warn ships and planes away 
from the danger area. Others will be checking the tele- 
metering channels through which the satellite launching 
vehicle will radio back to the ground information on 
its speed, altitude, temperature and other factors. 

Finally, the "countdown" on the loudspeaker will 
reach its climax: "T minus ten seconds . . . nine . . . 
eight . . . seven . . . six . . . five . . . four . . . three 
. . . two . . . one . . . zero!" 

From the launching pad the huge rocket will begin 
its rise, slowly at first but quickly picking up speed. 
The bright pink glow of its exhaust will light up the 
ground like a giant Roman candle. The first-stage 
rocket will push the craft up to an altitude of about 
thirty-six miles before it burns the last of its fuel and falls 
away into the ocean. Then the second-stage rocket will 
take over and the craft will continue to rise through the 
thinning air to a height of about 300 miles, and a speed 
of 11,000 miles per hour. 



Then will come a tense moment for the men in the 
Operations Room. It is vital that the timing be exactly 
right on the firing of the third-stage rocket — the one 
that will kick the satellite into its orbit around the 
earth. If this rocket is fired too soon, the satellite's 
orbit will not be correct; it may dip too far into the 
atmosphere and lose its energy too rapidly because of 
the drag. For example, at an altitude of 300 miles, the 
satellite should keep going for one year. At 200 miles, 
its life would be only fifteen days. At 100 miles, atmos- 
pheric friction would destroy it in about an hour. 

A tracking radar operated by RCA personnel at 
Grand Bahama Island, 150 miles from the launching 
site, will follow the big rocket and feed its information 
into an electronic computer that will determine the 
precise moment for firing the third-stage rocket. These 
data will be presented instantly on an electronic console 
to a Naval Research Laboratory controller at the launch- 
ing site. If the automatic mechanism aboard the rocket 
fails to work, instruments on this console will tell the 
controller when to push a button that will trigger the 
third-stage rocket. With the pushing of the button, an 
RCA-operated Command Transmitter will send a signal 
to the rocket that will do the job. 

Once launched, the big rocket will be tracked in 
a manner similar to that used by RCA personnel at 
the Air Force Missile Test Center in following guided 
missiles. There are tracking stations all over the Carib- 
bean area, including three island outposts manned by 
RCA personnel for the Air Force on behalf of the 
Naval Research Laboratory. 

In the spring of 1956, the Glenn L. Martin Company, 
prime contractor to the Naval Research Laboratory for 
the three-stage launching vehicle to be used in Project 
Vanguard, presented a list of the kinds of information 
needed during the launching from the range instrumenta- 
tion at the Air Force Missile Test Center. The Laboratory 
included this list in the list of test requirements which 
were presented to the Air Force. RCA engineers went 
over the list, figured out what kind of electronic equip- 
ment and what kind of cameras would be needed to 
produce these test data, and prepared a support plan 
to be approved by the Air Force. 

Radars had to be acquired that could track the big 
rocket at long-range and high altitudes. The tracking 
of the satellite launching vehicle requires greater pre- 
cision than the tracking of most large rockets. Where a 
measurement error of, say, 500 feet may be negligible 
on a missile test, it is important to the scientist attempt- 



RADIO AGE 



ing to achieve the critical conditions of a satellite orbit. 
An error which might be unimportant on a 1,000- or 
2,000-mile rocket test flight may have a very serious 
effect on a round-the-world satellite flight. 

After studying the problems involved and deciding, 
in general terms, what kind of equipment was needed, 
RCA planners then went to RCA design engineers and 
had them draw up specifications for each piece of 
apparatus. Contracts for this type of equipment were 
put up for bid through Air Force procurement channels. 
When the actual work began, RCA inspectors conducted 
periodic check-ups to see that the production was on 
schedule and that the gear followed specifications. 

Once the launching phase is completed and the 
satellites are orbiting, what will scientific observers learn 
from tracking and from tuning in on the radio data that 
they will send back to the earth? 

Scientists feel the satellites will help improve our 
knowledge of many things; the following are typical: 

Improvement In Mapping. Present maps contain 
errors of several miles in the position of islands, and 
even of cities in some parts of Asia. The hope is that 
by taking sights on the satellites, it will be possible to 
correct such errors and to improve the overall accuracy 
of geodetic measurements. 

Improvement In Weather Forecasting. By sup- 
plying information about air-mass movement, formation 
of fronts, hurricane and typhoon behavior — all of 
which are difficult to observe clearly from the ground 
— the satellites should help make weather predictions 
more accurate. Satellite reports on weather activity all 
over the world might even make possible global fore- 
casts months in advance, it is felt. 

Improvement In Radio-TV Communication. 
Sunspot activity has always upset